Letters to the Editor


The circadian clock contributes to diurnal patterns of plant indirect defense in nature  
Author: Youngsung Joo, Jay K. Goldberg, Lucille Chretien, Sang-Gyu Kim, Ian T. Baldwin, Meredith C. Schuman
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12725
      
    

The plant circadian clock regulates the rhythms of plant metabolism. Many herbivore©\induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) fluctuate, diurnally, but the role of the circadian clock in the emission of HIPVs and their ecological consequences remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the timing of herbivore attack can alter the outcome of tri©\trophic interactions, and this is mediated by the circadian clock, under both field and glasshouse conditions. Although most HIPV emissions did not have a circadian rhythm, the circadian clock modulated HIPV emissions in a time©\dependent manner. HIPVs mediate tri©\trophic interactions, and the circadian clock may affect these interactions by modulating HIPV emission in nature.

Abstract (Browse 18)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Towards a better recording of microtubule cytoskeletal spatial organization and dynamics in plant cells  
Author: Weiwei Liu Chaofeng Wang, Guangda Wang, Yinping Ma, Juan Tian, Yanjun Yu, Li Dong, and Zhaosheng Kong
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12721
      
    

Numerous fluorescent marker lines are currently available to visualize microtubule (MT) architecture and dynamics in living plant cells, such as markers expressing p35S::GFP©\MBD or p35S::GFP©\TUB6. However, these MT marker lines display obvious defects that affect plant growth or produce unstable fluorescent signals. Here, a series of new marker lines were developed, including the pTUB6::VisGreen©\TUB6©\expressing line in which TUB6 is under the control of its endogenous regulatory elements and eGFP is replaced with VisGreen, a brighter fluorescent protein. Moreover, two different markers were combined into one expression vector and developed two dual©\marker lines. These marker lines produce bright, stable fluorescent signals in various tissues, and greatly shorten the screening process for generating dual©\marker lines. These new marker lines provide a novel resource for MT research.

Abstract (Browse 20)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Negative regulation of resistance protein©\mediated immunity by master transcription factors SARD1 and CBP60g  
Author: Tongjun Sun, Wanwan Liang, Yuelin Zhang and Xin Li
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12698
      
    

Salicylic acid (SA) is an essential defence hormone in plants. Upon pathogen infection, induced biosynthesis of SA is mediated by Isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1), whose gene transcription is controlled mainly through two redundant transcription factors, SAR Deficient 1 (SARD1) and Calmodulin©\binding protein 60©\like g (CBP60g). Although these master transcription factors regulate not only positive, but also negative regulators of immunity, how they control signaling events downstream of different immune receptors is unclear. Using autoimmune mutants activating immunity mediated by different receptors we show that, although the sard1 cbp60g double mutant almost fully suppresses the activation of defence mediated by suppressor of npr1©\1, constitutive 2 (snc2), it strikingly enhances snc1, which carries a gain©\of©\function mutation in an intracellular nucleotide©\binding leucine©\rich repeat (NLR) immune receptor. This negative regulation of immunity is achieved through the transcriptional regulation of negative regulators, such as Nudix hydrolase homolog 6 (NUDT6). Our study highlights the diverse roles, especially the negative ones, in the regulation of plant immunity by the two master immune transcription factors SARD1 and CBP60g.

Abstract (Browse 115)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Essential role of NbNOG1 in ribosomal RNA processing  
Author: Jiangbo Guo, Shaojie Han, Jinping Zhao, Cuihua Xin, Xiyin Zheng, Yule Liu, Yan Wang and Feng Qu
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12691
      
    

Nucleolar GTP©\binding protein 1 (NOG1) is a highly conserved GTPase first reported in Trypanosoma as required for ribosome biogenesis. We characterized NbNOG1, a Nicotiana benthamiana NOG1 ortholog sharing more than 45% amino acid identity with Trypanosoma, yeast, and human NOG1. N. benthamiana plants silenced for NbNOG1 were stunted and produced sterile flowers. NbNOG1 is functionally interchangeable with yeast NOG1 (ScNOG1), rescuing yeast lethality caused by loss of ScNOG1. Finally, NbNOG1 silencing caused over©\accumulation of pre©\rRNA processing intermediates, and concomitant loss of mature rRNAs. Collectively, these data support a role for NbNOG1 in ribosomal RNA processing.

Abstract (Browse 135)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Multiplex gene editing in rice with simplified CRISPR©\Cpf1 and CRISPR©\Cas9 systems  
Author: Mugui Wang, Yanfei Mao, Yuming Lu, Zhidan Wang, Xiaoping Tao and Jian-Kang Zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2018 60(8): 626-631
Published Online: May 15, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12667
      
    

We developed simplified single transcriptional unit (SSTU) CRISPR systems for multiplex gene editing in rice using FnCpf1, LbCpf1 or Cas9, in which the nuclease and its crRNA array are co©\expressed from a single Pol II promoter, without any additional processing machinery. Our SSTU systems are easy to construct and effective in mediating multiplex genome editing.

Abstract (Browse 579)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
We developed the simplified single transcriptional unit (SSTU) CRISPR systems for multiplex gene editing in rice using FnCpf1, LbCpf1 or Cas9, in which the nuclease and its crRNA array are co©\expressed from single Pol II promoter, without any additional processing machinery. SSTU systems are simple and effective in multiplex genome editing.
Efficient allelic replacement in rice by gene editing: A case study of the NRT1.1B gene  
Author: Jingying Li, Xin Zhang, Yongwei Sun, Jiahui Zhang, Wenming Du, Xiuping Guo, Shaoya Li, Yunde Zhao, Lanqin Xia
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2018 60(7): 536-540
Published Online: March 23, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12650
      
    

Precise replacement of an existing allele in commercial cultivars with an elite allele is a major goal in crop breeding. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the NRT1.1B gene between japonica and indica rice is responsible for the improved nitrogen use efficiency in indica rice. Herein, we precisely replaced the japonica NRT1.1B allele with the indica allele, in just one generation, using CRISPR/Cas9 gene©\editing technology. No additional selective pressure was needed to enrich the precise replacement events. This work demonstrates the feasibility of replacing any genes with elite alleles within one generation, greatly expanding our ability to improve agriculturally important traits.

