Latest Accepted Articles

Genomics-assisted germplasm improvement
Author: Qian Qian
Online Date: January 4, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12629

Rice is one of the most important staple cereals, feeds over 60% of China's population and contributes nearly 40% of the nation's total calorie intake (Chen et al. 2007). A continuous increase in rice production is required to meet the demands of increasing population and food consumption (Tilman et al. 2011).


Abstract (Browse 15)   |   Full Text
  Special Issue: Genomics-assisted Germplasm Improvement in Rice
FRUCTOKINASE-LIKE PROTEIN 1 interacts with TRXz to regulate chloroplast development in rice
Author: Lei He, Sen Zhang, Zhennan Qiu, Juan Zhao, Wendan Nie, Haiyan Lin, Zhengge Zhu, Dali Zeng, Qian Qian and Li Zhu
Received: December 18, 2017         Accepted: January 5, 2018
Online Date: January 10, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12631

Chloroplast genes are transcribed by the PEP or NEP. FRUCTOKINASE-LIKE PROTEINS (FLNs) are phosphofructokinase-B (PfkB)-type carbohydrate kinases that act as part of the PEP complex; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying FLNs activity in rice remain elusive. Previously, we identified and characterized a heat-stress sensitive albino (hsa1) mutant in rice. Map-based cloning revealed that HSA1 encodes a putative OsFLN2. Here, we further demonstrated that knockdown or knockout of the OsFLN1, a close homolog of HSA1/OsFLN2, considerably inhibits chloroplast biogenesis and the fln1 knockout mutants created by CRISPR/Cas9 exhibit severe albino phenotype and seedling lethality. Moreover, OsFLN1 localizes to the chloroplast. Yeast two-hybrid, pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments revealed that OsFLN1 and HSA1/OsFLN2 interact with THIOREDOXINZ (OsTRXz) to regulate chloroplast development. In agreement with this, knockout of OsTRXz resulted in a similar albino and seedling lethality phenotype to that of the fln1 mutants. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis revealed that the transcription and translation of PEP-dependent genes were strongly inhibited in fln1 and trxz mutants, indicating that loss of OsFLN1, HSA1/OsFLN2, or OsTRXz function perturbs the stability of the transcriptionally active chromosome complex and PEP activity. These results show that OsFLN1 and HSA1/OsFLN2 contribute to chloroplast biogenesis and plant growth.

Abstract (Browse 6)   |   Full Text
TSC1 enables plastid development under dark conditions, contributing to rice adaptation to transplantation shock
Author: Xiaoliang Shi, Sunlu Chen, Yu Peng, Yufeng Wang, Jiugeng Chen, Zhanghua Hu, Baohe Wang, Aihong Li, Daiyin Chao, Yuhong Li and Sheng Teng
Received: November 6, 2017         Accepted: December 4, 2017
Online Date: December 6, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12621

Since its domestication from wild rice thousands of years ago, rice has been cultivated largely through transplantation. During transplantation from the nursery to the paddy field, rice seedlings experience transplantation shock which affects their physiology and production. However, the mechanisms underlying transplantation shock and rice adaptation to this shock are largely unknown. Here, we isolated a transplant-sensitive chloroplast-deficient (tsc1) rice mutant that produces albino leaves after transplantation. Blocking light from reaching the juvenile leaves and leaf primordia caused chloroplast deficiencies in transplanted tsc1 seedlings. TSC1 encodes a noncanonical ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter homologous to AtNAP14 and of cyanobacterial origin. We found that TSC1 controls plastid development in rice under dark conditions, and functions independently of light signaling. However, light rescued the tsc1 mutant phenotype in a spectrum-independent manner. TSC1 was upregulated following transplantation, and modulated the iron and copper levels, thereby regulating prolamellar body formation during the early P4 stage of leaf development. Therefore, TSC1 is indispensable for plastid development in the absence of light, and contributes to adaptation to transplantation shock. Our study provides insight into the regulation of plastid development and establishes a framework for improving recovery from transplantation shock in rice.

