Open Archive Articles


Stigmatic exudate in the Annonaceae: pollinator reward, pollen germination medium or extragynoecial compitum?  
Author: Jenny Y. Y. Lau, Chun-Chiu Pang, Lawrence Ramsden and Richard M.K. Saunders
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12598
      
    

Although ‘dry-type’ stigmas are widely regarded as ancestral in angiosperms, the early-divergent family Annonaceae has copious stigmatic exudate. We evaluate three putative functions for this exudate: as a nutritive reward for pollinators; as a pollen germination medium; and as an extragynoecial compitum that enables pollen tube growth between carpels. Stigmatic exudate is fructose dominated (72.2%), but with high levels of glucose and sucrose; the dominance of hexose sugars and the diversity of amino acids observed, including many that are essential for insects, supports a nutritive role for pollinators. Sugar concentration in pre-receptive flowers is high (28.2%), falling during the peak period of stigmatic receptivity (17.4%), and then rising again towards the end of the pistillate phase (32.9%). Pollen germination was highest in sugar concentrations < 20%. Sugar concentrations during the peak pistillate phase therefore provide optimal osmolarity for pollen hydration and germination; subsequent changes in sugar concentration during anthesis reinforce protogyny (in which carpels mature before stamens), enabling the retention of concentrated exudate into the staminate phase as a pollinator food reward without the possibility of pollen germination. Intercarpellary growth of pollen tubes was confirmed: the exudate therefore also functions as a suprastylar extragynoecial compitum, overcoming the limitations of apocarpy.

Abstract (Browse 26)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
BIK1 cooperates with BAK1 to regulate constitutive immunity and cell death in Arabidopsis  
Author: Jun Liu, Sufen Chen, Lijuan Chen, Qi Zhou, Menglong Wang, Dongru Feng, Jian-Feng Li, Jinfa Wang, Hong-Bin Wang and Bing Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(4): 234每239
Published Online: February 22, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12529
      
    

In Arabidopsis, both the membrane-anchored receptor-like kinase (RLK) BAK1 and the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase (RLCK) BIK1 are important mediators of transmembrane signal transduction that regulate plant development and immunity. However, little attention has been paid to their genetic association. This study found the bak1 bik1 double mutant of Arabidopsis displayed a severe dwarfism phenotype due to constitutive immunity and cell death in developing plants. These data suggest that BIK1 cooperates with BAK1 to regulate constitutive immunity and cell death.

Abstract (Browse 300)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
bak1 bik1 double mutants showed a severe dwarfism phenotype. The constitutive immune activation was mainly responsible for the cell death and developmental defects in bak1 bik1 double mutants. This study indicated that BAK1 and BIK1 are critical for regulation of the constitutive immune response and cell death in Arabidopsis.
Transition from a maternal to external nitrogen source in maize seedlings  
Author: Kasra Sabermanesh, Luke R. Holtham, Jessey George, Ute Roessner, Berin A. Boughton, Sigrid Heuer, Mark Tester, Darren C. Plett and Trevor P. Garnett
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(4): 261每274
Published Online: February 7, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12525
      
    

Maximizing NO3 uptake during seedling development is important as it has a major influence on plant growth and yield. However, little is known about the processes leading to, and involved in, the initiation of root NO3 uptake capacity in developing seedlings. This study examines the physiological processes involved in root NO3 uptake and metabolism, to gain an understanding of how the NO3 uptake system responds to meet demand as maize seedlings transition from seed N use to external N capture. The concentrations of seed-derived free amino acids within root and shoot tissues are initially high, but decrease rapidly until stabilizing eight days after imbibition (DAI). Similarly, shoot N% decreases, but does not stabilize until 12–13 DAI. Following the decrease in free amino acid concentrations, root NO3 uptake capacity increases until shoot N% stabilizes. The increase in root NO3 uptake capacity corresponds with a rapid rise in transcript levels of putative NO3 transporters, ZmNRT2.1 and ZmNRT2.2. The processes underlying the increase in root NO3 uptake capacity to meet N demand provide an insight into the processes controlling N uptake.

Abstract (Browse 217)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Root NO3 uptake capacity is regulated to meet plant nitrogen demand. To develop a model detailing it, we exploited a seedling's transition from seed nitrogen use to external nitrogen capture.
The precise regulation of different COR genes by individual CBF transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana  
Author: Yihao Shi, Jiaying Huang, Tianshu Sun, Xuefei Wang, Chenqi Zhu, Yuxi Ai and Hongya Gu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(2): 118每133
Published Online: December 23, 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12515
      
    

The transcription factors CBF1/2/3 are reported to play a dominant role in the cold responsive network of Arabidopsis by directly regulating the expression levels of cold responsive (COR) genes. In this study, we obtained CRISPR/Cas9-mediated loss-of-function mutants of cbf1∼3. Over 3,000 COR genes identified by RNA-seq analysis showed a slight but significant change in their expression levels in the mutants compared to the wild-type plants after being treated at 4 °C for 12 h. The C-repeat (CRT) motif (5′-CCGAC-3′) was enriched in promoters of genes that were up-regulated by CBF2 and CBF3 but not in promoters of genes up-regulated by CBF1. These data suggest that CBF2 and CBF3 play a more important role in directing the cold response by regulating different sets of downstream COR genes. More than 2/3 of COR genes were co-regulated by two or three CBFs and were involved mainly in cellular signal transduction and metabolic processes; less than 1/3 of the genes were regulated by one CBF, and those genes up-regulated were enriched in cold-related abiotic stress responses. Our results indicate that CBFs play an important role in the trade-off between cold tolerance and plant growth through the precise regulation of COR genes in the complicated transcriptional network.

Abstract (Browse 284)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
The CBF-dependent pathway is a plant-specific response to low temperature. We obtained three single mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana lacking CBF1~3 respectively using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. The RNA-seq data indicated that each CBF regulated a different set of COR genes, which formed a complicated network in response to cold stress.
GRAIN INCOMPLETE FILLING 2 regulates grain filling and starch synthesis during rice caryopsis development  
Author: Xiangjin Wei, Guiai Jiao, Haiyan Lin, Zhonghua Sheng, Gaoneng Shao, Lihong Xie, Shaoqing Tang, Qingguo Xu and Peisong Hu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(2): 134每153
Published Online: December 13, 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12510
      
    

Rice grain filling determines grain weight, final yield and grain quality. Here, a rice defective grain filling mutant, gif2, was identified. Grains of gif2 showed a slower filling rate and a significant lower final grain weight and yield compared to wild-type. The starch content in gif2 was noticeably decreased and its physicochemical properties were also altered. Moreover, gif2 endosperm cells showed obvious defects in compound granule formation. Positional cloning identified GIF2 to encode an ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) large subunit, AGPL2; consequently, AGP enzyme activity in gif2 endosperms was remarkably decreased. GIF2 is mainly expressed in developing grains and the coded protein localizes in the cytosol. Yeast two hybrid assay showed that GIF2 interacted with AGP small subunits OsAGPS1, OsAGPS2a and OsAGPS2b. Transcript levels for granule-bound starch synthase, starch synthase, starch branching enzyme and starch debranching enzyme were distinctly elevated in gif2 grains. In addition, the level of nucleotide diversity of the GIF2 locus was extremely low in both cultivated and wild rice. All of these results suggest that GIF2 plays important roles in the regulation of grain filling and starch biosynthesis during caryopsis development, and that it has been preserved during selection throughout domestication of modern rice.

Abstract (Browse 257)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
A rice mutant, gif2, displays remarkable slower grain filling rate, obvious defects in endosperm compound starch granule formation and less grain weight. Our work suggests that GIF2 encodes a large subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and plays a key role in the regulation of grain filling and endosperm starch biosynthesis.
Arabidopsis SUMO protease ASP1 positively regulates flowering time partially through regulating FLC stability  
Author: Xiangxiong Kong, Xi Luo, Gao-Ping Qu, Peng Liu and Jing Bo Jin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(1): 15每29
Published Online: December 7, 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12509
      
    

The initiation of flowering is tightly regulated by the endogenous and environment signals, which is crucial for the reproductive success of flowering plants. It is well known that autonomous and vernalization pathways repress transcription of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a focal floral repressor, but how its protein stability is regulated remains largely unknown. Here, we found that mutations in a novel Arabidopsis SUMO protease 1 (ASP1) resulted in a strong late-flowering phenotype under long-days, but to a lesser extent under short-days. ASP1 localizes in the nucleus and exhibited a SUMO protease activity in vitro and in vivo. The conserved Cys-577 in ASP1 is critical for its enzymatic activity, as well as its physiological function in the regulation of flowering time. Genetic and gene expression analyses demonstrated that ASP1 promotes transcription of positive regulators of flowering, such as FT, SOC1 and FD, and may function in both CO-dependent photoperiod pathway and FLC-dependent pathways. Although the transcription level of FLC was not affected in the loss-of-function asp1 mutant, the protein stability of FLC was increased in the asp1 mutant. Taken together, this study identified a novel bona fide SUMO protease, ASP1, which positively regulates transition to flowering at least partly by repressing FLC protein stability.