Abstract (Browse 353)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Precise replacement of an existing allele in commercial cultivars with an elite allele is a major goal in crop breeding. Herein, we established a CRISPR/Cas9©\mediated targeted gene replacement system in rice without additional selective pressure by using the NRT1.1B gene as an example. This system will greatly expand our ability in crop improvement.
SDG721 and SDG705 are required for rice growth  
Author: Pengfei Jiang, Shiliang Wang, Aziz Ul Ikram, Zuntao Xu, Haiyang Jiang, Beijiu Cheng and Yong Ding
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2018 60(7): 530-535
Published Online: February 23, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12644
      
    

H3K4me3 plays important roles in development, transcription, and environmental responses. Here, we report that SDG721 (SET©\domain group protein 721) and SDG705 are involved in regulating rice development. SDG721 and SDG705 encode TRITHORAX©\like proteins, which appear to modulate H3K4 methylation levels. Loss of SDG721 and SDG705 function resulted in GA©\deficient phenotypes, including semi©\dwarfism, reduced cell length, and reduced panicle branching. The transcripts levels and H3K4me3 levels of GA biosynthesis genes and GA signaling pathway genes were downregulated in the sdg721 sdg705 plants. Together, these results suggest that SDG721 and SDG705 regulate H3K4 methylation, which is crucial for plant development in rice.

Abstract (Browse 401)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Height and grain number are critical for rice yield. Here, we report that SDG721 (SET©\domain group protein 721) and SDG705 are involved in gibberellins (GAs) singling pathway to promote rice height and increase panicle branches and grain number.
ANAPHASE PROMOTING COMPLEX/CYCLOSOME©\mediated cyclin B1 degradation is critical for cell cycle synchronization in syncytial endosperms  
Author: Lei Guo, Li Jiang, Xiu-Li Lu and Chun-Ming Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2018 60(6): 448-454
Published Online: February 9, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12641
      
    

Although it is known that in most angiosperms mitosis in early endosperm development is syncytial and synchronized, it is unclear how the synchronization is regulated. We showed previously that APC11, also named ZYG1, in Arabidopsis activates zygote division by interaction and degradation of cyclin B1. Here, we report that the mutation in APC11/ZYG1 led to unsynchronized mitosis and over©\accumulation of cyclin B1©\GUS in the endosperm. Mutations in two other APC subunits showed similar defects. Transgenic expression of stable cyclin B1 in the endosperm also caused unsynchronized mitosis. Further, downregulation of APC11 generated multi©\nucleate somatic cells with unsynchronized mitotic division. Together, our results suggest that APC/C©\mediated cyclin B1 degradation is critical for cell cycle synchronization.

Abstract (Browse 587)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
In most seed plants, mitotic divisions in coenocytic endosperms are synchronized. Here, we demonstrate that cell cycle synchronization is regulated by APC/C©\mediated cyclin B1 degradation in Arabidopsis.
Arabidopsis PWWP domain proteins mediate H3K27 trimethylation on FLC and regulate flowering time  
Author: Jin-Xing Zhou, Zhang-Wei Liu, Yong-Qiang Li, Lin Li, Bangjun Wang, She Chen and Xin-Jian He
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2018 60(5): 362-368
Published Online: January 4, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12630
      
    

LHP1 mediates recruitment of the PRC2 histone methyltransferase complex to chromatin and thereby facilitates maintenance of H3K27me3 on FLC, a key flowering repressor gene. Here, we report that the PWWP domain proteins (PDPs) interact with FVE and MSI5 to suppress FLC expression and thereby promote flowering. We demonstrated that FVE, MSI5, and PDP3 were co©\purified with LHP1. The H3K27me3 level on FLC was decreased in the pdp mutants as well as in the fve/msi5 double mutant. This study suggests that PDPs function together with FVE and MSI5 to regulate the function of the PRC2 complex on FLC.

Abstract (Browse 387)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
We demonstrate that PWWP domain proteins are previously uncharacterized flowering time regulators in Arabidopsis. The PWWP domain proteins interact with the known flowering time regulators FVE and MSI5 and thus facilitate histone H3K27 trimethylation on the key flowering time repressor gene FLC to promote flowering.
Differential requirement of BAK1 C©\terminal tail in development and immunity  
Author: Di Wu, Yanan Liu, Fan Xu and Yuelin Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2018 60(4): 270-275
Published Online: December 11, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12623
      
    

BRI1©\ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (BAK1) plays critical roles in plant developmental and immune signaling pathways. BAK1 and a large number of leucine©\rich repeat receptor©\like kinases (LRR©\RLKs) harbor a mysterious carboxyl©\terminal tail (CT) beyond their kinase domain. In this study we analyzed the biological significance of this CT region using a unique bak1 mutant allele which causes deletion of the CT region. We showed that BAK1 CT promotes its kinase activity and is required for pathogen©\associated molecular pattern (PAMP)©\triggered immunity, but it is dispensable for brassinosteroid responses and BAK1/BKK1©\inhibited cell death signaling. Therefore the BAK1 C©\terminal tail is differentially required for its functions in development and immunity.

Abstract (Browse 328)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
In this study, we showed that the C©\terminal tail of BAK1 promotes its kinase activity and is required for PAMP©\triggered immunity, but is dispensable in brassinosteroid responses and cell death control, suggesting that the C©\terminal tail is differentially required for the functions of BAK1 in development and immunity.
Multigene editing via CRISPR/Cas9 guided by a single©\sgRNA seed in Arabidopsis  
Author: Zhiming Yu, Qiyuan Chen, Weiwei Chen, Xian Zhang, Fengling Mei, Pengcheng Zhang, Mei Zhao, Xiaohong Wang, Nongnong Shi, Stephen Jackson and Yiguo Hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2018 60(5): 376-381
Published Online: December 11, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12622
      
    

We report that a solo single©\guide RNA (sgRNA) seed is capable of guiding Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR −associated 9 (CRISRP/Cas9) to simultaneously edit multiple genes AtRPL10A, AtRPL10B and AtRPL10C in Arabidopsis. Our results also demonstrate that it is possible to use CRISPR/Cas9 technology to create AtRPL10 triple mutants which otherwise cannot be generated by conventional genetic crossing. Compared to other conventional multiplex CRISPR/Cas systems, a single sgRNA seed has the advantage of reducing off©\target gene©\editing. Such a gene editing system might be also applicable to modify other homologous genes, or even less©\homologous sequences for multiple gene©\editing in plants and other organisms.

