Latest Accepted Articles

  Letters to the Editor
Efficient allelic replacement in rice by gene editing: a case study of the NRT1.1B gene
Author: Jingying Li, Xin Zhang, Yongwei Sun, Jiahui Zhang, Wenming Du, Xiuping Guo, Shaoya Li, Yunde Zhao, Lanqin Xia
Received: February 3, 2018         Accepted: March 20, 2018
Online Date: March 25, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12650

Precise replacement of an existing allele in commercial cultivars with an elite allele is a major goal in crop breeding. A single nucleotide polymorphism in NRT1.1B gene between japonica and indica rice is responsible for the improved nitrogen use efficiency in indica rice. Herein, we precisely replaced the japonica NRT1.1B allele with the indica allele in just one generation using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology. No additional selective pressure was needed to enrich the precise replacement events. This work demonstrates the feasibility of replacing any genes with elite alleles within one generation, greatly expanding our ability to improve agriculturally important traits.

Abstract (Browse 81)   |   Full Text
SDG721 and SDG705 are required for rice growth
Author: Pengfei Jiang, Shiliang Wang, Aziz Ul Ikram, Zuntao Xu, Haiyang Jiang, Beijiu Cheng and Yong Ding
Received: February 5, 2018         Accepted: February 22, 2018
Online Date: February 23, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12644

H3K4me3 plays important roles in development, transcription, and environmental responses. Here we report that SDG721 (SET-domain group protein 721) and SDG705 are involved in regulating rice development. SDG721 and SDG705 encode TRITHORAX-like proteins, which appear to modulate H3K4 methylation levels. Loss of SDG721 and SDG705 function resulted in GA-deficient phenotypes, including semi-dwarfism, reduced cell length, and reduced panicle branching. The transcripts levels and H3K4me3 levels of GA biosynthesis genes and GA signaling pathway genes were downregulated in the sdg721 sdg705 plants. Together, these results suggest that SDG721 and SDG705 regulate H3K4 methylation, which is crucial for plant development in rice.

Abstract (Browse 130)   |   Full Text
ANAPHASE PROMOTING COMPLEX/CYCLOSOME-mediated cyclin B1 degradation is critical for cell cycle synchronization in syncytial endosperms
Author: Lei Guo, Li Jiang, Xiu-Li Lu and Chun-Ming Liu
Received: December 17, 2017         Accepted: February 6, 2018
Online Date: February 9, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12641

Although it is known that in most angiosperms mitosis in early endosperm development is syncytial and synchronized, it is unclear how the synchronization is regulated. We showed previously that APC11, also named ZYG1, in Arabidopsis activates zygote division by interaction and degradation of cyclin B1. Here, we report that the mutation in APC11/ZGY1 led to unsynchronized mitosis and over-accumulation of cyclin B1-GUS in endosperms. Mutations in other two APC subunits showed similar defects. Transgenic expression of stable cyclin B1 in endosperms also caused unsynchronized mitosis. Further, down-regulation of APC11 generated multi-nucleate somatic cells with unsynchronized mitotic division. Together, our results suggest that APC/C-mediated cyclin B1 degradation is critical for cell cycle synchronization.

Abstract (Browse 148)   |   Full Text
  Special Issue: Cell Signaling
Phosphatidic acid (PA) plays key roles regulating plant development and stress responses
Author: Hong-Yan Yao and Hong-Wei Xue
Received: February 27, 2018         Accepted: April 11, 2018
Online Date: April 16, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12655

Phospholipids, including phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphoinositides, have emerged as an important class of cellular messenger molecules in various cellular and physiological processes, of which PA attracts much attentions of the researchers. In addition to its effect on stimulating the vesicle trafficking, many studies have demonstrated that PA plays a crucial role in various signaling pathways by binding target proteins and regulating their activity and subcellular localization. Here, we summarize the functional mechanisms and target proteins underlying PA©\mediated regulation of cellular signaling, development, hormonal responses, and stress responses in plants.