Abstract (Browse 46)   |   Full Text
  Letters to the Editor
Arabidopsis PWWP domain proteins mediate H3K27 trimethylation on FLC and regulate flowering time
Author: Jin-Xing Zhou, Zhang-Wei Liu, Yong-Qiang Li, Lin Li, Bangjun Wang, She Chen and Xin-Jian He
Received: September 30, 2017         Accepted: January 2, 2018
Online Date: January 4, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12630

LHP1 mediates recruitment of the PRC2 histone methyltransferase complex to chromatin and thereby facilitates maintenance of H3K27me3 on FLC, a key flowering repressor gene. Here, we found that the PWWP domain proteins (PDPs) interact with FVE and MSI5 to suppress FLC expression and thereby promote flowering. We demonstrated that FVE, MSI5, and PDP3 were co-purified with LHP1. The H3K27me3 level on FLC was decreased in the pdp mutants as well as in the fve/msi5 double mutant. This study suggests that PDPs function together with FVE and MSI5 to regulate the function of the PRC2 complex on FLC.

Abstract (Browse 20)   |   Full Text
Differential requirement of BAK1 C-terminal tail in development and immunity
Author: Di Wu, Yanan Liu, Fan Xu and Yuelin Zhang
Received: November 19, 2017         Accepted: December 6, 2017
Online Date: December 11, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12623

BRI1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (BAK1) plays critical roles in plant developmental and immune signaling pathways. BAK1 and a large number of LRR-RLKs harbor a mysterious carboxyl terminal tail (CT) beyond their kinase domain. In this study we analyzed the biological significance of this CT region using a unique bak1 mutant allele which causes deletion of the CT region. We showed that BAK1 CT promotes its kinase activity and is required for PAMP-triggered immunity, but it is dispensable for brassinosteroid responses and BAK1/BKK1-inhibited cell death signaling. Therefore the BAK1 C-terminal tail is differentially required for its functions in development and immunity.

Abstract (Browse 40)   |   Full Text
Multigene editing via CRISPR/Cas9 guided by a single-sgRNA seed in Arabidopsis  
Author: Zhiming Yu, Qiyuan Chen, Weiwei Chen, Xian Zhang, Fengling Mei, Pengcheng Zhang, Mei Zhao, Xiaohong Wang, Nongnong Shi, Stephen Jackson and Yiguo Hong
Received: November 4, 2017         Accepted: December 7, 2017
Online Date: December 11, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12622

We report that a single-sgRNA seed is capable of guiding CRISPR/Cas9 to simultaneously edit multiple genes AtRPL10A, AtRPL10B and AtRPL10C in Arabidopsis. Our results also demonstrate that it is possible to use CRISPR/Cas9 technology to create AtRPL10 triple mutants which otherwise cannot be generated by conventional genetic crossing. Compared to other conventional multiplex CRISPR/Cas systems, a single sgRNA seed has the advantage of reducing off-target gene-editing. Such a single sgRNA seed-induced gene editing system might be also applicable to modify other homologous genes or even less-homologous sequences for multiple gene-editing in plants and other organisms.

Abstract (Browse 39)   |   Full Text
Generation of new glutinous rice by CRISPR/Cas9-targeted mutagenesis of the Waxy gene in elite rice varieties
Author: Jinshan Zhang, Hui Zhang, Jos¨¦ Ram¨®n Botella and Jian-Kang Zhu
Received: November 23, 2017         Accepted: December 1, 2017
Online Date: December 6, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12620

In rice, amylose content (AC) is controlled by a single dominant Waxy gene. We used CRISPR/Cas9 to introduce a loss-of-function mutation into the Waxy gene in two widely-cultivated elite japonica varieties. Our results show that mutations in the Waxy gene reduce AC and convert the rice into glutinous ones without affecting other desirable agronomic traits, offering an effective and easy strategy to improve glutinosity in elite varieties. Importantly, we successfully removed the transgenes from the progeny. Our study provides an example of generating improved crops with potential for commercialization, by editing a gene of interest directly in elite crop varieties.

Abstract (Browse 47)   |   Full Text
RPL18aB helps maintain suspensor identity during early embryogenesis
Author: Fei Xie, Hailong Yan, Yang Sun, Yameng Wang, Hong Chen, Wanying Mao, Liyao Zhang, Mengxiang Sun and Xiongbo Peng
Received: September 19, 2017         Accepted: November 28, 2017
Online Date: November 29, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12616

During embryogenesis, plants are thought to utilize a mechanism that allows the suspensor to maintain its identity. Here, we reported that RPL18aB was involved in this mechanism in Arabidopsis thaliana. The suspensor cells proliferated in rpl18aB and formed a multicellular structure rather than underwent programmed cell death as in wild type. Suspensors of rpl18aB expressed the embryo proper marker DRN::GFP but not the suspensor marker WOX8::GFP. In addition, auxin accumulated throughout the suspensors of rpl18aB proembryos. Suspensor-specific expression of RPL18aB could rescue the cell proliferation defects in rpl18aB suspensors. These findings supported a role of RPL18aB in maintaining suspensor identity.