Abstract (Browse 452)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
A single©\sgRNA seed is capable of guiding CRISPR/Cas9 to simultaneously edit multiple genes AtRPL10A, AtRPL10B and AtRPL10C in Arabidopsis. Our results imply that such a multi©\gene editing system might be also applicable to modifying other homologous genes or even less©\homologous sequences in plants and other organisms.
Generation of new glutinous rice by CRISPR/Cas9©\targeted mutagenesis of the Waxy gene in elite rice varieties  
Author: Jinshan Zhang, Hui Zhang, Jos¨¦ Ram¨®n Botella and Jian-Kang Zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2018 60(5): 369-375
Published Online: December 6, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12620
      
    

In rice, amylose content (AC) is controlled by a single dominant Waxy gene. We used Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR©\associated 9 (Cas9) to introduce a loss©\of©\function mutation into the Waxy gene in two widely cultivated elite japonica varieties. Our results show that mutations in the Waxy gene reduce AC and convert the rice into glutinous ones without affecting other desirable agronomic traits, offering an effective and easy strategy to improve glutinosity in elite varieties. Importantly, we successfully removed the transgenes from the progeny. Our study provides an example of generating improved crops with potential for commercialization, by editing a gene of interest directly in elite crop varieties.

Abstract (Browse 723)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
In this study, we reported generation of new glutinous rice with potential for commercialization by editing Waxy gene in elite crop varieties.
RPL18aB helps maintain suspensor identity during early embryogenesis  
Author: Fei Xie, Hailong Yan, Yang Sun, Yameng Wang, Hong Chen, Wanying Mao, Liyao Zhang, Mengxiang Sun and Xiongbo Peng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2018 60(4): 266-269
Published Online: November 29, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12616
      
    

During embryogenesis, plants are thought to use a mechanism that allows the suspensor to maintain its identity. Here, we reported that RPL18aB is involved in this mechanism in Arabidopsis thaliana. The suspensor cells proliferated in rpl18aB and formed a multicellular structure rather than undergo programmed cell death, as in wild type. Suspensors of rpl18aB expressed the embryo proper marker, DRN::GFP, but not the suspensor marker, WOX8::GFP. In addition, auxin accumulated throughout the suspensors of rpl18aB proembryos. Suspensor©\specific expression of RPL18aB could rescue the cell proliferation defects in rpl18aB suspensors. These findings supported a role for RPL18aB in maintaining suspensor identity.

Abstract (Browse 432)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Suspensors of rpl18aB mutant lose cell identity with the mis©\expression of the embryo proper marker DRN::GFP and by not expressing the suspensor marker WOX8::GFP. Moreover, suspensor©\specific expression of RPL18aB could rescue the cell proliferation defects in rpl18aB suspensors. These findings supported a role of RPL18aB in maintaining suspensor cell identity.
Jasmonate signaling makes flowers attractive to pollinators and repellant to florivores in nature  
Author: Ran Li, Meredith C. Schuman, Yang Wang, Lucas Cortés Llorca, Julia Bing, Anne Bennion, Rayko Halitschke and Ian T. Baldwin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2018 60(3): 190¨C194
Published Online: October 23, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12607
      
    

Flowers are required for the Darwinian fitness of flowering plants, but flowers’ advertisements for pollination services can attract florivores. Previous glasshouse work with Nicotiana attenuata revealed the role of jasmonate (JA) signaling in flower development, advertisement and defense. However, whether JA signaling mediates flowers’ filtering of floral visitors in nature remained unknown. This field study revealed that silencing JA signaling resulted in flowers that produce less nectar and benzyl acetone, two pollinator-attractive traits. Meanwhile, flowers of defenseless plants were highly attacked by a suite of native herbivores, and damage to buds in native plants correlated negatively with their JA-Ile levels.

Abstract (Browse 419)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Flowers advertise for pollinator services with nectar, scent and pigments. These traits also make flowers apparent to florivores and nectar robbers. Our field studies reveal how plants use a universal phytohormone signaling pathway to solve a flower's dilemma that advertisements for pollinator services is perceived by mutualists and antagonists alike.
NaMYB8 regulates distinct, optimally distributed herbivore defense traits  
Author: Martin Schäfer, Christoph Brütting, Shuqing Xu, Zhihao Ling, Anke Steppuhn, Ian T. Baldwin and Meredith C. Schuman
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(12): 844¨C850
Published Online: August 26, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12593
      
    

When herbivores attack, plants specifically reconfigure their metabolism. Herbivory on the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata strongly induces the R2R3 MYB transcriptional activator MYB8, which was reported to specifically regulate the accumulation of phenolamides (PAs). We discovered that transcriptional regulation of trypsin protease inhibitors (TPIs) and a threonine deaminase (TD) also depend on MYB8 expression. Induced distributions of PAs, TD and TPIs all meet predictions of optimal defense theory: their leaf concentrations increase with the fitness value and the probability of attack of the tissue. Therefore, we suggest that these defensive compounds have evolved to be co-regulated by MYB8.

Abstract (Browse 384)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Tissues contributing most to plant fitness, such as younger leaves and flowers, are often the best defended: a prediction of optimal defense theory (OD). The mechanisms determining optimal distributions are poorly understood. We show that a MYB transcription factor co-regulates biosynthetically unrelated defenses which share an optimal distribution.
Fitness consequences of a clock pollinator filter in Nicotiana attenuata flowers in nature  
Author: Felipe Yon, Danny Kessler, Youngsung Joo, Sang-Gyu Kim and Ian T. Baldwin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(11): 805¨C809
Published Online: August 19, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12579
      
    

Nicotiana attenuata flowers, diurnally open, emit scents and move vertically to interact with nocturnal hawkmoth and day-active hummingbird pollinators. To examine the fitness consequences of these floral rhythms, we conducted pollination trials in the plant's native habitat with phase-shifted flowers of plants silenced in circadian clock genes. The results revealed that some pollination benefits observed under glasshouse conditions were not reproduced under natural field conditions. Floral arrhythmicity increased pollination success by hummingbirds, while reducing those by hawkmoths in the field. Thus, floral circadian rhythms may influence a plant's fitness by filtering pollinators leading to altered seed set from outcrossed pollen.