Abstract (Browse 1)   |   Full Text
ROS signaling and stomatal movement in plant responses to drought stress and pathogen attack
Author: Junsheng Qi, Chun-Peng Song, Baoshan Wang, Jianmin Zhou, Jaakko Kangasjärvi, Jian-Kang Zhu and Zhizhong Gong
Received: February 20, 2018         Accepted: April 8, 2018
Online Date: April 16, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12654

Stomata, the pores formed by a pair of guard cells, are the main gateways for water transpiration and photosynthetic CO2 exchange, as well as pathogen invasion in land plants. Guard cell movement is regulated by a combination of environmental factors including water status, light, CO2 levels and pathogen attack, as well as endogenous signals such as abscisic acid and apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under abiotic and biotic stress conditions, extracellular ROS are mainly produced by plasma membrane©\localized NADPH oxidases, whereas intracellular ROS are produced in multiple organelles. These ROS form a sophisticated cellular signaling network, with the accumulation of apoplastic ROS an early hallmark of stomatal movement. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the ROS signaling network, primarily during drought stress and pathogen attack. We summarize the roles of apoplastic ROS in regulating stomatal movement, ABA and CO2 signaling, and immunity responses. Finally, we discuss ROS accumulation and communication between organelles and cells. This information provides a conceptual framework for understanding how ROS signaling is integrated with various signaling pathways during plant responses to abiotic and biotic stress stimuli.

Abstract (Browse 2)   |   Full Text
Plant genetics enters the nano age?
Author: Dirk Joldersma and Zhongchi Liu
Received: February 17, 2018         Accepted: February 23, 2018
Online Date: February 27, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12646

Plant transformation has for many years relied on agrobacterium infection or biolistic particle delivery. However, these two methods are limited to model plant systems or a small number of crop species. This commentary highlights recent development in the nanoparticle-mediated transformation that has the potential to revolutionize how plants are transformed.

Abstract (Browse 84)   |   Full Text
  Metabolism and Biochemistry
KNAT7 positively regulates xylan biosynthesis by directly activating IRX9 expression in Arabidopsis
Author: Jun-Bo He, Xian-Hai Zhao, Ping-Zhou Du, Wei Zeng, Cherie T Beahan, Yu-Qi Wang, Hui-Ling Li, Antony Bacic and Ai-Min Wu
Received: October 29, 2017         Accepted: January 28, 2018
Online Date: February 2, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12638

Xylan is the major plant hemicellulosic polysaccharide in the secondary cell wall. The transcription factor KNOTTED-LIKE HOMEOBOX OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA 7 (KNAT7) regulates secondary cell wall biosynthesis, but its exact role in regulating xylan biosynthesis remains unclear. Using transactivation analyses, we demonstrate that KNAT7 activates the promoters of the xylan biosynthetic genes, IRREGULAR XYLEM 9 (IRX9), IRX10, IRREGULAR XYLEM 14-LIKE (IRX14L), and FRAGILE FIBER 8 (FRA8). The knat7 T-DNA insertion mutants have thinner vessel element walls and xylary fibers, and thicker interfascicular fiber walls in inflorescence stems, relative to wild-type (WT). KNAT7 overexpression plants exhibited opposite effects. Glycosyl linkage and sugar composition analyses revealed lower xylan levels in knat7 inflorescence stems, relative to WT; a finding supported by labeling of inflorescence walls with xylan-specific antibodies. The knat7 loss-of-function mutants had lower transcript levels of the xylan biosynthetic genes IRX9, IRX10, and FRA8, whereas KNAT7 overexpression plants had higher mRNA levels for IRX9, IRX10, IRX14L, and FRA8. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that KNAT7 binds to the IRX9 promoter. These results support the hypothesis that KNAT7 positively regulates xylan biosynthesis.