Abstract (Browse 58)   |   Full Text
  Cell and Developmental Biology
The dioxygenase GIM2 functions in seed germination by altering gibberellin production in Arabidopsis
Author: Wei Xiong, Tiantian Ye, Xuan Yao, Xiong Liu, Sheng Ma, Xi Chen, Ming-Luan Chen, Yu-Qi Feng and Yan Wu
Received: October 19, 2017         Accepted: November 30, 2017
Online Date: December 4, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12619

The phytohormones gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) antagonistically control seed germination. High levels of GA favor seed germination, whereas high levels of ABA hinder this process. The direct relationship between GA biosynthesis and seed germination ability need further investigation. Here, we identified the ABA-insensitive gain-of-function mutant germination insensitive to ABA mutant 2 (gim2) by screening a population of XVE T-DNA-tagged mutant lines. Based on two loss-of-function gim2-ko mutant lines, the disruption of GIM2 function caused a delay in seed germination. By contrast, upregulation of GIM2 accelerated seed germination, as observed in transgenic lines overexpressing GIM2 (OE). We detected a reduction in endogenous bioactive GA levels and an increase in endogenous ABA levels in the gim2-ko mutants compared to wild type. Conversely, the OE lines had increased endogenous bioactive GA levels and decreased endogenous ABA levels. The expression levels of a set of GA- and/or ABA-related genes were altered in both the gim2-ko mutants and the OE lines. We confirmed that GIM2 has dioxygenase activity using an in vitro enzyme assay, finding that GIM2 can oxidize GA12. Hence, our characterization of GIM2 demonstrates that it plays a role in seed germination by affecting the GA metabolic pathway in Arabidopsis.

Abstract (Browse 43)   |   Full Text
Natural variation of hormone levels in Arabidopsis roots and correlations with complex root architecture
Author: Sangseok Lee, Lidiya I. Sergeeva and Dick Vreugdenhil
Received: July 26, 2017         Accepted: December 1, 2017
Online Date: December 2, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12617

Studies on natural variation are an important tool to unravel the genetic basis of quantitative traits in plants. Despite the significant roles of phytohormones in plant development, including root architecture, hardly any studies were done to investigate natural variation in endogenous hormone levels in plants. Therefore, in the present study a range of hormones were quantified in root extracts of thirteen Arabidopsis thaliana accessions using a UPLC triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Root system architecture (RSA) of the set of accessions was quantified, using a new parameter (mature root unit) for complex root systems, and correlated with the phytohormone data. Significant variations in phytohormone levels among the accessions were detected, but were remarkably small, viz., less than three-fold difference between extremes. For cytokinins, relatively larger variations were found for ribosides and glucosides, as compared to the free bases. For root phenotyping, length-related traits—lateral root length and total root length—showed larger variations than lateral root number-related ones. For root architecture, antagonistic interactions between hormones, for example, IAA to trans-zeatin were detected in correlation analysis. These findings provide conclusive evidence for the presence of natural variation in phytohormone levels in Arabidopsis roots, suggesting that quantitative genetic analyses are feasible.

Abstract (Browse 39)   |   Full Text
  Functional Omics and Systems Biology
Metabolic responses of Eucalyptus species to different temperature regimes
Author: Joao Benhur Mokochinski, Paulo Mazzafera, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya, Roland Mumm, Ric Cornelis Hendricus de Vos and Robert David Hall
Received: August 29, 2017         Accepted: December 14, 2017
Online Date: December 16, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12626

Species and hybrids of Eucalyptus are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. They are cultivated across a wide range of latitudes and therefore environmental conditions. In this context, comprehensive metabolomics approaches have been used to assess how different temperature regimes may affect the metabolism of three species of Eucalyptus, E. dunnii, E. grandis and E. pellita. Young plants were grown for 53 days in the greenhouse and then transferred to growth chambers at 10, 20 or 30°C for another 7 days. In all three species the leaf chlorophyll content was positively correlated to temperature, and in E. pellita the highest temperature also resulted in a significant increase in stem biomass. Comprehensive metabolomics was performed using untargeted GC-MS and LC-MS. This approach enabled the comparison of the relative abundance of 88 polar primary metabolites from GC-MS and 625 semi-polar secondary metabolites from LC-MS. Using PCA, a major effect of temperature was observed in each species which was larger than that resulting from the genetic background. Compounds mostly affected by temperature treatment were subsequently selected using PLS-DA and further identified. These putative annotations indicated that soluble sugars and several polyphenols, including tannins, triterpenes and alkaloids were mostly influenced.