Abstract (Browse 418)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Circadian rhythms in flowers of a wild tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, have evolved to interact with day-active pollinators, hummingbirds and night-active pollinators, hawkmoths. Field experiments with floral rhythm-altered plants revealed that floral rhythms play an important role in pollinator selection in nature.
The signals to trigger the initiation of ovule enlargement are from the pollen tubes: The direct evidence  
Author: Sheng Zhong, Jun Zhang and Li-Jia Qu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(9): 600¨C603
Published Online: August 16, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12577
      
    

In angiosperms, initiation of ovule enlargement represents the start of seed development, the molecular mechanism of which is not yet elucidated. It was previously reported that pollen tube contents, rather than double fertilization, can trigger ovule enlargement. However, it remains unclear whether the signal(s) to trigger the initiation of ovule enlargement are from the sperm cells or from the pollen tubes. Recently, we identified a mutant drop1− drop2−, which produces pollen tubes with no sperm cells. Taking advantage of this special genetic material, we conducted pollination assays, and found that the ovules pollinated with drop1− drop2− pollen could initiate the enlargement and exhibited significant enlarged sizes at 36 h after pollination in comparison with those unpollinated ovules. However, the sizes of the ovules pollinated with drop1− drop2− pollen are significantly smaller than those of the ovules pollinated with wild-type pollen. These results demonstrate that the pollen tube, rather than the sperm cells, release the signal to trigger the initiation of ovule enlargement, and that double fertilization is required for further enlargement of the seeds.

Abstract (Browse 342)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Seed size is an important trait of higher plants, especially of crops that are food resources for humans. Ovule enlargement is the start of seed size expansion. We find that the signal to trigger ovule enlargement comes from the pollen tube, not from the sperm cells, or from fertilization.
Seed dispersal by hornets: An unusual insect-plant mutualism  
Author: Gao Chen, Zheng-Wei Wang, Yan Qin and Wei-Bang Sun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(11): 792¨C796
Published Online: July 11, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12568
      
    

Vespicochory, seed dispersal by hornets, is a rare seed dispersal mechanism in angiosperms and, to date, there are few records of this phenomenon. Through field investigations and behavioral assays conducted in four populations of Stemona tuberosa from 2011–2016, we demonstrate that hornets are the primary seed dispersers of S. tuberosa and play an important role in “long-distance” seed dispersal in this species. Furthermore, some ant species act as secondary dispersers and may transport the seeds to safe sites. Hornets and ants provide complementary seed dispersal at different spatial scales. This unique example of insect-plant mutualism may be an underestimated but important strategy to ensure “long-distance” seed dispersal in other myrmecochorous plants.

Abstract (Browse 440)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Seed dispersal by hornets is a rare seed dispersal mechanism in angiosperms. Chen et al. demonstrate that hornets are the primary seed dispersers of Stemona tuberosa and play an important role in long-distance seed dispersal. This unique example of insect-seed mutualism may be underestimated in other myrmecochorous plants.
THESEUS1 positively modulates plant defense responses against Botrytis cinerea through GUANINE EXCHANGE FACTOR4 signaling  
Author: Shaofeng Qu, Xi Zhang, Yutong Song, Jinxing Lin and Xiaoyi Shan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(11): 797¨C804
Published Online: June 24, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12565
      
    

The plant cell wall is an important interface for sensing pathogen attack and activating signaling pathways that promote plant immune responses. THESEUS1 (THE1) acts as a sensor of cell wall integrity that controls cell elongation during plant growth. However, no specific role for THE1 in plant defense responses has been reported. Here, we found that THE1 interacts with GUANINE EXCHANGE FACTOR4 (GEF4) and that both proteins play regulatory roles in plant resistance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Genetic analysis showed that THE1 and GEF4 function in the same genetic pathway to mediate plant defense responses. In addition, using transcriptome analysis, we identified various genes (such as defense-related, secondary metabolite-related, and transcription factor genes) that are likely downstream targets in the THE1-GEF4 signaling pathway. Our results suggest that THE1 functions as an upstream regulator of GEF4 signaling to positively regulate defense responses against B. cinerea in Arabidopsis.

Abstract (Browse 445)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
THESEUS1, a member of the Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like kinase family, interacts with GUANINE EXCHANGE FACTOR4 (GEF4) and elicits the GEF4 signaling network to regulate defense responses to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, revealing an important player in defense responses against biotic stresses.
Arabidopsis TOR signaling is essential for sugar-regulated callus formation  
Author: Kyounghee Lee and Pil Joon Seo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(10): 742¨C746
Published Online: June 17, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12560
      
    

Dedifferentiation is a remarkable process that produces pluripotent stem cells from differentiated somatic cells to ensure developmental plasticity. Plants have evolved the ability of cellular dedifferentiation, and signaling cascades related to auxin and cytokinin-dependent callus formation have been extensively investigated. However, the molecular mechanism underlying sugar-dependent callus formation remains unknown. Here, we show that sugar-dependent callus formation is mainly regulated by the TOR-E2Fa module in Arabidopsis. Sugar-activated TOR kinase phosphorylates and stabilizes E2Fa proteins to transcriptionally activate S-phase genes during callus formation. In parallel, E2Fa is transcriptionally regulated by the ARF-LBD transcription cascade. Multi-layered regulation of E2Fa by sugar and auxin is likely to shape balanced cellular dedifferentiation capability in Arabidopsis.

Abstract (Browse 502)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
As an early step of cellular dedifferentiation, tissue explants induce pluripotent cell mass callus. Callus formation involves active cell division and requires sugar signaling. This study demonstrates that sugar supply is essential for robust callus formation, and sugar-dependent callus formation is mainly regulated by TOR-E2Fa module in Arabidopsis.
Mutation in a novel gene SMALL AND CORDATE LEAF 1 affects leaf morphology in cucumber  
Author: Dongli Gao, Chunzhi Zhang, Shu Zhang, Bowen Hu, Shenhao Wang, Zhonghua Zhang and Sanwen Huang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(10): 736¨C741
Published Online: June 9, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12558
      
    

Plant species exhibit substantial variation in leaf morphology. We isolated a recessive mutant gene termed small and cordate leaf 1 (scl1) that causes alteration in both leaf size and shape of cucumber. Compared to wild type leaves, the scl1 mutant had fewer numbers of epidermal pavement cells. A single nucleotide polymorphism was associated with this leaf phenotype, which occurred in a putative nucleoside bisphosphate phosphatase. RNA-seq analysis of the wild type and scl1 mutant leaves suggested that SCL1 regulation may not involve known hormonal pathways. Our work identified a candidate gene for SCL1 that may play a role in leaf development.

