January 1984, Volume 26 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
Histological Analysis of the Bamboo Residues after Digestion of Giant Panda
Author: Li Rong-ao, Du Mei-xia and Lee Cheng-lee
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(1)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1606)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Study on Chloroplasts of Stevia rebaudiana Bertani from Different Leaf-Stage Cells
Author: Hong Wei-lian, Chen Mu-chuan, Chen Shao-pan and Wang De-yao(Wan De-yao)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(1)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1668)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological Studies on Pollen Formation and Development of Male Sterile Lines of Oryza sativa L.
Author: Yang Mao-xian and Li Kun-ji
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(1)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1692)  |  Full Text PDF       
Some Fossil Plants from Early Jurassic in Western Hubei With the Relative Problem Between Fossil Plants and Coal-Bearing
Author: Meng Fan-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(1)
      
    Coniopteris magnifica sp. nov., Ctenophyllum chenyuanense sp. nov., C. laxilobum sp. nov., Mironeura dakengensis Zhou, are derived from the Xiangxi Formation (s.s.), Western Hubei. According to the aspect and characteristic of the Xiangxi flora, author considers the Xiangxi Formation as Early Jurassic in age. In this paper, the relative problem between the coal-bearing and the fossil plants is briefly discussed also.
Abstract (Browse 1786)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Microphytoplankton Species from the Sinian of Western Hubei Province
Author: Zhang Zhong-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(1)
      
    An organic-walled microphytoplankton species, Comasphaeridium Magnum sp. nov., recently discovered in petrographic thin scctions of the Doushantuo Formation (Late Sinian, about 700 Ma old) of western Hubei Province, South China are described here. This discovery supplements our understanding of the Doushantuo microblota, and shows that the Doushantuo Formation is the lowest stratigraphic position of the genus Comasphaeridium Staplin, Jansonius and Pocock so far known in the world.
Abstract (Browse 1828)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Several Pollutants on the Transpiration of Rice Plants
Author: Lin Shun-hua, Huang Yin-xiao, Chen Zhang-long, Han Rong-zhuang and Yao Yi-qun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(1)
      
    The purpose of this paper is to show how the change of transpiration destroys water balance in rice plants. The inhibition of, transpiration was pronounced under the following two conditions: 1) The amount of pollutants accumulated in the roots, stems and leaves of the plant was very large; 2) Any one of the organs, that is, its root, stem or leaf, showed visible injury. The later was the direct cause of the declination of transpiration. Because the absorption and transport of wate were inhibited. With the decline of transpiration, photosynthesis also declined rapidly. Owing to this, the plant grow slowly, with its stem and leaf sparse. Thus the plant phenological period became abnormal and the biomass and production of rice decreased. According to inhibition level of the plan transpiration, the toxicity of the pollutants and the plant resistance could be distinguished.
Abstract (Browse 1759)  |  Full Text PDF       
Stuies on the Chemical Constituents of the Essential Oils from the Leaves of Aglaia odorata Lour
Author: Lin Zheng-kui, Hua Ying-fang and Gu Yu-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(1)
      
    This paper shows the chemical constituents of the essential oils from the leaves of Aglaia odorata Lout. grown in Zhangzhou. By the aid of GC-MS-DS., IR., the following components have been separated and identified: linalool, hendecane, -copaene, -elemene, -caryophyllene, -humulene, aromadendrene, -cadinene, -himachalene, -cadinene, -guaiene, -gurjunene, -elemene, humulene epoxide-, humulene epoxide-, -elemene-9-ol, -humulene-7-ol, nerolidol, earyophyllenol-1, farnesol, -santalol, elemol. This will provide scientific basis for further develophment of the essential oils of the plants of Aglaia Lour.
Abstract (Browse 2229)  |  Full Text PDF       
Composition of Phospholipids and Fatty Acids cf Mitochondria of Chilling-Sensitive and Chilling-Tolerant Corns
Author: Bao Feng, Wen De-cheng, Zhang Ke and Xu Yong-rey
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(1)
      