Abstract (Browse 249)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
SUMOylation is a rapid post-translational modification, which can be reversed by SUMO proteases. Arabidopsis contains more than 60 putative SUMO proteases, but their biological functions remain largely unknown. This study identified a novel SUMO protease, ASP1, which positively regulate transition to flowering partly by repressing FLC protein stability.
Development and utilization of a new chemically-induced soybean library with a high mutation density  
Author: Zhongfeng Li, Lingxue Jiang, Yansong Ma, Zhongyan Wei, Huilong Hong, Zhangxiong Liu, Jinhui Lei, Ying Liu, Rongxia Guan, Yong Guo, Longguo Jin, Lijuan Zhang, Yinghui Li, Yulong Ren, Wei He, Ming Liu, Nang Myint Phyu Sin Htwe, Lin Liu, Bingfu Guo, Jian Song, Bing Tan, Guifeng Liu, Maiquan Li, Xianli Zhang, Bo Liu, Xuehui Shi, Sining Han, Sunan Hua, Fulai Zhou, Lili Yu, Yanfei Li, Shuang Wang, Jun Wang, Ruzhen Chang and Lijuan Qiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(1): 60每74
Published Online: October 24, 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12505
      
    

Mutagenized populations have provided important materials for introducing variation and identifying gene function in plants. In this study, an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced soybean (Glycine max) population, consisting of 21,600 independent M2 lines, was developed. Over 1,000 M4 (5) families, with diverse abnormal phenotypes for seed composition, seed shape, plant morphology and maturity that are stably expressed across different environments and generations were identified. Phenotypic analysis of the population led to the identification of a yellow pigmentation mutant, gyl, that displayed significantly decreased chlorophyll (Chl) content and abnormal chloroplast development. Sequence analysis showed that gyl is allelic to MinnGold, where a different single nucleotide polymorphism variation in the Mg-chelatase subunit gene (ChlI1a) results in golden yellow leaves. A cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker was developed and may be applied to marker-assisted selection for the golden yellow phenotype in soybean breeding. We show that the newly developed soybean EMS mutant population has potential for functional genomics research and genetic improvement in soybean.

Abstract (Browse 298)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
A new ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) -induced soybean (Glycine max) population was developed. Over one thousand mutants with diverse abnormal phenotypes across generations and environments were identified and stored in the National GenBank. Our study shows that the mutants have big potential for accelerating functional genomic research and genetic improvement in soybean.
SUMO E3 Ligases GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b regulate vegetative growth in soybean  
Author: Bin Cai, Xiangxiong Kong, Chao Zhong, Suli Sun, Xiao Feng Zhou, Yin Hua Jin, Youning Wang, Xia Li, Zhendong Zhu and Jing Bo Jin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2017 59(1): 2每14
Published Online: October 20, 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12504
      
    

SIZ1 is a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase that mediates post-translational SUMO modification of target proteins and thereby regulates developmental processes and hormonal and environmental stress responses in Arabidopsis. However, the role of SUMO E3 ligases in crop plants is largely unknown. Here, we identified and characterized two Glycine max (soybean) SUMO E3 ligases, GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b. Expression of GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b was induced in response to salicylic acid (SA), heat, and dehydration treatment, but not in response to cold, abscisic acid (ABA), and NaCl treatment. Although GmSIZ1a was expressed at higher levels than GmSIZ1b, both genes encoded proteins with SUMO E3 ligase activity in vivo. Heterologous expression of GmSIZ1a or GmSIZ1b rescued the mutant phenotype of Arabidopsis siz1-2, including dwarfism, constitutively activated expression of pathogen-related genes, and ABA-sensitive seed germination. Simultaneous downregulation of GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b (GmSIZ1a/b) using RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing decreased heat shock-induced SUMO conjugation in soybean. Moreover, GmSIZ1RNAi plants exhibited reduced plant height and leaf size. However, unlike Arabidopsis siz1-2 mutant plants, flowering time and SA levels were not significantly altered in GmSIZ1RNAi plants. Taken together, our results indicate that GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b mediate SUMO modification and positively regulate vegetative growth in soybean.

Abstract (Browse 301)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
SUMOylation is a rapid and reversible post-translational process, which affects protein-protein interactions, protein targeting, enzymatic activity and protein stability. However, the role of SUMOylation in soybean is unknown. Here, we report that two soybean SUMO E3 ligases, GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b, mediate SUMO modifications and positively regulate vegetative growth in soybean.
Deciphering the epitranscriptome: A green perspective  
Author: Alice Burgess, Rakesh David and Iain Robert Searle
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(10): 822每835
Published Online: May 12, 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12483
      
    

The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies coupled with new detection methods of RNA modifications has enabled investigation of a new layer of gene regulation − the epitranscriptome. With over 100 known RNA modifications, understanding the repertoire of RNA modifications is a huge undertaking. This review summarizes what is known about RNA modifications with an emphasis on discoveries in plants. RNA ribose modifications, base methylations and pseudouridylation are required for normal development in Arabidopsis, as mutations in the enzymes modifying them have diverse effects on plant development and stress responses. These modifications can regulate RNA structure, turnover and translation. Transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA modifications have been mapped extensively and their functions investigated in many organisms, including plants. Recent work exploring the locations, functions and targeting of N6-methyladenosine (m6A), 5-methylcytosine (m5C), pseudouridine (Ψ), and additional modifications in mRNAs and ncRNAs are highlighted, as well as those previously known on tRNAs and rRNAs. Many questions remain as to the exact mechanisms of targeting and functions of specific modified sites and whether these modifications have distinct functions in the different classes of RNAs.

Abstract (Browse 573)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
With over 100 known RNA modifications, understanding the repertoire of RNA modifications will be a huge undertaking. This review summarizes what is known about RNA modifications. In Arabidopsis, RNA ribose modifications, base methylations and pseudouridylation are required for normal development and these modifications can regulate RNA structure, turnover and translation.
A bestrophin-like protein modulates the proton motive force across the thylakoid membrane in Arabidopsis  
Author: Zhikun Duan, Fanna Kong, Lin Zhang, Wenjing Li, Jiao Zhang and Lianwei Peng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(10): 848每858
Published Online: March 7, 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12475
      
    

During photosynthesis, photosynthetic electron transport generates a proton motive force (pmf) across the thylakoid membrane, which is used for ATP biosynthesis via ATP synthase in the chloroplast. The pmf is composed of an electric potential (ΔΨ) and an osmotic component (ΔpH). Partitioning between these components in chloroplasts is strictly regulated in response to fluctuating environments. However, our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that regulate pmf partitioning is limited. Here, we report a bestrophin-like protein (AtBest), which is critical for pmf partitioning. While the ΔpH component was slightly reduced in atbest, the ΔΨ component was much greater in this mutant than in the wild type, resulting in less efficient activation of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) upon both illumination and a shift from low light to high light. Although no visible phenotype was observed in the atbest mutant in the greenhouse, this mutant exhibited stronger photoinhibition than the wild type when grown in the field. AtBest belongs to the bestrophin family proteins, which are believed to function as chloride (Cl) channels. Thus, our findings reveal an important Cl channel required for ion transport and homeostasis across the thylakoid membrane in higher plants. These processes are essential for fine-tuning photosynthesis under fluctuating environmental conditions.

Abstract (Browse 554)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
This work describes a novel bestrophin-like chloride channel, AtBest, in chloroplasts. By mediating the influx of Cl into thylakoid lumen, AtBest directly modulates the partitioning of proton motive force across the thylakoid membrane. This kind of ion transport and homeostasis is essential for fine-tuning photosynthesis under fluctuating environmental conditions.
OsGRF4 controls grain shape, panicle length and seed shattering in rice  
Author: Pingyong Sun, Wuhan Zhang, Yihua Wang, Qiang He, Fu Shu, Hai Liu, Jie Wang, Jianmin Wang, Longping Yuan and Huafeng Deng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(10): 836每847
Published Online: March 3, 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12473
      
    

Traits such as grain shape, panicle length and seed shattering, play important roles in grain yield and harvest. In this study, the cloning and functional analysis of PANICLE TRAITS 2 (PT2), a novel gene from the Indica rice Chuandali (CDL), is reported. PT2 is synonymous with Growth-Regulating Factor 4 (OsGRF4), which encodes a growth-regulating factor that positively regulates grain shape and panicle length and negatively regulates seed shattering. Higher expression of OsGRF4 is correlated with larger grain, longer panicle and lower seed shattering. A unique OsGRF4 mutation, which occurs at the OsmiRNA396 target site of OsGRF4, seems to be associated with high levels of OsGRF4 expression, and results in phenotypic difference. Further research showed that OsGRF4 regulated two cytokinin dehydrogenase precursor genes (CKX5 and CKX1) resulting in increased cytokinin levels, which might affect the panicle traits. High storage capacity and moderate seed shattering of OsGRF4 may be useful in high-yield breeding and mechanized harvesting of rice. Our findings provide additional insight into the molecular basis of panicle growth.