Abstract (Browse 589)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
The size and shape of leaves are important factors influencing the success of plants and agricultural productivity. This work identified a mutant locus small and cordate leaf 1 (scl1) that causes the alteration of leaf size and shape in cucumber.
Arabidopsis adaptor protein 1G is critical for pollen development  
Author: Chong Feng, Jia-Gang Wang, Hai-Hong Liu, Sha Li and Yan Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(9): 594¨C599
Published Online: May 24, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12556
      
    

Pollen development is a pre-requisite for sexual reproduction of angiosperms, during which various cellular activities are involved. Pollen development accompanies dynamic remodeling of vacuoles through fission and fusion, disruption of which often compromises pollen viability. We previously reported that the Y subunit of adaptor protein 1 (AP1G) mediates synergid degeneration during pollen tube reception. Here, we demonstrate that AP1G is essential for pollen development. AP1G loss-of-function resulted in male gametophytic lethality due to defective pollen development. By ultrastructural analysis and fluorescence labeling, we demonstrate that AP1G loss-of-function compromised dynamic vacuolar remodeling during pollen development and impaired vacuolar acidification of pollen. Results presented here support a key role of vacuoles in gametophytic pollen development.

Abstract (Browse 580)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
AP1G, adaptor protein 1, is essential for protein sorting at the trans-Golgi network/early endosomes. This study demonstrates that functional loss of the ¦Ã subunit of AP1G resulted in male gametophytic lethality by affecting vacuolar remodeling and acidification during pollen development.
Overexpression of GhFIM2 propels cotton fiber development by enhancing actin bundle formation  
Author: Min Zhang, Li-Bo Han, Wen-Yan Wang, Shen-Jie Wu, Gai-Li Jiao, Lei Su, Gui-Xian Xia and Hai-Yun Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(8): 531¨C534
Published Online: May 5, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12552
      
    

Cell elongation and secondary wall deposition are two consecutive stages during cotton fiber development. The mechanisms controlling the progression of these two developmental phases remain largely unknown. Here, we report the functional characterization of the actin-bundling protein GhFIM2 in cotton fiber. Overexpression of GhFIM2 increased the abundance of actin bundles, which was accompanied with accelerated fiber growth at the fast-elongating stage. Meanwhile, overexpression of GhFIM2 could propel the onset of secondary cell wall biogenesis. These results indicate that the dynamic rearrangement of actin higher structures involving GhFIM2 plays an important role in the development of cotton fiber cells.

Abstract (Browse 627)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
This study demonstrated that actin bundling protein GhFIM2 is involved in the dynamic remodeling of actin cytoskeleton in developing cotton fiber. Overexpression of GhFIM2 accelerated the fiber cell growth at the fast-elongating stage and led to an early deposition of the secondary cell wall.
Natural hybridization and reproductive isolation between two Primula species  
Author: Yanping Xie, Xingfu Zhu, Yongpeng Ma, Jianli Zhao, Li Li and Qingjun Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(8): 526¨C530
Published Online: April 21, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12546
      
    

Natural hybridization frequently occurs in plants and can facilitate gene flow between species, possibly resulting in species refusion. However, various reproductive barriers block the formation of hybrids and maintain species integrity. Here, we conducted a field survey to examine natural hybridization and reproductive isolation (RI) between sympatric populations of Primula secundiflora and P. poissonii using ten nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci. Although introgressive hybridization occurred, species boundaries between P. secundiflora and P. poissonii were maintained through nearly complete reproductive isolation. These interfertile species provide an excellent model for studying the RI mechanisms and evolutionary forces that maintain species boundaries.

Abstract (Browse 683)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Natural hybridization possibly results in species refusion. However, various reproductive barriers block the formation of hybrids and maintain species integrity. Here, we examined natural hybridization and reproductive isolation between sympatric populations of Primula secundiflora and P. poissonii. The results suggest specific boundaries maintained well through nearly complete reproductive isolation.
Arabidopsis Forkhead-Associated Domain Protein 3 negatively regulates peroxisome division  
Author: Mintu Desai, Ronghui Pan and Jianping Hu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(7): 454¨C458
Published Online: March 23, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12542
      
    

Peroxisomes are ubiquitous and dynamic eukaryotic organelles capable of altering their abundance in response to environmental and developmental cues, yet the regulatory mechanism of plant peroxisome division/proliferation is unclear. To identify transcriptional regulators of the peroxisome division factor gene PEX11b, we performed a nuclear pull-down experiment and identified Arabidopsis Forkhead-Associated Domain Protein 3 (FHA3) as a novel protein that binds to the promoter of PEX11b. Our data supported the conclusion that, in contrast to the previously identified HY5 HOMOLOG (HYH) protein that promotes the transcription of PEX11b, FHA3 is a negative regulator of PEX11b expression and peroxisome division.

Abstract (Browse 1379)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Peroxisomes are essential and dynamic organelles capable of changing abundance through division and proliferation in response to environmental and developmental cues. This work identified an Arabidopsis transcription factor Forkhead-Associated Domain Protein 3 (FHA3), which negatively regulates peroxisome division by repressing the expression of the peroxisome division factor gene PEX11b.
BIK1 cooperates with BAK1 to regulate constitutive immunity and cell death in Arabidopsis  
Author: Jun Liu, Sufen Chen, Lijuan Chen, Qi Zhou, Menglong Wang, Dongru Feng, Jian-Feng Li, Jinfa Wang, Hong-Bin Wang and Bing Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(4): 234¨C239
Published Online: February 22, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12529
      
    

In Arabidopsis, both the membrane-anchored receptor-like kinase (RLK) BAK1 and the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase (RLCK) BIK1 are important mediators of transmembrane signal transduction that regulate plant development and immunity. However, little attention has been paid to their genetic association. This study found the bak1 bik1 double mutant of Arabidopsis displayed a severe dwarfism phenotype due to constitutive immunity and cell death in developing plants. These data suggest that BIK1 cooperates with BAK1 to regulate constitutive immunity and cell death.