    The phospholipids of the mitochondria of chiUing-sensitive (Zhang Dang No. 9) and chilling-tolerant (HD103Ferumac) corn shoots are composed of phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethaaolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidyl inositol, diphosphatidyl glycerol, lysophosphatidyl choline and so on. The weight per cent composition of various phospholipid components in there two varieties of corn are not apparently different. The fatty acid composition of the mitochondria of both corn shoots arc similar except the palmitic acid and linoleic acid.
Abstract (Browse 1769)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Cell Suspension Culture and Plant Regeneration in Rice
Author: Ye He-chun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(1)
      
    The present paper reports the establishment of rice cell suspension culture system, including callus induction and proliferation, isolation of single cells and small aggregates, cell suspension culture and callus re-formation, as well as regeneration of plantlets. The results have been obtained as follows: 1. The compositions of the different media used for callus induction, callus proliferation, cell suspension and plant regeneration are summarized in Table 1.2. Two kinds of disifectants, mercuric chloride and sodium hypochlorite, were used for surface sterilization of brown rice. The percentage of callus formation and callus yields were much higher when sodium hypochlorite was used (Fig. 3). We suggest that the disinfactant is one of the important factors that affect callus formed at the initial stage has an influence upon subsequent isolation of cells and suspension culture and even plant regeneration. 3. Table 3 shows that addition of yeast extract to the medium improves callus yield greatly and the efficiency of callus formation to a lesser extent. 4. Both medium (modified B5 medium) and N6 medium were suitable for cell suspension culture, but medium II was more effective for cell growth and callus re-formation (Fig. 4 and Table 4). 5. Effect of 2, 4-D on cell growth was tested at the concentration range among 0, 10-6, 10-5, 10-4 to 10-3 M. The results indicated that 10-5 M of 2,4-D was most effective for induction of rice callus. It has also been found that absence of 2,4-D increased callus re-formation in suspension culture, but no plant regeneration was observed. 6. By using 7% sucrose in differentiation medium, for all the three varieties, the plant regeneration frequency was raised up to 3 or 4 times than those of the 3% ones (Table 6). Occurrence of albino plants is often reported as one of the problems in rice anther culture. It is, however, no problem in seed-derived rice cell culture.
Abstract (Browse 2951)  |  Full Text PDF       
Alkaloidal Constituents of the Root of Aeonitum pseudogeniculatum
Author: Chen Di-hua and Sung Wei-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(1)
      
    From the root of Aconitum pseudogeniculatum W. T. Wang, collected from the west of Sichuan province, six diterpenoid alkaloids were isolated and identified as denudatine ( ), chasmanine ( ), talatisamine (), yunaconitine (), crassicauline () and vilmorrinianine C (). Yunaconitine, the major alkaloid of the plant, and its chemically transformed products pseudaconine and tetraacetylpseudaconine, showed antiinflammatory activities.
Abstract (Browse 1831)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Chemical Constituents of Lipid of Treraella fuciformis
Author: Huang Bu-han and Chang Sbu-ting
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(1)
      
    An investigation of the chemical constituents of lipid of Tremella fuciformis Berk. is the central theme of this study. The sterols, fatty acids and phospholipids are separated by recrystallization, column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, and their constituents are then identified by gas liquid chromatography and spectral data (UV, IR, MS and NMR). The results show that sterols comprise 16.8% ergosterol, 28.5% ergosta-5,7-dien-3-ol and 54.7% ergost-7-en-3-ol; fatty adds comprise 1.32%tmdeeanoic acid, 2.37% laurie acid, 1.28% tridecanoic acid, 0.09% myristic acid, 5.43% pentadecanoic acid, 17.20% palmitic acid, 3.11% stearic acid, 2.37% palmitoleic acid, 38.83% oleic acid and 27.98% linoleic acid; phospholipids comprise phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidylserine and phosphati- dylinositol. Altogether there are seventeen constituents in the lipid.
Abstract (Browse 1971)  |  Full Text PDF       
Further Studies of Pollen Wall Glycoproteins in Cucurbita pepo L.
Author: Yang Zhong-han, Zhu Guang-lian and Cao Zong-xun(Tsao, T. H.)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(1)
      