Abstract (Browse 772)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
A novel rice gene PT2 is cloned, which is synonymous with Growth-Regulating Factor 4 (OsGRF4). It positively regulates grain shape, panicle length and negatively regulates seed shattering in rice. A unique mutation at the target site of OsmiRNA396 in OsGRF4 may enhance the expression of OsGRF4, resulting in phenotypic difference.
How can we harness quantitative genetic variation in crop root systems for agricultural improvement?  
Author: Christopher N. Topp, Adam L. Bray, Nathanael A. Ellis and Zhengbin Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(3): 213每225
Published Online: February 23, 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12470
      
    
Root systems are a black box obscuring a comprehensive understanding of plant function, from the ecosystem scale down to the individual. In particular, a lack of knowledge about the genetic mechanisms and environmental effects that condition root system growth hinders our ability to develop the next generation of crop plants for improved agricultural productivity and sustainability. We discuss how the methods and metrics we use to quantify root systems can affect our ability to understand them, how we can bridge knowledge gaps and accelerate the derivation of structure-function relationships for roots, and why a detailed mechanistic understanding of root growth and function will be important for future agricultural gains.
Abstract (Browse 502)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
This review article focuses on technologies and methodologies that allow us to measure root systems, the ※hidden-half§ of plants, and how we can utilize them to develop more stress resistant crop plants with fewer resources.
Identification and functional characterization of the AGO1 ortholog in maize  
Author: Dongdong Xu, Hailong Yang, Cheng Zou, Wen-Xue Li, Yunbi Xu and Chuanxiao Xie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(8): 749-758
Published Online: February 5, 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12467
      
    

Eukaryotic Argonaute proteins play primary roles in miRNA and siRNA pathways that are essential for numerous developmental and biological processes. However, the functional roles of the four ZmAGO1 genes have not yet been characterized in maize (Zea mays L.). In the present study, ZmAGO1a was identified from four putative ZmAGO1 genes for further characterization. Complementation of the Arabidopsis ago1-27 mutant with ZmAGO1a indicated that constitutive overexpression of ZmAGO1a could restore the smaller rosette, serrated leaves, later flowering and maturation, lower seed set, and darker green leaves at late stages of the mutant to the wild-type phenotype. The expression profiles of ZmAGO1a under five different abiotic stresses indicated that ZmAGO1a shares expression patterns similar to those of Argonaute genes in rice, Arabidopsis, and wheat. Further, variation in ZmAGO1a alleles among diverse maize germplasm that resulted in several amino acid changes revealed genetic diversity at this locus. The present data suggest that ZmAGO1a might be an important AGO1 ortholog in maize. The results presented provide further insight into the function of ZmAGO1a.

Abstract (Browse 653)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Argonaute proteins play primary roles in miRNA and siRNA pathways that are essential for numerous developmental and biological processes in plants. The functional complementation study and expression profiling analysis demonstrated that ZmAGO1a was an important AGO1 ortholog in maize (Zea mays L.).
Maize ZmVPP5 is a truncated Vacuole H+-PPase that confers hypersensitivity to salt stress  
Author: Xiaoliang Sun, Weiwei Qi, Yihong Yue, Huiling Ling, Gang Wang and Rentao Song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(6): 518-528
Published Online: January 5, 2016
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12462
      
    

In plants, Vacuole H+-PPases (VPPs) are important proton pumps and encoded by multiple genes. In addition to full-length VPPs, several truncated forms are expressed, but their biological functions are unknown. In this study, we functionally characterized maize vacuole H+-PPase 5 (ZmVPP5), a truncated VPP in the maize genome. Although ZmVPP5 shares high sequence similarity with ZmVPP1, ZmVPP5 lacks the complete structure of the conserved proton transport and the inorganic pyrophosphatase-related domain. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that ZmVPP5 might be derived from an incomplete gene duplication event. ZmVPP5 is expressed in multiple tissues, and ZmVPP5 was detected in the plasma membrane, vacuole membrane and nuclei of maize cells. The overexpression of ZmVPP5 in yeast cells caused a hypersensitivity to salt stress. Transgenic maize lines with overexpressed ZmVPP5 also exhibited the salt hypersensitivity phenotype. A yeast two-hybrid analysis identified the ZmBag6-like protein as a putative ZmVPP5-interacting protein. The results of bimolecular luminescence complementation (BiLC) assay suggest an interaction between ZmBag6-like protein and ZmVPP5 in vivo. Overall, this study suggests that ZmVPP5 might act as a VPP antagonist and participate in the cellular response to salt stress. Our study of ZmVPP5 has expanded the understanding of the origin and functions of truncated forms of plant VPPs.

Abstract (Browse 739)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
ZmVPP5 is a truncated Vacuole H+-PPase protein. We demonstrated that overexpressing ZmVPP5 exhibited salt hypersensitivity phenotype in transgenic maize and yeast. We also identified a ZmBag6-like protein as a ZmVPP5-interacting protein. Our study of ZmVPP5 has expanded the understanding of the origin and functions of plant truncated VPPs.
AtTMEM18 plays important roles in pollen tube and vegetative growth in Arabidopsis  
Author: Xiao-Ying Dou, Ke-Zhen Yang, Zhao-Xia Ma, Li-Qun Chen, Xue-Qin Zhang, Jin-Rong Bai and De Ye
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(7): 679每692
Published Online: December 24, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12459
      
    

In flowering plants, pollen tube growth is essential for delivery of male gametes into the female gametophyte or embryo sac for double fertilization. Although many genes have been identified as being involved in the process, the molecular mechanisms of pollen tube growth remains poorly understood. In this study, we identified that the Arabidopsis Transmembrane Protein 18 (AtTMEM18) gene played important roles in pollen tube growth. The AtTMEM18 shares a high similarity with the Transmembrane 18 proteins (TMEM18s) that are conserved in most eukaryotes and may play important roles in obesity in humans. Mutation in the AtTMEM18 by a Ds insertion caused abnormal callose deposition in the pollen grains and had a significant impact on pollen germination and pollen tube growth. AtTMEM18 is expressed in pollen grains, pollen tubes, root tips and other vegetative tissues. The pollen-rescued assays showed that the mutation in AtTMEM18 also caused defects in roots, stems, leaves and transmitting tracts. AtTMEM18-GFP was located around the nuclei. Genetic assays demonstrated that the localization of AtTMEM18 around the nuclei in the generative cells of pollen grains was essential for the male fertility. Furthermore, expression of the rice TMEM18-homologous protein (OsTMEM18) driven by LAT52 promoter could recover the fertility of the Arabidopsis attmem18 mutant. These results suggested that the TMEM18 is important for plant growth in Arabidopsis.

Abstract (Browse 725)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
The Transmembrane 18 proteins (TMEM18s) are conserved in most eukaryotes and may be related to obesity in humans. This study shows that Arabidopsis TMEM18 (AtTMEM18) plays important roles in plant growth. Mutation in AtTMEM18 affected callose deposition and caused defects in pollen tube and other plant tissues.
Genetic dissection of maize seedling root system architecture traits using an ultra-high density bin-map and a recombinant inbred line population  
Author: Weibin Song, Baobao Wang, Andrew L Hauck, Xiaomei Dong, Jieping Li and Jinsheng Lai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(3): 266每279
Published Online: November 23, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12452
      
    

Maize (Zea mays) root system architecture (RSA) mediates the key functions of plant anchorage and acquisition of nutrients and water. In this study, a set of 204 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was derived from the widely adapted Chinese hybrid ZD958(Zheng58 × Chang7-2), genotyped by sequencing (GBS) and evaluated as seedlings for 24 RSA related traits divided into primary, seminal and total root classes. Significant differences between the means of the parental phenotypes were detected for 18 traits, and extensive transgressive segregation in the RIL population was observed for all traits. Moderate to strong relationships among the traits were discovered. A total of 62 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified that individually explained from 1.6% to 11.6% (total root dry weight/total seedling shoot dry weight) of the phenotypic variation. Eighteen, 24 and 20 QTL were identified for primary, seminal and total root classes of traits, respectively. We found hotspots of 5, 3, 4 and 12 QTL in maize chromosome bins 2.06, 3.02-03, 9.02-04, and 9.05-06, respectively, implicating the presence of root gene clusters or pleiotropic effects. These results characterized the phenotypic variation and genetic architecture of seedling RSA in a population derived from a successful maize hybrid.