Abstract (Browse 650)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
bak1 bik1 double mutants showed a severe dwarfism phenotype. The constitutive immune activation was mainly responsible for the cell death and developmental defects in bak1 bik1 double mutants. This study indicated that BAK1 and BIK1 are critical for regulation of the constitutive immune response and cell death in Arabidopsis.
Tonoplast targeting of VHA-a3 relies on a Rab5-mediated but Rab7-independent vacuolar trafficking route  
Author: Qiang-Nan Feng, Yan Zhang and Sha Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(4): 230¨C233
Published Online: February 15, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12526
      
    

Vacuolar trafficking routes and their regulators have recently drawn lots of attention in plant cell biology. A recent study reported the discovery of a plant-specific vacuolar trafficking route, i.e., a direct ER-to-vacuole route, through analysis of VHA-a3 subcellular targeting, a key component for the tonoplast V-ATPases. Our recent findings showed that VHA-a3 targets to the tonoplast through a Rab5-mediated but Rab7-independent pathway, shedding new lights on the unconventional vacuolar trafficking route in plant cells.

Abstract (Browse 598)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Dynamic trafficking of membrane proteins is crucial for cells to function properly, not unlike a transportation network linking all locations within a city. Understanding regulators in these trafficking routes is thus an important topic. This study reveals a regulatory route through which the tonoplast-associated V-ATPase is transported in Arabidopsis.
Ectopic expression of fungal EcGDH improves nitrogen assimilation and grain yield in rice  
Author: Dongying Tang, Yuchong Peng, Jianzhong Lin, Changqing Du, Yuanzhu Yang, Dan Wang, Cong Liu, Lu Yan, Xiaoying Zhao, Xia Li, Liangbi Chen and Xuanming Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2018 60(2): 85¨C88
Published Online: January 6, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12519
      
    

NADP(H)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH) in lower organisms have stronger ammonium affinity than those in higher plants. Here we report that transgenic rice overexpressing the EcGDH from Eurotium cheralieri exhibited significantly enhanced aminating activities. Hydroponic and field tests showed that nitrogen assimilation efficiency and grain yields were markedly increased in these transgenic plants, especially at the low nitrogen conditions. These results suggest that EcGDH may have potential to be used to improve nitrogen assimilation and grain yield in rice.

Abstract (Browse 836)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Owing to the higher affinity for ammonium, NADP(H)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (EcGDH) from Eurotium cheralieri can more efficiently assimilate nitrogen than OsGDH from rice. Ectopic expression of EcGDH significantly enhanced the nitrogen assimilation efficiency, and especially improved grain yield in rice at low nitrogen fertility.
An epiallele of rice AK1 affects photosynthetic capacity  
Author: Xiangjin Wei, Xianwei Song, Liya Wei, Shaoqing Tang, Jing Sun, Peisong Hu and Xiaofeng Cao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(3): 158¨C163
Published Online: January 6, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12518
      
    

Epigenetic gene variants, termed epialleles, can broaden genetic and phenotypic diversity in eukaryotes. Here, we identify a natural epiallele of OsAK1, which encodes a rice adenylate kinase. The Epi-ak1 plants show albino in young leaf and panicle with abnormal chloroplast structures. We found that no nucleotide sequence variation but hypermethylation at promoter region caused silencing of OsAK1 (Os08g01770) in Epi-ak1 plants. OsAK1 localizes to chloroplast and many genes associated with photosynthesis processes were downregulated in Epi-ak1. Thus, the work identified a novel rice epiallele caused by DNA methylation changes, shedding light on significant roles of DNA methylation on rice development.

Abstract (Browse 605)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
A naturally epigenetic gene variant, which carries hypermethylated cytosines at promoter of OsAK1 (Os08g01770), was identified in rice. The hypermethylation causes silencing of this gene and leads to albino in young leaf and panicle, shedding light on significant roles of DNA methylation on rice development.
COR27 and COR28 encode nighttime repressors integrating Arabidopsis circadian clock and cold response  
Author: Peng Wang, Xuan Cui, Chunsheng Zhao, Liyan Shi, Guowei Zhang, Fenglong Sun, Xiaofeng Cao, Li Yuan, Qiguang Xie and Xiaodong Xu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(2): 78¨C85
Published Online: December 19, 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12512
      
    

It was noted that circadian components function in plant adaptation to diurnal temperature cycles and freezing tolerance. Our genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed that evening-phased COR27 and COR28 mainly repress the transcription of clock-associated evening genes PRR5, ELF4 and cold-responsive genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated that CCA1 is recruited to the site containing EE elements of COR27 and COR28 promoters in a temperature-dependent way. Further genetic analysis shows COR28 is essential for the circadian function of PRR9 and PRR7. Together, our results support a role of COR27 and COR28 as nighttime repressors integrating circadian clock and plant cold stress responses.

Abstract (Browse 689)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
COR27 and COR28 repress the transcription of evening-phased clock genes and cold-responsive genes, which is responsible for maintaining circadian rhythm, plant freezing tolerance and flowering time control. CCA1 directly regulates COR27 and COR28 rhythmic expression in a temperature-dependent manner. This indicates the essential roles of COR27 and COR28 in coordinating circadian clock and cold-stress signaling networks.
Loss of algal Proton Gradient Regulation 5 increases reactive oxygen species scavenging and H2 evolution  
Author: Mei Chen, Jin Zhang, Lei Zhao, Jiale Xing, Lianwei Peng, Tingyun Kuang, Jean-David Rochaix and Fang Huang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(12): 943¨C946
Published Online: October 20, 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12502
      
    

We have identified hpm91, a Chlamydomonas mutant lacking Proton Gradient Regulation5 (PGR5) capable of producing hydrogen (H2) for 25 days with more than 30-fold yield increase compared to wild type. Thus, hpm91 displays a higher capacity of H2 production than a previously characterized pgr5 mutant. Physiological and biochemical characterization of hpm91 reveal that the prolonged H2 production is due to enhanced stability of PSII, which correlates with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity during sulfur deprivation. This anti-ROS response appears to protect the photosynthetic electron transport chain from photo-oxidative damage and thereby ensures electron supply to the hydrogenase.