    Samples of pollen wall protein of Cucurbita pepo were prepared as reported in previous paper. Gas chromoatographic analyses snowed that the carbohydrate fraction of the pollen wall glycoprotcin contained 20.4% rhamnose, 15.3% fucose, 11% mannose, 11% galactose, 31% glucose, 4% arabinose and traces of xylose. The glycoproteins were further purified by Con. A affinity chromatography, Isoelectric focussing electrophoresis of the purified sample showed 3 PAS-positive bands, with respective PI 5.2, 6.0 and 6.3. The glycoprotein samples were subjected to hydrolysis with 6N HC1. After hydrolysis, the mixture was analyzed for amino acid composition with Backman 121-MB automatic amino acid analyzer, Results show the amino acid composition of the 3 glycoprotein was very similar, They all have glycine, glutamic acid and serine as their major component (these three amino acids constitute 50C60% of the total amino acids); and they all contain very small amount of methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and tyrosine. The lysine content of each glycoprotein is consistent with its respective PI, the glycoprotein which contains more lysine has higher PI.
Abstract (Browse 1877)  |  Full Text PDF       
Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopic Observations on the Plasmodesmatal Channels Between the Pollen Mother Cells of Lily
Author: Nie Xiu-wan, Wang Yi-xiu and Cheng Kuo-chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(1)
      
    The regularity of the presence of plasmodesmata channels in the pollen mother cells of lily was studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. A few plasmodesmata channels can be recognized between the pollen mother cells at leptotene stage, which increase in number at zygotene and expand in width at synizesis and they lie in the range 0.51 m. Massive chromatin substance are transferred from one pollen mother cell to another during synizesis. The pre-existing plasmodesmate channels close again at late pachytene. There are no channels from metaphase to tetrad stage. Finally, the relation between the presence of plasmodesmata channels, synizesis and cytomixis were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2025)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological Observations of Microsporogenesis and Pollen Development in Wheat in Vivo
Author: Lu Wen-liang and Kuo Chung-shen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(1)
      
    Cytological observations of microsporogenesis and pollen development in vivo in wheat were carried on by means of phase contrast optics, which could avoid the distortions resulted from materials difficult to be fixed. The cytological changes were observed as follows: 1. Just before first mitosis of pollen, many strands of cytoplasm arose from one side of the nucleus facing the aperture, and moved swingingly toward the aperture. And then these strands of cytoplasm combined into one mass and protruded in the large vacuole. 2. There was a alteration in the direction of the spindle axis from obliquity to parallelism in anaphase. 3. Forming course of the wall between generative and vegetative cell. 4. Dynamic course of the disintegration of wall between vegetative and generative cell as well as that the generative cell came into the vetetafive cell.
Abstract (Browse 1992)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological Observations on Some Species of Dryopteris and Polystichum from China
Author: Wang Zhong-ren and Xia Qun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(1)
      
    Cytological observations on five Dryopteris species and four Polystichum species from China are reported. Most of the materials examined were field-fixed in Emei Shan, Sichuan province, and one of them was in Dali Xian, Yunnan province. Only the count of Dryopteris goeringiana was made from the plant brought from Wuling Shan, Beijing and grown in the garden of our Institute. All the materials were fixed in 1:3 acitic acidalcohol, and stained with acetocamine. All the counts were made at diakinesis or metaphase I of meiosis in SMCs .The results of the observation on them are summarized in table 1. Of these, the chromosome numbers for six species are first report. Five species are sexual: diploid: D. goeringiana, D. porosa, D. subinaequalis, D. yui and P. stenoghyllum. Three spe cies are sexual tetraploid: P. acutidens, P. erosum and P. moupingense. Only D. juxtaposita is an apomictic triploid. The vouchers are preserved in the Herbarium of our Institute (PE). We are indebted to Prof. R. C. Ching and C. R. Fraser-Jenkins for identification of the materials.
Abstract (Browse 1831)  |  Full Text PDF       
Observations on Morphology and Cytology of Embryoids Derived from Callus of Maize
Author: Kuo Chung-shen and Lu Wen-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(1)
      