Abstract (Browse 730)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Maize root system architecture (RSA) mediates key functions of plant anchorage and acquisition of nutrients and water. Our study suggested that many of the 24 characterized RSA related traits were highly correlated. We also identified 62 QTLs, including four gene clusters, for these root traits.
The pleiotropic ABNORMAL FLOWER AND DWARF1 affects plant height, floral development and grain yield in rice  
Author: Deyong Ren, Yuchun Rao, Liwen Wu, Qiankun Xu, Zizhuang Li, Haiping Yu, Yu Zhang, Yujia Leng, Jiang Hu, Li Zhu, Zhenyu Gao, Guojun Dong, Guangheng Zhang, Longbiao Guo, Dali Zeng and Qian Qian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(6): 529每539
Published Online: October 21, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12441
      
    

Moderate plant height and successful establishment of reproductive organs play pivotal roles in rice grain production. The molecular mechanism that controls the two aspects remains unclear in rice. In the present study, we characterized a rice gene, ABNORMAL FLOWER AND DWARF1 (AFD1) that determined plant height, floral development and grain yield. The afd1 mutant showed variable defects including the dwarfism, long panicle, low seed setting and reduced grain yield. In addition, abnormal floral organs were also observed in the afd1 mutant including slender and thick hulls, and hull-like lodicules. AFD1 encoded a DUF640 domain protein and was expressed in all tested tissues and organs. Subcellular localization showed AFD1-green fluorescent fusion protein (GFP) was localized in the nucleus. Meantime, our results suggested that AFD1 regulated the expression of cell division and expansion related genes.

Abstract (Browse 904)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
AFD1 encoded a DUF640 domain protein and loss of its function resulted in the dwarfism, small grains, and abnormal hulls. This work aim to facilitate the understanding of the molecular mechanism of vegetative and reproductive development mediated by AFD1, and provide insight into the functions of AFD1 gene on improving grain yield.
Rice caryopsis development I: Dynamic changes in different cell layers  
Author: Xiaoba Wu, Jinxin Liu, Dongqi Li and Chun-Ming Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(9): 772每785
Published Online: October 16, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12440
      
    

Rice caryopsis as one of the most important food sources for humans has a complex structure that is composed of maternal tissues including the pericarp and testa and filial tissues including the endosperm and embryo. Although rice caryopsis studies have been conducted previously, a systematic characterization throughout the entire developmental process is still lacking. In this study, detailed morphological examinations of caryopses were made during the entire 30-day developmental process. We observed some rapid changes in cell differentiation events and cataloged how cellular degeneration processes occurred in maternal tissues. The differentiations of tube cells and cross cells were achieved by 9 days after pollination (DAP). In the testa, the outer integument was degenerated by 3 DAP, while the outer layer of the inner integument degenerated by 7 DAP. In the nucellus, all tissues with the exception of the nucellar projection and the nucellar epidermis degenerated in the first 5 DAP. By 21 DAP, all maternal tissues, including vascular bundles, the nucellar projection and the nucellar epidermal cells were degenerated. In summary, this study provides a complete atlas of the dynamic changes in cell differentiation and degeneration for individual maternal cell layers of rice caryopsis.

Abstract (Browse 1450)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Detailed morphological examinations of maternal tissues in rice caryopsis were made during the entire 30-day developmental process. This study provides a complete atlas of the dynamic changes in cell differentiation and degeneration for individual maternal cell layers of rice caryopsis.
Genome-scale analysis of the cotton KCS gene family revealed a binary mode of action for gibberellin A regulated fiber growth  
Author: Guang-Hui Xiao, Kun Wang, Gai Huang and Yu-Xian Zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(6): 577每589
Published Online: September 24, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12429
      
    

Production of β-ketoacyl-CoA, which is catalyzed by 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), is the first step in very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) biosynthesis. Here we identified 58 KCS genes from Gossypium hirsutum, 31 from G. arboreum and 33 from G. raimondii by searching the assembled cotton genomes. The gene family was divided into the plant-specific FAE1-type and the more general ELO-type. KCS transcripts were widely expressed and 32 of them showed distinct subgenome-specific expressions in one or more cotton tissues/organs studied. Six GhKCS genes rescued the lethality of elo2Δelo3Δ yeast double mutant, indicating that this gene family possesses diversified functions. Most KCS genes with GA-responsive elements (GAREs) in the promoters were significantly upregulated by gibberellin A3 (GA). Exogenous GA3 not only promoted fiber length, but also increased the thickness of cell walls significantly. GAREs present also in the promoters of several cellulose synthase (CesA) genes required for cell wall biosynthesis and they were all induced significantly by GA3. Because GA treatment resulted in longer cotton fibers with thicker cell walls and higher dry weight per unit cell length, we suggest that it may regulate fiber elongation upstream of the VLCFA-ethylene pathway and also in the downstream steps towards cell wall synthesis.

Abstract (Browse 761)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
We produced a binary mode of GA action in regulating fiber growth. GAs may act upstream of the VLCFA-ethylene pathway via activation of a large set of GhKCS genes and function concomitantly in downstream steps that result in cellulose biosynthesis by promoting CesA expressions.
Roles of lignin biosynthesis and regulatory genes in plant development  
Author: Jinmi Yoon, Heebak Choi and Gynheung An
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2015 57(11): 902每912
Published Online: August 22, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12422
      
    

Lignin is an important factor affecting agricultural traits, biofuel production, and the pulping industry. Most lignin biosynthesis genes and their regulatory genes are expressed mainly in the vascular bundles of stems and leaves, preferentially in tissues undergoing lignification. Other genes are poorly expressed during normal stages of development, but are strongly induced by abiotic or biotic stresses. Some are expressed in non-lignifying tissues such as the shoot apical meristem. Alterations in lignin levels affect plant development. Suppression of lignin biosynthesis genes causes abnormal phenotypes such as collapsed xylem, bending stems, and growth retardation. The loss of expression by genes that function early in the lignin biosynthesis pathway results in more severe developmental phenotypes when compared with plants that have mutations in later genes. Defective lignin deposition is also associated with phenotypes of seed shattering or brittle culm. MYB and NAC transcriptional factors function as switches, and some homeobox proteins negatively control lignin biosynthesis genes. Ectopic deposition caused by overexpression of lignin biosynthesis genes or master switch genes induces curly leaf formation and dwarfism.

 

Yoon J, Choi H, An G (2015) Roles of lignin biosynthesis and regulatory genes in plant development. J Integr Plant Biol 57: 902–912 doi: 10.1111/jipb.12422

Abstract (Browse 620)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Lignin is an important factor affecting agricultural traits. Alterations in lignin levels affect plant development. Defective lignin deposition is also associated with phenotypes of seed shattering or brittle culm. MYB and NAC transcriptional factors function as switches, and some homeobox proteins negatively control lignin biosynthesis genes.
Nonfunctional alleles of long-day suppressor genes independently regulate flowering time  
Author: Xiao-Ming Zheng, Li Feng, Junrui Wang, Weihua Qiao, Lifang Zhang, Yunlian Cheng and Qingwen Yang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(6): 540每548
Published Online: July 29, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12383
      
    

Due to the remarkable adaptability to various environments, rice varieties with diverse flowering times have been domesticated or improved from Oryza rufipogon. Detailed knowledge of the genetic factors controlling flowering time will facilitate understanding the adaptation mechanism in cultivated rice and enable breeders to design appropriate genotypes for distinct preferences. In this study, four genes (Hd1, DTH8, Ghd7 and OsPRR37) in a rice long-day suppression pathway were collected and sequenced in 154, 74, 69 and 62 varieties of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) respectively. Under long-day conditions, varieties with nonfunctional alleles flowered significantly earlier than those with functional alleles. However, the four genes have different genetic effects in the regulation of flowering time: Hd1 and OsPRR37 are major genes that generally regulate rice flowering time for all varieties, while DTH8 and Ghd7 only regulate regional rice varieties. Geographic analysis and network studies suggested that the nonfunctional alleles of these suppression loci with regional adaptability were derived recently and independently. Alleles with regional adaptability should be taken into consideration for genetic improvement. The rich genetic variations in these four genes, which adapt rice to different environments, provide the flexibility needed for breeding rice varieties with diverse flowering times.