Abstract (Browse 628)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
We identified and characterized a Chlamydomonas mutant (hpm91) lacking PGR5 which can produce H2 for 25 days with a more than 30-fold increase in yield as compared to wild type. This capacity exceeds that of another pgr5 mutant and qualifies hpm91 as the algal strain with the highest H2-photoproduction.
QTL editing confers opposing yield performance in different rice varieties  
Author: Lan Shen, Chun Wang, Yaping Fu, Junjie Wang, Qing Liu, Xiaoming Zhang, Changjie Yan, Qian Qian and Kejian Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2018 60(2): 89¨C93
Published Online: September 15, 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12501
      
    

Grain yield is one of the most important and complex trait for genetic improvement in crops; it is known to be controlled by a number of genes known as quantitative trait loci (QTLs). In the past decade, many yield-contributing QTLs have been identified in crops. However, it remains unclear whether those QTLs confer the same yield performance in different genetic backgrounds. Here, we performed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated QTL editing in five widely-cultivated rice varieties and revealed that the same QTL can have diverse, even opposing, effects on grain yield in different genetic backgrounds.

Abstract (Browse 783)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Grain yield is one of the most important and complex traits for genetic improvement in crops. This study utilized CRISPR/Cas9-mediated QTL editing in five widely-cultivated rice varieties, and revealed that the same QTL can have diverse, even opposing, effects on grain yield in different genetic backgrounds.
Pollen size strongly correlates with stigma depth among Pedicularis species  
Author: Xiang-Ping Wang, Wen-Bin Yu, Shi-Guo Sun and Shuang-Quan Huang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(10): 818¨C821
Published Online: March 15, 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12477
      
    

Darwin proposed that pollen size should be positively correlated with stigma depth rather than style length among species given that pollen tubes first enter the stigma autotrophically, then grow through the style heterotrophically. However, studies often show a positive relationship between pollen size and style length. Five floral traits were observed to be correlated among 42 bumblebee-pollinated Pedicularis species (Orobanchaceae) in which stigmas are distinct from styles. The phylogenetic independent contrast analysis revealed that pollen grain volume was more strongly correlated with stigma depth than with style length, consistent with Darwin's functional hypothesis between pollen size and stigma depth.

Abstract (Browse 906)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
It was often observed a positive correlation between pollen size and style length among different species. However, Darwin (1877) had proposed that pollen size should be positively correlated with stigma depth rather than style length, given that pollen tubes first enter the stigma autotrophically, thereafter grow through the style heterotrophically. We provide evidence in support of the Darwin¡¯s hypothesis by surveying 42 Pedicularis species with the phylogenetic independent contrast analysis.
An exon skipping in a SEPALLATA-Like gene is associated with perturbed floral and fruits development in cucumber  
Author: Xin Wang, Dongli Gao, Jinjing Sun, Min Liu, Yaoyao Lun, Jianshu Zheng, Shenhao Wang, Qingzhi Cui, Xiaofeng Wang and Sanwen Huang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(9): 766¨C771
Published Online: March 3, 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12472
      
    
We isolated a mutant showing perturbations in the development of male and female floral organs and fruits. Analysis of the single nucleotide polymorphisms from bulked F2 pools identified the causative variant occurring in Csa4G126690. Csa4G126690 shows high homology to Arabidopsis SEPALLATA2 (SEP2) thus being designated CsSEP2. The causative variant was located on the splicing site of CsSEP2, resulting in the skipping of exon 6 and abolishment of the transcriptional activity. Our data suggest that CsSEP2 is involved in the floral organ and fruits development by conferring transcriptional activity.
Abstract (Browse 851)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
We isolated a mutant showing perturbations in the development of floral organs and fruits in cucumber. We further identified the causative variant occurring in CsSEP2 by whole genome re-sequencing of the mutant. The variant caused the skipping of exon 6 and abolishment of the transcriptional activity, thus perturbing floral organs and fruits development.
Shade-induced stem elongation in rice seedlings: Implication of tissue-specific phytohormone regulation  
Author: Huihui Liu, Chuanwei Yang and Lin Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(7): 614¨C617
Published Online: February 17, 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12468
      
    

A better understanding of shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) is an urgent need because of its effect on energy reallocation. Leverage-related mechanism in crops is of potential economic interest for agricultural applications. Here we report the SAS phenotype at tissue level rice seedlings. Tissue-specific RNA-sequencing indicates auxin plays different roles between coleoptile and the first leaf. Phenotypes of wild type treated by gibberellin and brassinosteroid biosynthesis inhibitors and of related mutants suggest these two hormones positively regulate SAS. Our work reveals the diversity of hormone responses in different organs and different species in shade conditions.

Abstract (Browse 1074)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
The authors grow rice seedlings in simulated shade which mimic the seedlings grown in high density, and characterize the phenotype and global transcriptome changes. This work suggests that hormone inhibitors, such as PAC, can help form compact and sturdy seedlings without compromising growth in paddy fields.
Mutation in the gene encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 4 (CitACS4) led to andromonoecy in watermelon  
Author: Gaojie Ji, Jie Zhang, Haiying Zhang, Honghe Sun, Guoyi Gong, Jianting Shi, Shouwei Tian, Shaogui Guo, Yi Ren, Huolin Shen, Junping Gao and Yong Xu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(9): 762¨C765
Published Online: February 3, 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12466
      
    

Although it has been reported previously that ethylene plays a critical role in sex determination in cucurbit species, how the andromonoecy that carries both the male and hermaphroditic flowers is determined in watermelon is still unknown. Here we showed that the watermelon gene 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 4 (CitACS4), expressed specifically in carpel primordia, determines the andromonoecy in watermelon. Among four single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and one InDel identified in the coding region of CitACS4, the C364W mutation located in the conserved box 6 was co-segregated with andromonoecy. Enzymatic analyses showed that the C364W mutation caused a reduced activity in CitACS4. We believe that the reduced CitACS4 activity may hamper the programmed cell death in stamen primordia, leading to the formation of hermaphroditic flowers.