Abstract (Browse 104)   |   Full Text
  Molecular Physiology
Two soybean bHLH factors regulate response to iron deficiency
Author: Lin Li, Wenwen Gao, Qi Peng, Bin Zhou, Qihui Kong, Yinghui Ying, Huixia Shou
Received: December 5, 2017         Accepted: March 21, 2018
Online Date: March 25, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12651

Iron is an indispensable micronutrient for plant growth and development. Limited bioavailability of Fe in the soil leads to iron deficiency chlorosis in plants and yield loss. In this study, two soybean basic helix©\loop©\helix transcription factors, GmbHLH57 and GmbHLH300, were identified in response to Fe©\deficiency. Both transcription factors are expressed in roots and nodules, and are induced by Fe deficiency; these patterns were confirmed in transgenic hairy roots expressing constructs of the endogenous promoters fused to a GUS reporter gene. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation, yeast two©\hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation (co©\IP) assays indicted a physical interaction between GmbHLH57 and GmbHLH300. Studies on transgenic soybeans overexpressing GmbHLH57 and GmbHLH300 revealed that overexpression of each transcription factor, alone, result in a change of the responses to Fe deficiency, whereas overexpression of both transcription factors up©\regulated the downstream Fe uptake genes and increased the Fe content in these transgenic plants. Compared to wild type, these double overexpression transgenic plants were more tolerant to Fe deficiency. Taken together, our findings establish that GmbHLH57 and GmbHLH300 are important transcription factors involved in Fe homeostasis in soybean.

Abstract (Browse 6)   |   Full Text
The Arabidopsis catalase triple mutant reveals important roles of catalases and peroxisome derived signaling in plant development
Author: Tong Su, Pingping Wang, Huijuan Li, Yiwu Zhao, Yao Lu, Peng Dai, Tianqi Ren, Xiaofeng Wang, Xuezhi Li, Qun Shao, Dazhong Zhao, Yanxiu Zhao and Changle Ma
Received: February 10, 2018         Accepted: March 19, 2018
Online Date: March 25, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12649

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is generated in many metabolic processes. As a signaling molecule, H2O2 plays important roles in plant growth and development, as well as environmental stress response. In Arabidopsis, there are three catalase genes, CAT1, CAT2, and CAT3. The encoded catalases are predominately peroxisomal proteins and are critical for scavenging H2O2. Since CAT1 and CAT3 are linked on chromosome 1, it has been almost impossible to generate cat1/3 and cat1/2/3 mutants by traditional genetic tools. In this study, we constructed cat1/3 double mutants and cat1/2/3 triple mutants by CRISPR/Cas9 to investigate the role of catalases. The cat1/2/3 triple mutants displayed severe redox disturbance and growth defects under physiological conditions compared with wild©\type and the cat2/3 double mutants. Transcriptome analysis showed a more profound transcriptional response in the cat1/2/3 triple mutants compared to the cat2/3mutants. These differentially expressed genes are involved in plant growth regulation as well as abiotic and biotic stress responses. In addition, expression of OXI1(OXIDATIVE SIGNAL INDUCIBLE 1) and several MAPK cascade genes were changed dramatically in the catalase triple mutant, suggesting that H2O2 produced in peroxisomes could serve as a peroxisomal retrograde signal.

Abstract (Browse 39)   |   Full Text
Phot2-regulated relocation of NPH3 mediates phototropic response to high-intensity blue light in Arabidopsis thaliana
Author: Xiang Zhao, Qing-ping Zhao, Chun-ye Xu, Jin Wang, Jin-dong Zhu, Bao-shuan Shang and Xiao Zhang
Received: December 5, 2017         Accepted: January 31, 2018
Online Date: February 2, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12639