Abstract (Browse 31)   |   Full Text
  Plant-abiotic Interactions
OTS1-dependent DeSUMOylation Increases Tolerance to High Copper Levels in Arabidopsis
Author: Erbao Zhan, Huapeng Zhou, Sha Li, Lei Liu, Tinghong Tan and Honghui Lin
Received: October 31, 2017         Accepted: November 30, 2017
Online Date: December 4, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12618

The conjugation of SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) to protein substrates is a reversible process (SUMOylation/deSUMOylation) that regulates plant development and stress responses. The essential metal copper (Cu) is required for normal plant growth, but excess amounts are toxic. The SUMO E3 ligase SIZ1 and SIZ1-mediated SUMOylation function in plant tolerance to excess Cu. It is unknown whether deSUMOylation also contributes to Cu tolerance in plants. Here we report that OTS1, a protease that cleaves SUMO from its substrate proteins, participates in Cu tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). OTS1 loss-of-function mutants (ots1-2 and ots1-3) displayed increased sensitivity to excess Cu. Redox homeostasis and the balance between SUMOylation and deSUMOylation were disrupted in the ots1-3 mutant under excess Cu conditions. The ots1-3 mutant accumulated higher levels of Cu in both shoots and roots compared to wild type. Specific Cu-related metal transporter genes were upregulated due to the loss-of-function of OTS1, which might explain the high Cu levels in ots1-3. These results suggest that the SUMOylation/deSUMOylation machinery is activated in response to excess Cu, and modulates Cu homeostasis and tolerance by regulating both Cu uptake and detoxification. Together, our findings provide insight into the biological function and regulatory role of SUMOylation/deSUMOylation in plant tolerance to Cu.

Abstract (Browse 30)   |   Full Text
  Plant-pathogen Interactions
A novel wheat NAC transcription factor, TaNAC30, negatively regulates resistance of wheat to stripe rust
Author: Bing Wang, Jinping Wei, Na Song, Ning Wang and Zhensheng Kang
Received: November 21, 2017         Accepted: December 18, 2017
Online Date: December 18, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12627

NAC transcription factors are widespread in the plant kingdom and play essential roles in the transcriptional regulation of defense responses. In this study, we isolated a novel NAC transcription factor gene, TaNAC30, from a cDNA library constructed from wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants inoculated with the stripe rust pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). TaNAC30 contains a typical NAM domain and localizes to the nucleus. Yeast one-hybrid assays revealed that TaNAC30 exhibits transcriptional activity and that its C-terminus is necessary for the activation of transcription. The expression of TaNAC30 increased when host plants were infected with a virulent race (CYR31) of the rust fungus Pst. Silencing of TaNAC30 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) inhibited colonization of the virulent Pst isolate CYR31. Moreover, detailed histological analyses showed that silencing of TaNAC30 enhanced resistance to Pst by inducing a significant increase in the accumulation of H2O2. Finally, we overexpressed TaNAC30 in fission yeast and found that cell viability was severely reduced in TaNAC30-transformed cells grown on medium containing H2O2. These results suggest that TaNAC30 negatively regulates plant resistance in a compatible wheat-Pst interaction.

Abstract (Browse 33)   |   Full Text
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae employs XopLeffector to suppresspomegranate immunity
Author: Madhvi Soni and Kalyan K. Mondal
Received: October 30, 2017         Accepted: November 27, 2017
Online Date: November 29, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12615

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae (Xap) causing bacterial blight is an important pathogen that incurs significant losses to the exportability of pomegranate. Xap employs Xop TTSS-effector via type three secretion system to suppress pomegranate immunity. Here, we investigate the role of XopL during blight pathogenesis. We found that XopL is essential for its in planta growth and full virulence. Leaves inoculated with Xap ΔxopL produced restricted water-soaked lesions compared to that inoculated with Xap wild. XopL supports Xap for its sustained multiplication in pomegranate by suppressing plant cell death (PCD) event. We further demonstrated that XopL suppresses immune responses like callose deposition and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). RT-qPCR analysis revealed that immune responsive genes were upregulated when challenged with Xap ΔxopL, while up-regulation of such genes was compromised in the complemented strain containing xopL gene. The transiently expressed XopL::EYFP fusion protein was localized to the plasma membrane, indicating the possible site of its action. Altogether, this study unfolds that XopL is an important TTSS-effector of Xap that suppresses plant immune responses including PCD, presumably to support the multiplication of Xap for a sufficient time period during blight disease development.