Abstract (Browse 954)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Due to the adaptability to environments, rice varieties with diverse flowering times have been domesticated. Among hundreds of varieties, we found that varieties with nonfunctional alleles flowered significantly earlier than those with functional alleles under long-day conditions. Meanwhile, phylogeographic analysis studies suggested that the nonfunctional alleles were derived recently and independently.
A putative 6-transmembrane nitrate transporter OsNRT1.1b plays a key role in rice under low nitrogen  
Author: Xiaorong Fan, Huimin Feng, Yawen Tan, Yanling Xu, Qisong Miao and Guohua Xu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(6): 590每599
Published Online: July 29, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12382
      
    

OsNRT1.1a is a low-affinity nitrate (NO3) transporter gene. In this study, another mRNA splicing product, OsNRT1.1b, putatively encoding a protein with six transmembrane domains, was identified based on the rice genomic database and bioinformatics analysis. OsNRT1.1a/OsNRT1.1b expression in Xenopus oocytes showed OsNRT1.1a-expressing oocytes accumulated 15N levels to about half as compared to OsNRT1.1b-expressing oocytes. The electrophysiological recording of OsNRT1.1b-expressing oocytes treated with 0.25 mM NO3 confirmed 15N accumulation data. More functional assays were performed to examine the function of OsNRT1.1b in rice. The expression of both OsNRT1.1a and OsNRT1.1b was abundant in roots and downregulated by nitrogen (N) deficiency. The shoot biomass of transgenic rice plants with OsNRT1.1a or OsNRT1.1b overexpression increased under various N supplies under hydroponic conditions compared to wild-type (WT). The OsNRT1.1a overexpression lines showed increased plant N accumulation compared to the WT in 1.25 mM NH4NO3 and 2.5 mM NO3 or NH4+ treatments, but not in 0.125 mM NH4NO3. However, OsNRT1.1b overexpression lines increased total N accumulation in all N treatments, including 0.125 mM NH4NO3, suggesting that under low N condition, OsNRT1.1b would accumulate more N in plants and improve rice growth, but also that OsNRT1.1a had no such function in rice plants.

Abstract (Browse 995)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
A full size nitrate transporter usually has 12 transmembrane helixes. In here, we presented that a half size nitrate transporter, one splicing product of OsNRT1.1 gene, can also function well in nitrate transport and even behavior better than its full size product under nitrogen deficiency in rice.
ANAC005 is a membrane-associated transcription factor and regulates vascular development in Arabidopsis  
Author: Jun Zhao, Jiang-Shu Liu, Fu-Ning Meng, Zhen-Zhen Zhang, Hao Long, Wen-Hui Lin, Xiao-Min Luo, Zhi-Yong Wang and Sheng-Wei Zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(5): 442每451
Published Online: July 14, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12379
      
    

Vascular tissues are very important for providing both mechanical strength and long-distance transport. The molecular mechanisms of regulation of vascular tissue development are still not fully understood. In this study we identified ANAC005 as a membrane-associated NAC family transcription factor that regulates vascular tissue development. Reporter gene assays showed that ANAC005 was expressed mainly in the vascular tissues. Increased expression of ANAC005 protein in transgenic Arabidopsis caused dwarf phenotype, reduced xylem differentiation, decreased lignin content, repression of a lignin biosynthetic gene and genes related to cambium and primary wall, but activation of genes related to the secondary wall. Expression of a dominant repressor fusion of ANAC005 had overall the opposite effects on vascular tissue differentiation and lignin synthetic gene expression. The ANAC005-GFP fusion protein was localized at the plasma membrane, whereas deletion of the last 20 amino acids, which are mostly basic, caused its nuclear localization. These results indicate that ANAC005 is a cell membrane-associated transcription factor that inhibits xylem tissue development in Arabidopsis.

Abstract (Browse 1119)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
ANAC005, a NAC family transcription factor, expresses mainly in vascular tissues. It localizes in cell membrane, whereas deletion of the last 20 amino acids caused its nuclear localization. Moreover, ANAC005 reduce xylem differentiation and decrease lignin synthesis.
Single base substitution in OsCDC48 is responsible for premature senescence and death phenotype in rice  
Author: Qi-Na Huang, Yong-Feng Shi, Xiao-Bo Zhang, Li-Xin Song, Bao-Hua Feng, Hui-Mei Wang, Xia Xu, Xiao-Hong Li, Dan Guo and Jian-Li Wu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(1): 12每28
Published Online: June 4, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12372
      
    

A premature senescence and death 128 (psd128) mutant was isolated from an ethyl methane sulfonate-induced rice IR64 mutant bank. The premature senescence phenotype appeared at the six-leaf stage and the plant died at the early heading stage. psd128 exhibited impaired chloroplast development with significantly reduced photosynthetic ability, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, root vigor, soluble protein content and increased malonaldehyde content. Furthermore, the expression of senescence-related genes was significantly altered in psd128. The mutant trait was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Using map-based strategy, the mutation Oryza sativa cell division cycle 48 (OsCDC48) was isolated and predicted to encode a putative AAA-type ATPase with 809 amino-acid residuals. A single base substitution at position C2347T in psd128 resulted in a premature stop codon. Functional complementation could rescue the mutant phenotype. In addition, RNA interference resulted in the premature senescence and death phenotype. OsCDC48 was expressed constitutively in the root, stem, leaf and panicle. Subcellular analysis indicated that OsCDC48:YFP fusion proteins were located both in the cytoplasm and nucleus. OsCDC48 was highly conserved with more than 90% identity in the protein levels among plant species. Our results indicated that the impaired function of OsCDC48 was responsible for the premature senescence and death phenotype.

 

Huang QN, Shi YF, Zhang XB, Song LX, Feng BH, Wang HM, Xu X, Li XH, Guo D, Wu JL (2016) Single base substitution in OsCDC48 is responsible for premature senescence and death phenotype in rice. J Integr Plant Biol 58: 12–28 doi: 10.1111/jipb.12372

Abstract (Browse 1626)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Plant senescence and death can be caused by various factors. One of them is an enzyme termed AAA-ATPase showing multiple biological functions and mainly servicing as the energy provider. OsCDC48 is the corresponding enzyme in rice and its defect cause early senescence and death in rice.
Decreased glutathione reductase2 leads to early leaf senescence in Arabidopsis  
Author: Shunhua Ding, Liang Wang, Zhipan Yang, Qingtao Lu, Xiaogang Wen and Congming Lu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(1): 29每47
Published Online: June 1, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12371
      
    

Glutathione reductase (GR) catalyzes the reduction of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH) and participates in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, which scavenges H2O2. Here, we report that chloroplastic/mitochondrial GR2 is an important regulator of leaf senescence. Seed development of the homozygous gr2 knockout mutant was blocked at the globular stage. Therefore, to investigate the function of GR2 in leaf senescence, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants with decreased GR2 using RNAi. The GR2 RNAi plants displayed early onset of age-dependent and dark- and H2O2-induced leaf senescence, which was accompanied by the induction of the senescence-related marker genes SAG12 and SAG13. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that genes related to leaf senescence, oxidative stress, and phytohormone pathways were upregulated directly before senescence in RNAi plants. In addition, H2O2 accumulated to higher levels in RNAi plants than in wild-type plants and the levels of H2O2 peaked in RNAi plants directly before the early onset of leaf senescence. RNAi plants showed a greater decrease in GSH/GSSG levels than wild-type plants during leaf development. Our results suggest that GR2 plays an important role in leaf senescence by modulating H2O2 and glutathione signaling in Arabidopsis.

 

Ding S, Wang L, Yang Z, Lu Q, Wen X, Lu C (2016) Decreased glutathione reductase2 leads to early leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. J Integr Plant Biol 58: 29–47 doi: 10.1111/jipb.12371

Abstract (Browse 905)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Glutathione reductase (GR) functions in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, which scavenges H2O2. Here, we report that GR2 regulates leaf senescence by modulating H2O2 and glutathione signaling in Arabidopsis.
A pair of light signaling factors FHY3 and FAR1 regulates plant immunity by modulating chlorophyll biosynthesis  
Author: Wanqing Wang, Weijiang Tang, Tingting Ma, De Niu, Jing Bo Jin, Haiyang Wang and Rongcheng Lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(1): 91每103
Published Online: May 18, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12369
      
    

Light and chloroplast function is known to affect the plant immune response; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. We previously demonstrated that two light signaling factors, FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 3 (FHY3) and FAR-RED IMPAIRED RESPONSE 1 (FAR1), regulate chlorophyll biosynthesis and seedling growth via controlling HEMB1 expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we reveal that FHY3 and FAR1 are involved in modulating plant immunity. We showed that the fhy3 far1 double null mutant displayed high levels of reactive oxygen species and salicylic acid (SA) and increased resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pathogen infection. Microarray analysis revealed that a large proportion of pathogen-related genes, particularly genes encoding nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat domain resistant proteins, are highly induced in fhy3 far1. Genetic studies indicated that the defects of fhy3 far1 can be largely rescued by reducing SA signaling or blocking SA accumulation, and by overexpression of HEMB1, which encodes a 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, we found that transgenic plants with reduced expression of HEMB1 exhibit a phenotype similar to fhy3 far1. Taken together, this study demonstrates an important role of FHY3 and FAR1 in regulating plant immunity, through integrating chlorophyll biosynthesis and the SA signaling pathway.