Two redundant blue-light receptors known as phototropins (phot1 and phot2) influence a variety of physiological responses, including phototropism, chloroplast positioning, and stomatal opening in Arabidopsis thaliana. Whereas phot1 functions in both low- and high-intensity blue light (HBL), phot2 functions primarily in HBL. Here, we aimed to elucidate phot2-specific functions by screening for HBL-insensitive mutants among mutagenized Arabidopsis phot1 mutants. One of the resulting phot2 signaling associated(p2sa) double mutants, phot1 p2sa2, exhibited phototropic defects that could be restored by constitutively expressing NON-PHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL 3 (NPH3), indicating that P2SA2 was allelic to NPH3. We found that NPH3-GFP signal mainly localized to and clustered on the plasma membrane in darkness. This NPH3 clustering on the plasma membrane was not affected by mutations in genes encoding proteins that interact with NPH3, including PHOT1, PHOT2 and ROOT PHOTOTROPISM 2 (RPT2). However, the HBL irradiation-mediated release of NPH3 proteins into the cytoplasm was inhibited in phot1mutants and enhanced in phot2 and rpt2 mutants. Furthermore, HBL-induced hypocotyl phototropism was enhanced in phot1 mutants and inhibited in the phot2 and rpt2-2 mutants. Our findings indicate that phot1 regulates the dissociation of NPH3 from membranes, whereas phot2 mediates the stabilization and relocation of NPH3 to the plasma membrane to acclimate to HBL.



Abstract (Browse 149)   |   Full Text
  Review Articles
Auxin polar transport flanking incipient primordium initiates leaf adaxial¨Cabaxial polarity patterning  
Author: Jiaqiang Dong and Hai Huang
Received: January 24, 2018         Accepted: February 5, 2018
Online Date: February 6, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12640

The leaves of higher plants are polar along their adaxial-abaxial axis, and the development of the adaxial domain (upper side) and the abaxial domain (lower side) makes the leaf a highly efficient photosynthetic organ. It has been proposed that a hypothetical signal transported from the shoot apical meristem (SAM) to the incipient leaf primordium, or conversely, the plant hormone auxin transported from the leaf primordium to the SAM, initiates leaf adaxial–abaxial patterning. This hypothetical signal has been referred to as the Sussex signal, because the research of Ian Sussex published in 1951 was the first to imply its existence. Recent results, however, have shown that auxin polar transport flanking the incipient leaf primordium, but not the Sussex signal, is the key to initiate leaf polarity. Here, we review the new findings and integrate them with other recently published results in the field of leaf development, mainly focusing on the early steps of leaf polarity establishment.

Abstract (Browse 110)   |   Full Text
  Functional Omics and Systems Biology
Transcriptional and temporal response of Populus stems to gravi-stimulation
Author: Matthew Zinkgraf, Suzanne Gerttula, Shutang Zhao, Vladimir Filkov and AndrewLi Groover
Received: January 26, 2018         Accepted: February 24, 2018
Online Date: February 26, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12645

Plants modify development in response to external stimuli, to produce new growth that is appropriate for environmental conditions. For example, gravi-stimulation of leaning branches in angiosperm trees results in modifications of wood development, to produce tension wood that pulls leaning stems upright. Here, we use gravi-stimulation and tension wood response to dissect the temporal changes in gene expression underlying wood formation in Populus stems. Using time-series analysis of 7 time points over a 14-day experiment, we identified 8919 genes that were differentially expressed between tension wood (upper) and opposite wood (lower) sides of leaning stems. Clustering of differentially expressed genes showed four major transcriptional responses, including gene clusters whose transcript levels were associated with two types of tissue-specific impulse responses that peaked at about 24 – 48 hours, and gene clusters with sustained changes in transcript levels that persisted until the end of the 14-day experiment. Functional enrichment analysis of those clusters suggests they reflect temporal changes in pathways associated with hormone regulation, protein localization, cell wall biosynthesis and epigenetic processes. Time-series analysis of gene expression is an underutilized approach for dissecting complex developmental responses in plants, and can reveal gene clusters and mechanisms influencing development.