Abstract (Browse 34)   |   Full Text
  Molecular Ecology and Evolution
Elevated CO2 differentially affects tobacco and rice defense against lepidopteran larvae via the jasmonic acid signaling pathway
Author: Chengkai Lu, Jinfeng Qi, Christian Hettenhausen, Yunting Lei, Jingxiong Zhang, Mou Zhang, Cuiping Zhang, Juan Song, Jing Li, Guoyan Cao, Saif ul Malook and Jianqiang Wu
Received: October 9, 2017         Accepted: January 5, 2018
Online Date: January 10, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12633

Atmospheric CO2 levels are rapidly increasing due to human activities. However, the effects of elevated CO2 (ECO2) on plant defense against insects and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that ECO2 increased the photosynthetic rates and the biomass of tobacco and rice plants, and the chewing lepidopteran insects Spodoptera litura and Mythimna separata gained less and more mass on tobacco and rice plants, respectively. Consistently, under ECO2, the levels of jasmonic acid (JA), the main phytohormone controlling plant defense against these lepidopteran insects, as well as the main defense-related metabolites, were increased and decreased in insect-damaged tobacco and rice plants. Importantly, bioassays and quantification of defense-related metabolites in tobacco and rice silenced in JA biosynthesis and perception indicate that ECO2 changes plant resistance mainly by affecting the JA pathway. We further demonstrate that the defensive metabolites, but not total N or protein, are the main factors contributing to the altered defense levels under ECO2. This study illustrates that ECO2 changes the interplay between plants and insects, and we propose that crops should be studied for their resistance to the major pests under ECO2 to predict the impact of ECO2 on future agroecosystems.

Abstract (Browse 8)   |   Full Text
Method for hull-less barley transformation and manipulation of grain mixed-linkage beta-glucan
Author: Wai Li Lim, Helen M Collins, Rohan R Singh, Natalie AJ Kibble, Kuok Yap, Jillian Taylor, Geoffrey B Fincher and Rachel A Burton
Received: November 15, 2017         Accepted: December 13, 2017
Online Date: December 16, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12625

Hull-less barley is increasingly offering scope for breeding grains with improved characteristics for human nutrition; however recalcitrance of hull-less cultivars to transformation has limited use of these varieties. To overcome this, we have sought to develop an effective transformation system for hull-less barley using the cultivar Torrens. Torrens yielded a transformation efficiency of 1.8%, using a modified Agrobacterium transformation method. This method was used to over-express genes encoding synthases for the important dietary fibre component, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan (mixed-linkage glucan), primarily found in starchy endosperm cell walls. Over-expression of the HvCslF6 gene driven by an endosperm-specific promoter produced lines where mixed-linkage glucan content increased on average by 45%, peaking at 70% in some lines, with smaller increases in transgenic HvCslH1grain. Transgenic HvCslF6 lines displayed alterations where grain had a darker colour, were more easily crushed than wild type and were smaller. This was associated with an enlarged cavity in the central endosperm and changes in cell morphology, includingaleurone and sub-aleurone cells. This work provides proof-of-concept evidence that mixed-linkage glucan content in hull-less barley grain can be increased by over-expression of the HvCslF6 gene, but also indicates that hull-less cultivars may be more sensitive to attempts to modify cell wall composition.

Abstract (Browse 28)   |   Full Text
  Metabolism and Biochemistry
Activities of carbohydrate-metabolism enzymes in pre-drought primed wheat plants under drought stress during grain filling
Author: Muhammad Abid, Zhongwei Tian, Jinling Hu, Attiq Ullah, Yakun Cui, Shafaqat Ali, Suyu Jiang, Rizwan Zahoor, Yonghui Fan, Jiang Dong and Tingbo Dai
Received: September 12, 2017         Accepted: December 17, 2017
Online Date: December 20, 2017
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12628