Abstract (Browse 923)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
In this study, we showed that the watermelon gene 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase 4 (CitACS4), expressed specifically in carpel primordia, determines the andromonoecy in watermelon. The C364W mutation of CitACS4 caused its reduced activity. We believe our results will be helpful to improve the breeding production in watermelon.
The wheat MYB-related transcription factor TaMYB72 promotes flowering in rice  
Author: Lichao Zhang, Guoxiang Liu, Jizeng Jia, Guangyao Zhao, Chuan Xia, Lina Zhang, Fu Li, Qiang Zhang, Chunhao Dong, Shuangcheng Gao, Longzhi Han, Xiuping Guo, Xin Zhang, Jinxia Wu, Xu Liu and Xiuying Kong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(8): 701-704
Published Online: December 30, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12461
      
    
Through large-scale transformation analyses, TaMYB72 was identified as a flowering time regulator in wheat. TaMYB72 is a MYB family transcription factor localized to the nucleus. Three TaMYB72 homologs, TaMYB72-A, TaMYB72-B and TaMYB72-D, cloned from hexaploid wheat were mapped to the short arm of the group 6 chromosomes. Under the long-day conditions, over-expression of the TaMYB72 in rice shortened the flowering time by approximately 12 d. Expression analyses suggest that TaMYB72 may function through up-regulation of florigen genes Hd3a and RFT1.

 

 

Abstract (Browse 1187)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
TaMYB72 has been identified as flowering time regulator in wheat. TaMYB72 encoded a MYB family transcription factor localized to the nucleus. Over-expression of TaMYB72 in rice shortened the flowering time by approximately 12 days. Expression analyses suggested that TaMYB72 may function through the up-regulation of rice florigen genes Hd3a and RFT1.
Are long corolla tubes in Pedicularis driven by pollinator selection?  
Author: Shuang-Quan Huang, Xiang-Ping Wang and Shi-Guo Sun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(8): 698-700
Published Online: December 30, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12460
      
    

The evolution of long corolla tubes has been hypothesized to be driven by long-tongued pollinators. Corolla tubes in Pedicularis species can be longer than 10 cm which may function as flower stalks to increase visual attractiveness to pollinators because these species provide no nectar and are pollinated by bumblebees. The corolla tube length was manipulated (shorter or longer) in two Pedicularis species in field to examine whether longer tubes are more attractive to pollinators and produce more seeds than short tubes. Our results did not support the pollinator attraction hypothesis, leaving the evolution of long tubes in Pedicularis remains mysterious.

Abstract (Browse 945)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
The evolution of long corolla tubes in Pedicularis species seems to break a classic ¡°arms race¡± model between plants and pollinators. Quantifying manipulated corolla tube length and fitness in two Pedicularis species indicated that longer tubes were not more attractive to pollinators with more seeds than short tubes.
Depletion of tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1¦Á (MtTdp1¦Á) affects transposon expression in Medicago truncatula  
Author: Maria Elisa Sabatini, Mattia Donà, Paola Leonetti, Andrea Minio, Massimo Delledonne, Daniela Carbonera, Massimo Confalonieri, Giorgio Giraffa and Alma Balestrazzi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(7): 618¨C622
Published Online: December 23, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12457
      
    

The role of plant tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1α in genome stability is studied using a Medicago truncatula MtTdp1α-depleted line. Lack of MtTdp1α results in a 39% reduction of methylated cytosines as compared to control. RNA-Seq analyses revealed that 11 DNA transposons and 22 retrotransposons were differentially expressed in the Tdp1α-2a line. Among them all, DNA transposons (MuDR, hAT, DNA3-11_Mad) and seven retrotransposons (LTR (Long Terminal Repeat)/Gipsy, LTR/Copia, LTR and NonLTR/L1) were down-regulated, while the 15 retrotransposons were up-regulated. Results suggest that the occurrence of stress-responsive cis-elements as well as changes in the methylation pattern at the LTR promoters might be responsible for the enhanced retrotransposon transcription.

Abstract (Browse 843)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Long-distance nitrate signaling displays cytokinin dependent and independent branches  
Author: Sandrine Ruffel, Arthur Poitout, Gabriel Krouk, Gloria M. Coruzzi and Benoit Lacombe
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(3): 226¨C229
Published Online: December 1, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12453
      
    

The long-distance signaling network allowing a plant to properly develop its root system is crucial to optimize root foraging in areas where nutrients are available. Cytokinin is an essential element of the systemic signaling network leading to the enhancement of lateral root proliferation in areas where nitrate is available. Here, we explore more precisely: (i) which particular traits of lateral root growth (density and length of emerged lateral roots) are the targets of systemic signaling in a context of heterogeneous nitrate supply; and (ii) if the systemic signaling depends only on cytokinin or on a combination of several signalings.

Abstract (Browse 950)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Heterogeneous nutrient availability is frequent during plant life cycle. Therefore, long-distance communication is crucial to properly tune root development according to local nutrient availability and whole-plant needs. Here, we show that multiple traits of root development are the targets of nitrate long-distance signaling, dependently or independently of cytokinin biosynthesis.
Cellulose synthesis genes CESA6 and CSI1 are important for salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis  
Author: Shuang-Shuang Zhang, Le Sun, Xinran Dong, Sun-Jie Lu, Weidong Tian and Jian-Xiang Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(7): 623¨C626
Published Online: October 27, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12442
Abstract (Browse 1286)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Two salt hypersensitive mutants she1 and she2 were identified through genetic screening. SHE1 encodes a cellulose synthase CESA6 while SHE2 encodes a cellulose synthase-interactive protein CSI1. Both of them are involved in cellulose deposition. Our results demonstrated that the sustained cellulose synthesis is important for salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.
Active role of small peptides in Arabidopsis reproduction: Expression evidence  
Author: Qingpei Huang, Thomas Dresselhaus, Hongya Gu and Li-Jia Qu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2015 57(6): 518¨C521
Published Online: March 31, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12356
Abstract (Browse 1094)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Large number of small peptides exhibit gametophyte-specific and dynamic expression profiles along the ovule developmental axis, implicating their vital function in plant reproduction.
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