 

Wang W, Tang W, Ma T, Niu D, Jin JB, Wang H, Lin R (2016) A pair of light signaling factors FHY3 and FAR1 regulates plant immunity by modulating chlorophyll biosynthesis. J Integr Plant Biol 58: 91–103 doi: 10.1111/jipb.12369

Abstract (Browse 1055)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
This study reveals that two light signaling transcription factors modulate plant immune response through regulating chlorophyll biosynthesis and the salicylic acid biosynthetic and signaling pathways.
Arabidopsis C3HC4-RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase AtAIRP4 positively regulates stress-responsive abscisic acid signaling  
Author: Liang Yang, Qiaohong Liu, Zhibin Liu, Hao Yang, Jianmei Wang, Xufeng Li and Yi Yang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(1): 67每80
Published Online: April 24, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12364
      
    

Degradation of proteins via the ubiquitin system is an important step in many stress signaling pathways in plants. E3 ligases recognize ligand proteins and dictate the high specificity of protein degradation, and thus, play a pivotal role in ubiquitination. Here, we identified a gene, named Arabidopsis thaliana abscisic acid (ABA)-insensitive RING protein 4 (AtAIRP4), which is induced by ABA and other stress treatments. AtAIRP4 encodes a cellular protein with a C3HC4-RING finger domain in its C-terminal side, which has in vitro E3 ligase activity. Loss of AtAIRP4 leads to a decrease in sensitivity of root elongation and stomatal closure to ABA, whereas overexpression of this gene in the T-DNA insertion mutant atairp4 effectively recovered the ABA-associated phenotypes. AtAIRP4 overexpression plants were hypersensitive to salt and osmotic stresses during seed germination, and showed drought avoidance compared with the wild-type and atairp4 mutant plants. In addition, the expression levels of ABA- and drought-induced marker genes in AtAIRP4 overexpression plants were markedly higher than those in the wild-type and atairp4 mutant plants. Hence, these results indicate that AtAIRP4 may act as a positive regulator of ABA-mediated drought avoidance and a negative regulator of salt tolerance in Arabidopsis.

 

Yang L, Liu Q, Liu Z, Yang H, Wang J, Li X, Yang Y (2016) Arabidopsis C3HC4-RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase AtAIRP4 positively regulates stress-responsive abscisic acid signaling. J Integr Plant Biol 58: 67–80 doi: 10.1111/jipb.12364

Abstract (Browse 1122)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Protein degradation mediated by ubiquitin plays a primary role in plant stress signaling transduction. E3 ligases recognize the acceptor protein and play a pivotal role in ubiquitination. Here, we identified that AtAIRP4, a C3HC4-RING finger E3 ligase, is a positive regulator of ABA-mediated drought and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis.
Characterization of tub4P287L, a 汕-tubulin mutant, revealed new aspects of microtubule regulation in shade  
Author: Jie Yu, Hong Qiu, Xin Liu, Meiling Wang, Yongli Gao, Joanne Chory and Yi Tao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2015 57(9): 757每769
Published Online: April 21, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12363
      
    
When sun plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, are under canopy shade, elongation of stems/petioles will be induced as one of the most prominent responses. Plant hormones mediate the elongation growth. However, how environmental and hormonal signals are translated into cell expansion activity that leads to the elongation growth remains elusive. Through forward genetic study, we identified shade avoidance2 (sav2) mutant, which contains a P287L mutation in β-TUBULIN 4. Cortical microtubules (cMTs) play a key role in anisotropic cell growth. Hypocotyls of sav2 are wild type-like in white light, but are short and highly swollen in shade and dark. We showed that shade not only induces cMT rearrangement, but also affects cMT stability and dynamics of plus ends. Even though auxin and brassinosteroids are required for shade-induced hypocotyl elongation, they had little effect on shade-induced rearrangement of cMTs. Blocking auxin transport suppressed dark phenotypes of sav2, while overexpressing EB1b-GFP, a microtubule plus-end binding protein, rescued sav2 in both shade and dark, suggesting that tub4P287L represents a unique type of tubulin mutation that does not affect cMT function in supporting cell elongation, but may affect the ability of cMTs to respond properly to growth promoting stimuli.
 

Yu J, Qiu H, Liu X, Wang M, Gao Y, Chory J, Tao Y (2015) Characterization of tub4P287L, a b-tubulin mutant, revealed new aspects of microtubule regulation in shade. J Integr Plant Biol 57: 757–769 doi: 10.1111/jipb.12363

Abstract (Browse 919)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Cortical microtubules (cMTs) play a key role in anisotropic cell growth. We found both the organization patterns and dynamics of cMTs are altered in shade. P287 residue in TUB4 is critical for microtubule stability and regulation, which may affect the ability of cMTs to respond properly to growth promoting stimuli.
Quantitative trait locus mapping with background control in genetic populations of clonal F1 and double cross  
Author: Luyan Zhang, Huihui Li, Junqiang Ding, Jianyu Wu and Jiankang Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2015 57(12): 1046每1062
Published Online: April 17, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12361
      
    

In this study, we considered five categories of molecular markers in clonal F1 and double cross populations, based on the number of distinguishable alleles and the number of distinguishable genotypes at the marker locus. Using the completed linkage maps, incomplete and missing markers were imputed as fully informative markers in order to simplify the linkage mapping approaches of quantitative trait genes. Under the condition of fully informative markers, we demonstrated that dominance effect between the female and male parents in clonal F1 and double cross populations can cause the interactions between markers. We then developed an inclusive linear model that includes marker variables and marker interactions so as to completely control additive effects of the female and male parents, as well as the dominance effect between the female and male parents. The linear model was finally used for background control in inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) of quantitative trait locus (QTL). The efficiency of ICIM was demonstrated by extensive simulations and by comparisons with simple interval mapping, multiple-QTL models and composite interval mapping. Finally, ICIM was applied in one actual double cross population to identify QTL on days to silking in maize.

 

Zhang L, Li H, Ding J, Wu J, Wang J (2015) Quantitative trait locus mapping with background control in genetic populations of clonal F1 and double cross. J Integr Plant Biol 57: 1046–1062 doi: 10.1111/jipb.12361

Abstract (Browse 910)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
A novel method of genetic analysis was proposed to map quantitative trait genes in clonal species. Efficiency of this method was demonstrated by statistic principles, extensive simulations and comparisons with other methods. The method is also applicable to genetic populations derived from four inbred parental lines of sexual species.
Identification and fine mapping of quantitative trait loci for the number of vascular bundle in maize stem  
Author: Cheng Huang, Qiuyue Chen, Guanghui Xu, Dingyi Xu, Jinge Tian and Feng Tian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2016 58(1): 81每90
Published Online: April 3, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12358
      
    

Studies that investigated the genetic basis of source and sink related traits have been widely conducted. However, the vascular system that links source and sink received much less attention. When maize was domesticated from its wild ancestor, teosinte, the external morphology has changed dramatically; however, less is known for the internal anatomy changes. In this study, using a large maize-teosinte experimental population, we performed a high-resolution quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for the number of vascular bundle in the uppermost internode of maize stem. The results showed that vascular bundle number is dominated by a large number of small-effect QTLs, in which a total of 16 QTLs that jointly accounts for 52.2% of phenotypic variation were detected, with no single QTL explaining more than 6% of variation. Different from QTLs for typical domestication traits, QTLs for vascular bundle number might not be under directional selection following domestication. Using Near Isogenic Lines (NILs) developed from heterogeneous inbred family (HIF), we further validated the effect of one QTL qVb9-2 on chromosome 9 and fine mapped the QTL to a 1.8-Mb physical region. This study provides important insights for the genetic architecture of vascular bundle number in maize stem and sets basis for cloning of qVb9-2.