Abstract (Browse 66)   |   Full Text
  Plant Reproduction Biology
Arabidopsis thaliana NOP10 is required for gametophyte formation
Author: Lin-Xiao Li, Hong-Ze Liao, Li-Xi Jiang, Qing Tan, De Ye and Xue-Qin Zhang
Received: November 28, 2017         Accepted: March 22, 2018
Online Date: March 26, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12652

The female gametophyte is crucial for sexual reproduction of higher plants, yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying its development. Here, we report that Arabidopsis thaliana NOP10 (AtNOP10) is required for female gametophyte formation. AtNOP10 was expressed predominantly in the seedling and reproductive tissues, including anthers, pollen grains, and ovules. Mutations in AtNOP10 interrupted mitosis of the functional megaspore during early development and prevented polar nuclear fusion in the embryo sacs. AtNOP10 shares a high level of amino acid sequence similarity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) NOP10 (ScNOP10), an important component of the H/ACA small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particles (H/ACA snoRNPs) implicated in 18S rRNA synthesis and rRNA pseudouridylation. Heterologous expression of ScNOP10 complemented the mutant phenotype of Atnop10. Thus, AtNOP10 influences functional megaspore mitosis and polar nuclear fusion during gametophyte formation in Arabidopsis.

Abstract (Browse 27)   |   Full Text
  Plant-abiotic Interactions
Hormone modulation of legume©\rhizobial symbiosis
Author: Huan Liu, Chi Zhang, Jun Yang, Nan Yu and Ertao Wang
Received: February 5, 2018         Accepted: March 23, 2018
Online Date: March 26, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12653

Leguminous plants can establish symbiotic associations with diazotropic rhizobia to form nitrogen©\fixating nodules, which are classified as determinate or indeterminate based on the persistence of nodule meristem. The formation of nitrogen©\fixing nodules requires coordinating rhizobial infection and root nodule organogenesis. The formation of infection thread and the extent of nodule formation are largely under plant control but vary with environmental conditions and the physiological state of the host plants. Many achievements in these two areas have progressed in recent decades. Phytohormone signaling pathways have gradually emerged as important regulators of root nodule symbiosis. Cytokinin, strigolactones (SLs) and local accumulation of auxin can promote nodule development. Ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) all negatively regulate infection thread formation and nodule development. However, salicylic acid (SA) and brassinosteroids (BRs) have different effects on the formation of these two nodule types. Some peptide hormones are also involved in nodulation. This review summarizes recent findings on the roles of these plant hormones in legume©\rhizobial symbiosis and proposes that DELLA proteins may function as a node to integrate plant hormones to regulate nodulation.

Abstract (Browse 26)   |   Full Text
  Cell and Developmental Biology
Plant G proteins interact with ER luminal protein receptors to regulate ER retrieval
Author: Shanshan Wang, Ke Xie, Guoyong Xu, Huarui Zhou, Qiang Guo, Jingyi Wu, Zengwei Liao, Na Liu, Yan Wang and Yule Liu
Received: March 10, 2018         Accepted: March 12, 2018
Online Date: March 23, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12648

Maintaining endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis is essential for the production of biomolecules. ER retrieval, i.e., the retrograde transport of compounds from the Golgi to the ER, is one of the pathways that ensures ER homeostasis. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of ER retrieval in plants remain largely unknown. Plant ERD2©\like proteins (ERD2s) were recently suggested to function as ER luminal protein receptors that mediate ER retrieval. Here, we demonstrate that heterotrimeric G protein signaling is involved in ERD2©\mediated ER retrieval. We show that ERD2s interact with the heterotrimeric G protein Gα and Gγ subunits at the Golgi. Silencing of , , or increased the retention of ER luminal proteins. Furthermore, overexpression of Gα, Gβ, or Gγ caused ER luminal proteins to escape from the ER, as did the co©\silencing of ERD2a and ERD2b. These results suggest that G proteins interact with ER luminal protein receptors to regulate ER retrieval.

Abstract (Browse 14)   |   Full Text

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