Drought stress during grain filling of wheat alter enzyme activities, which may cause a reduction in carbohydrate translocation from the source and poor accumulation in the developing grains. This study investigated whether pre-anthesis drought priming improves grain filling response to post-anthesis drought stress in wheat by regulating the activities of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes in source and sink organs of wheat. The plants of a drought-sensitive and -tolerant wheat cultivar were exposed to moderate drought stress during tillering for priming, and a subsequent severe drought stress was applied at seven days after anthesis. While drought-stress negatively impacted net photosynthesis, grain weight and yield, the declines were less pronounced in primed plants than non-primed plants. Primed plants maintained higher contents of non-structural carbohydrates, fructan and sucrose with greater activities of sucrose: sucrose fructosyltransferase, sucrose-phosphate synthase and soluble-acid invertase in the stem. Similarly, priming treatments exhibited greater sink capacity of developing grains by having higher sucrose-to-starch conversion activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, sucrose-synthase, soluble-starch synthase, and granule-bound starch synthase in the grains as compared to non-priming treatments. The primed plants of both cultivars showed greater potential to maintain grain filling relative to non-primed plants. These results suggest that pre-drought priming has potential altering source-sink relationships to improve dry weight accumulation during grain filling under post-anthesis drought stress in wheat.

Abstract (Browse 22)   |   Full Text
  Photosynthesis and Crop Physiology
Overexpression of microRNA408 enhances photosynthesis, growth, and seed yield in diverse plants
Author: Jiawei Pan, Dahui Huang, Zhonglong Guo, Zheng Kuang, He Zhang, Xinyu Xie, Zengfeng Ma, Shaopei Gao, Manuel T. Lerdau, Chengcai Chu and Lei Li
Received: October 14, 2017         Accepted: January 10, 2018
Online Date: January 13, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12634

The ability of a plant to produce grain, fruit, or forage depends ultimately on photosynthesis. There have been few attempts, however, to study microRNAs, which are a class of endogenous small RNAs post-transcriptionally programming gene expression, in relation to photosynthetic traits. We focused on miR408, one of the most conserved plant miRNAs, and overexpressed it in parallel in Arabidopsis, tobacco, and rice. The transgenic plants all exhibited increased copper content in the chloroplast, elevated abundance of plastocyanin, and an induction of photosynthetic genes. By means of gas exchange and optical spectroscopy analyses, we showed that higher expression of miR408 leads to enhanced photosynthesis through improving efficiency of irradiation utilization and the capacity for carbon dioxide fixation. Consequently, miR408 hyper-accumulating plants exhibited higher rate of vegetative growth. An enlargement of seed size was also observed in all three species overproducing miR408. Moreover, we conducted a two-year-two-location field trial and found miR408 overexpression in rice significantly increased yield, which was primarily attributed to an elevation in grain weight. Taken together, these results demonstrate that miR408 is a positive regulator of photosynthesis and that its genetic engineering is a promising route for enhancing photosynthetic performance and yield in diverse plants.

Abstract (Browse 5)   |   Full Text
ZmCOL3, a CCT gene represses flowering in maize by interfering circadian clock and activating expression of ZmCCT
Author: Minliang Jin, Xiangguo Liu, Wei Jia, Haijun Liu, Wenqiang Li, Yong Peng, Yanfang Du, Yuebin Wang, Yuejia Yin, Xuehai Zhang, Qing Liu, Min Deng, Nan Li, Xiyan Cui, Dongyun Hao and Jianbing Yan
Received: December 16, 2017         Accepted: January 9, 2018
Online Date: January 10, 2018
DOI: 10.1111/jipb.12632

Flowering time is a trait vital to the adaptation of flowering plants to different environments. Here, we report that CCT domain genes play an important role in flowering in maize (Zea mays L.). Among the 53 CCT family genes we identified in maize, 28 were located in flowering time quantitative trait locus regions and 15 were significantly associated with flowering time based on candidate-gene association mapping analysis. Furthermore, a CCT gene named ZmCOL3 was shown to be a repressor of flowering. Overexpressing ZmCOL3 delayed flowering time by approximately 4 days, in either long-day or short-day conditions. The absence of one cytosine in the ZmCOL3 3'UTR and the presence of a 551 bp fragment in the promoter region are likely the causal polymorphisms contributing to the maize adaptation from tropical to temperate regions. We propose a modified model of the maize photoperiod pathway wherein ZmCOL3 acts as an inhibitor of flowering either by transactivating transcription of ZmCCT, one of the key genes regulating maize flowering, or by interfering with the circadian clock.

Abstract (Browse 7)   |   Full Text


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