 

Huang C, Chen Q, Xu G, Xu D, Tian J, Tian F (2016) Identification and fine mapping of quantitative trait loci for the number of vascular bundle in maize stem. J Integr Plant Biol 58: 81–90 doi: 10.1111/jipb.12358

Abstract (Browse 997)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Vascular bundle is the plant transport system that links source and sink, and acts as an important factor for yield potential realization. We report a high-resolution QTL mapping for vascular bundle number in maize stem using a large maize-teosinte population, and show that vascular bundle number is dominated by a large number of small-effect QTLs.
Loss-of-function mutation of rice SLAC7 decreases chloroplast stability and induces a photoprotection mechanism in rice  
Author: Xiaolei Fan, Jiemin Wu, Taiyu Chen, Weiwei Tie, Hao Chen, Fei Zhou and Yongjun Lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2015 57(12): 1063每1077
Published Online: March 4, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12350
      
    
Plants absorb sunlight to power the photochemical reactions of photosynthesis, which can potentially damage the photosynthetic machinery. However, the mechanism that protects chloroplasts from the damage remains unclear. In this work, we demonstrated that rice (Oryza sativa L.) SLAC7 is a generally expressed membrane protein. Loss-of-function of SLAC7 caused continuous damage to the chloroplasts of mutant leaves under normal light conditions. Ion leakage indicators related to leaf damage such as H2O2 and abscisic acid levels were significantly higher in slac7-1 than in the wild type. Consistently, the photosynthesis efficiency and Fv/Fm ratio of slac7-1 were significantly decreased (similar to photoinhibition). In response to chloroplast damage, slac7-1 altered its leaf morphology (curled or fused leaf) by the synergy between plant hormones and transcriptional factors to decrease the absorption of light, suggesting that a photoprotection mechanism for chloroplast damage was activated in slac7-1. When grown in dark conditions, slac7-1 displayed a normal phenotype. SLAC7 under the control of the AtSLAC1 promoter could partially complement the phenotypes of Arabidopsis slac1 mutants, indicating a partial conservation of SLAC protein functions. These results suggest that SLAC7 is essential for maintaining the chloroplast stability in rice.

 

Fan X, Wu J, Chen T, Tie W, Chen H, Zhou F, Lin Y (2015) Loss-of-function mutation of rice SLAC7 decreases chloroplast stability and induces a photoprotection mechanism in rice. J Integr Plant Biol 57: 1063–1077 doi: 10.1111/jipb.12350

Abstract (Browse 1051)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
SLAC7 is a membrane protein which is essential for maintaining the anion balance in rice. Its loss-of-function caused a continuous decrease of chloroplast stability and photoinhibition phenotypes. The leaf morphology of the SLAC7 mutant was altered by the synergy between hormones and transcriptional factors due to decreased light absorption.
The connection of cytoskeletal network with plasma membrane and the cell wall  
Author: Zengyu Liu, Staffan Persson and Yi Zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2015 57(4): 330每340
Published Online: February 18, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12342
      
    

The cell wall provides external support of the plant cells, while the cytoskeletons including the microtubules and the actin filaments constitute an internal framework. The cytoskeletons contribute to the cell wall biosynthesis by spatially and temporarily regulating the transportation and deposition of cell wall components. This tight control is achieved by the dynamic behavior of the cytoskeletons, but also through the tethering of these structures to the plasma membrane. This tethering may also extend beyond the plasma membrane and impact on the cell wall, possibly in the form of a feedback loop. In this review, we discuss the linking components between the cytoskeletons and the plasma membrane, and/or the cell wall. We also discuss the prospective roles of these components in cell wall biosynthesis and modifications, and aim to provide a platform for further studies in this field.

 

Liu Z, Persson S, Zhang Y (2015) The connection of cytoskeletal network with plasma membrane and the cell wall. J Integr Plant Biol 57: 330–340 doi: 10.1111/jipb.12342

Abstract (Browse 730)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
In this review, we summarize the linking proteins involved in the association of the cytoskeletons and the plasma membrane, and/or the cell wall. The prospective roles of these proteins in cell wall biosynthesis and modifications are discussed, aiming to provide a platform for further studies in this field.
The alteration in the architecture of a T-DNA insertion rice mutant osmtd1 is caused by up-regulation of MicroRNA156f  
Author: Qing Liu, Gezhi Shen, Keqin Peng, Zhigang Huang, Jianhua Tong, Mohammed Humayun Kabir, Jianhui Wang, Jingzhe Zhang, Genji Qin and Langtao Xiao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2015 57(10): 819每829
Published Online: February 11, 2015
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12340
      
    

Plant architecture is an important factor for crop production. Some members of microRNA156 (miR156) and their target genes SQUAMOSA Promoter-Binding Protein-Like (SPL) were identified to play essential roles in the establishment of plant architecture. However, the roles and regulation of miR156 is not well understood yet. Here, we identified a T-DNA insertion mutant Osmtd1 (Oryza sativa multi-tillering and dwarf mutant). Osmtd1 produced more tillers and displayed short stature phenotype. We determined that the dramatic morphological changes were caused by a single T-DNA insertion in Osmtd1. Further analysis revealed that the T-DNA insertion was located in the gene Os08g34258 encoding a putative inhibitor I family protein. Os08g34258 was knocked out and OsmiR156f was significantly upregulated in Osmtd1. Overexpression of Os08g34258 in Osmtd1 complemented the defects of the mutant architecture, while overexpression of OsmiR156f in wild-type rice phenocopied Osmtd1. We showed that the expression of OsSPL3, OsSPL12, and OsSPL14 were significantly downregulated in Osmtd1 or OsmiR156f overexpressed lines, indicating that OsSPL3, OsSPL12, and OsSPL14 were possibly direct target genes of OsmiR156f. Our results suggested that OsmiR156f controlled plant architecture by mediating plant stature and tiller outgrowth and may be regulated by an unknown protease inhibitor I family protein.

 

Liu Q, Shen G, Peng K, Huang Z, Tong J, Kabir MH, Wang J, Zhang J, Qin G, Xiao L (2015) The alteration in the architecture of a T-DNA insertion rice mutant osmtd1 is caused by up-regulation of MicroRNA156f. J Integr Plant Biol 57: 819–829 doi: 10.1111/jipb.12340

Abstract (Browse 1097)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Plant architecture is a key factor affecting crop production. A rice T-DNA insertion mutant Osmtd1 displayed multi-tillering and dwarf phenotypes. Os08g34258 gene encoding an unknown protease inhibitor I family protein was knocked down whereas OsmiR156f was significantly up-regulated in Osmtd1 mutant. Our results suggested that OsMTD1 might regulate plant architecture by controlling OsmiR156f in rice.
Infection of Ustilaginoidea virens intercepts rice seed formation but activates grain-filling-related genes  
Author: Jing Fan, Xiao-Yi Guo, Liang Li, Fu Huang, Wen-Xian Sun, Yan Li, Yan-Yan Huang, Yong-Ju Xu, Jun Shi, Yang Lei1, Ai-Ping Zheng and Wen-Ming Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2015 57(6): 577每590
Published Online: October 16, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12299
      
    

Rice false smut has become an increasingly serious disease in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production worldwide. The typical feature of this disease is that the fungal pathogen Ustilaginoidea virens (Uv) specifically infects rice flower and forms false smut ball, the ustiloxin-containing ball-like fungal colony, of which the size is usually several times larger than that of a mature rice seed. However, the underlying mechanisms of Uv-rice interaction are poorly understood. Here, we applied time-course microscopic and transcriptional approaches to investigate rice responses to Uv infection. The results demonstrated that the flower-opening process and expression of associated transcription factors, including ARF6 and ARF8, were inhibited in Uv-infected spikelets. The ovaries in infected spikelets were interrupted in fertilization and thus were unable to set seeds. However, a number of grain-filling-related genes, including seed storage protein genes, starch anabolism genes and endosperm-specific transcription factors (RISBZ1 and RPBF), were highly transcribed as if the ovaries were fertilized. In addition, critical defense-related genes like NPR1 and PR1 were downregulated by Uv infection. Our data imply that Uv may hijack host nutrient reservoir by activation of the grain-filling network because of growth and formation of false smut balls.

 

Fan J, Guo XY, Li L, Huang F, Sun WX, Li Y, Huang YY, Xu YJ, Shi J, Lei Y, Zheng AP, Wang WM (2015) Infection of Ustilaginoidea virens intercepts rice seed formation but activates grain-filling-related genes. J Integr Plant Biol 57: 577–590. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12299

Abstract (Browse 1292)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Rice false smut disease is featured by conversion of a rice grain into a ball-shaped fungal mass through that the pathogen intercepts flower fertilization and seed setting. Transcriptome analysis reveals the activation of grain-filling network upon pathogen infection, implying that false smut pathogen hijacks host nutrient reservoir for its colonization.
Calcium contributes to photoprotection and repair of photosystem II in peanut leaves during heat and high irradiance  
Author: Sha Yang, Fang Wang, Feng Guo, Jing-Jing Meng, Xin-Guo Li and Shu-Bo Wan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2015 57(5): 486每495
Published Online: August 7, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12249
      
    

In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous calcium nitrate on photoinhibition and thylakoid protein level in peanut plants under heat (40 °C) and high irradiance (HI) (1,200 µmol/m2 per s) stress. Compared with control seedlings (cultivated in 0 mmol/L Ca(NO3)2 medium), the maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in Ca2+-treated plants showed a slight decrease after 5 h stress, accompanied by lower degree of PSII closure (1-qP), higher non-photochemical quenching, and lower level of membrane damage. Ca2+ inhibitors were used to analyze the varieties of antioxidant enzymes activity and PSII proteins. These results indicated that Ca2+ could protect the subunits of PSII reaction centers from photoinhibition by reducing the generation of reactive oxygen species. In the presence of both ethyleneglycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-tetraacetic acid and ascorbic acid (AsA), the net degradation of the damaged D1 protein was faster than that only treated with AsA. Our previous study showed that either the transcriptional or the translational level of calmodulin was obviously higher in Ca2+-treated plants. These results suggested that, under heat and HI stress, the Ca2+ signal transduction pathway can alleviate the photoinhibition through regulating the protein repair process besides an enhanced capacity for scavenging reactive oxygen species.

 

Yang S, Wang F, Guo F, Meng JJ, Li XG, Wan SB (2015) Calcium contributes to photoprotection and repair of photosystem II in peanut leaves during heat and high irradiance. J Integr Plant Biol 57: 486–495 doi: 10.1111/jipb.12249

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This work shows that exogenous Ca2+ could help to protect the peanut photosynthetic apparatus from severe photoinhibition under heat and HI stress by accelerating the repair of Photosystem II center proteins.
Cytokinin levels and signaling respond to wounding and the perception of herbivore elicitors in Nicotiana attenuata  
Author: Martin Schäfer, Ivan D. Meza-Canales, Aura Navarro-Quezada, Christoph Brütting, Radomira Vanková, Ian T. Baldwin and Stefan Meldau
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2015 57(2): 198每212
Published Online: June 13, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12227
      
    

Nearly half a century ago insect herbivores were found to induce the formation of green islands by manipulating cytokinin (CK) levels. However, the response of the CK pathway to attack by chewing insect herbivores remains unclear. Here, we characterize the CK pathway of Nicotiana attenuata (Torr. ex S. Wats.) and its response to wounding and perception of herbivore-associated molecular patterns (HAMPs). We identified 44 genes involved in CK biosynthesis, inactivation, degradation, and signaling. Leaf wounding rapidly induced transcriptional changes in multiple genes throughout the pathway, as well as in the levels of CKs, including isopentenyladenosine and cis-zeatin riboside; perception of HAMPs present in the oral secretions (OS) of the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta amplified these responses. The jasmonate pathway, which triggers many herbivore-induced processes, was not required for these HAMP-triggered changes, but rather suppressed the CK responses. Interestingly CK pathway changes were observed also in systemic leaves in response to wounding and OS application indicating a role of CKs in mediating long distance systemic processes in response to herbivory. Since wounding and grasshopper OS elicited similar accumulations of CKs in Arabidopsis thaliana L., we propose that CKs are integral components of wounding and HAMP-triggered responses in many plant species.

 

Schäfer M, Meza坼Canales ID, Navarro坼Quezada A, Brütting C, Vanková R, Baldwin IT, Meldau S (2015) Cytokinin levels and signaling respond to wounding and the perception of herbivore elicitors in Nicotiana attenuata. J Integr Plant Biol 57: 198–212. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12227

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Cytokinins, classical plant growth regulators, were found to be induced after herbivory in the wild tobacco. The response was wound-induced, but also dependent on elicitors which present in oral secretions of tobacco hornworm caterpillars. The changes were not dependent on, but modified by jasmonates. Similar responses were also observed in arabidopsis.
Molecular characterization and expression analysis of Triticum aestivum squamosa-promoter binding protein-box genes involved in ear development  
Author: Bin Zhang, Xia Liu, Guangyao Zhao, Xinguo Mao, Ang Li and Ruilian Jing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2014 56(6): 571每581
Published Online: January 6, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12153
      
    

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops in the world. Squamosa-promoter binding protein (SBP)-box genes play a critical role in regulating flower and fruit development. In this study, 10 novel SBP-box genes (TaSPL genes) were isolated from wheat ((Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Yanzhan 4110). Phylogenetic analysis classified the TaSPL genes into five groups (G1–G5). The motif combinations and expression patterns of the TaSPL genes varied among the five groups with each having own distinctive characteristics: TaSPL20/21 in G1 and TaSPL17 in G2 mainly expressed in the shoot apical meristem and the young ear, and their expression levels responded to development of the ear; TaSPL6/15 belonging to G3 were upregulated and TaSPL1/23 in G4 were downregulated during grain development; the gene in G5 (TaSPL3) expressed constitutively. Thus, the consistency of the phylogenetic analysis, motif compositions, and expression patterns of the TaSPL genes revealed specific gene structures and functions. On the other hand, the diverse gene structures and different expression patterns suggested that wheat SBP-box genes have a wide range of functions. The results also suggest a potential role for wheat SBP-box genes in ear development. This study provides a significant beginning of functional analysis of SBP-box genes in wheat.

 

Zhang B, Liu X, Zhao G, Mao X, Li A, Jing R (2014) Molecular characterization and expression analysis of Triticum aestivum squamosa坼promoter binding protein坼box genes involved in ear development. J Integr Plant Biol 56: 571–581. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12153

Abstract (Browse 1086)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Genomic regions underlying agronomic traits in linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) as revealed by association mapping  
Author: Braulio J. Soto-Cerda, Scott Duguid, Helen Booker, Gordon Rowland, Axel Diederichsen and Sylvie Cloutier
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2014 56(1): 75每87
Published Online: January 15, 2014
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12118
      
    

The extreme climate of the Canadian Prairies poses a major challenge to improve yield. Although it is possible to breed for yield per se, focusing on yield-related traits could be advantageous because of their simpler genetic architecture. The Canadian flax core collection of 390 accessions was genotyped with 464 simple sequence repeat markers, and phenotypic data for nine agronomic traits including yield, bolls per area, 1,000 seed weight, seeds per boll, start of flowering, end of flowering, plant height, plant branching, and lodging collected from up to eight environments was used for association mapping. Based on a mixed model (principal component analysis (PCA) + kinship matrix (K)), 12 significant marker-trait associations for six agronomic traits were identified. Most of the associations were stable across environments as revealed by multivariate analyses. Statistical simulation for five markers associated with 1000 seed weight indicated that the favorable alleles have additive effects. None of the modern cultivars carried the five favorable alleles and the maximum number of four observed in any accessions was mostly in breeding lines. Our results confirmed the complex genetic architecture of yield-related traits and the inherent difficulties associated with their identification while illustrating the potential for improvement through marker-assisted selection.

Soto坼Cerda BJ, Duguid S, Booker H, Rowland G, Diederichsen A, Cloutier S (2014) Genomic regions underlying agronomic traits in linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) as revealed by association mapping. J Integr Plant Biol 56: 75–87. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12118

Abstract (Browse 888)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       
Uniqueness of the Gossypium mustelinum Genome Revealed by GISH and 45S rDNA FISH  
Author: Qiong Wu, Fang Liu, Shaohui Li, Guoli Song, Chunying Wang, Xiangdi Zhang, Yuhong Wang, David Stelly and Kunbo Wang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 2013 55(7): 654-662
Published Online: July 18, 2013
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12084
      
    

Gossypium mustelinum ((AD)4) is one of five disomic species in Gossypium. Three 45S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci were detected in (AD)4 with 45S rDNA as probe, and three pairs of brighter signals were detected with genomic DNA (gDNA) of Gossypium D genome species as probes. The size and the location of these brighter signals were the same as those detected with 45S rDNA as probe, and were named GISH-NOR. One of them was super-major, which accounted for the fact that about one-half of its chromosome at metaphase was located at chromosome 3, and other two were minor and located at chromosomes 5 and 9, respectively. All GISH-NORs were located in A sub-genome chromosomes, separate from the other four allopolyploid cotton species. GISH-NOR were detected with D genome species as probe, but not A. The greatly abnormal sizes and sites of (AD)4 NORs or GISH-NORs indicate a possible mechanism for 45S rDNA diversification following (AD)4 speciation. Comparisons of GISH intensities and GISH-NOR production with gDNA probes between A and D genomes show that the better relationship of (AD)4 is with A genome. The shortest two chromosomes of A sub-genome of G. mustelinum were shorter than the longest chromosome of D sub-genome chromosomes. Therefore, the longest 13 chromosomes of tetraploid cotton being classified as A sub-genome, while the shorter 13 chromosomes being classified as D sub-genome in traditional cytogenetic and karyotype analyses may not be entirely correct.

Wu Q, Liu F, Li S, Song G, Wang C, Zhang X, Wang Y, Stelly D, Wang K (2013) Uniqueness of the Gossypium mustelinum genome revealed by GISH and 45S rDNA FISH. J. Integr. Plant Biol. 55(7), 654–662.

Abstract (Browse 1136)  |  References  |  Full Text HTML  |  Full Text PDF  |  Cited By       

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