    Observations on the callus sections showed that most embryoids were produced from surface layer cells of the callus and a few embryoids from inside layers of the callus. The initial cell of the embryoids possessed denser protoplasm and larger nucleus than the others cells did. The developmental sequence of the initial cell was similar to that of the zygotic embryos. First division gave rise to two daughter cells, the basal cell and terminal cell. The basal cell was able to divide or not divide again and changed into the suspensor, The terminal cell first divided longitudinally and then transversely into four cells. As the four cells further divided the embryo was formed properly. The embryoids possessed monody or polycotyledons. The production of the embryoids from a callus was not synchronous. So embryoids of different development stages could be found on the same callus.
Abstract (Browse 1797)  |  Full Text PDF       
Transport of Disassembled Protoplasm from Degenerated Nucellus into Embryo Sac and Its Role in Feeding the Proliferating Antipodals in Wheat
Author: Zhang Wei-cheng, Yan Wen-mei and Lou Cheng hou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(1)
      
    The wheat embryo sac is pear-shaped and deeply imbedded in fleshy nucellus of uneven thickness, which, in mm, is enclosed partially by two layers of integument and is in intimate connection with the procambium around the chalazal region (Text fig. 1 ). This connection seems to be the main inlet passage of nutrient in the ovule. Accordingly the nutrient has to pass from cell to cell and to be incorporated in the nucellus before it is fed to the enlarging embryo sac. Though as a whole the nucellus is transitory in existence, establishment of new peripheral layers and decline of inner layers occur at the same time. While cells in the outer layers multiply by mitosis; cells in the intermediate layers begin to exhibit nuclear extrusion (an indication of transcellular movement of protoplasm) which becomes more frequent in inner layers (Text Fig. 2); and cells in the innermost layer, embracing the embryo sac, actively undergo disintegration, showing walls in rupture and cellular contents in disassembly and in retreat (Fig. 7,8). A distinguished feature of high activity of ATPase located in extruding nucleus has been observed in chalazal region (Fig. 4) and in degenerating nucellag cells (Fig. 5). The embryo sac is delimited from the nucellus by an incomplete envelop at the mycopylar end, and the envelop is reinforced by successive deposition of wall debris of the diminished nucellar layers (Fig. 9); whereas at the chalazal end the envelop is lacking and the anfipodals can communicate directly with the disintegrating layer of the thickened portion of nucellus. The antipodals grow steadily as the embryo approaches maturity and the number of cells can be increased 7C8 times(from 3 to 20 or more). Conceivably, proliferation of the antipodals is sustained at the expense of the disintegration of nucellar tissue. The present investigation has confirmed our previous statement that transport of disassembled protoplasm is involved in the feeding of antipodals by nucellus. Some electron micrographs are chosen to reveal details of this particular process. Some findings of special interest are listed below: 1. Cells that make up the nutritional pathway at the chalazal end are small, closely packed, and rich in mitochondria. Its wall is thickened irregularly by heavy deposition of el ectron-translucent material and is interspersed with prominent bundles of plasmodesmata (Fig. 2). It seems likely that the inlet passage is predominantly symplastic in nature. 2. Wi thdrawal of cell contents from the nucellar tissue at the early stage is carried out by efflux of nuclear substance (karyoplasm) through enlarged openings on the nuclear envelop, and by exokaryosis of vesicles packed with ribosome-like granules (Fig. 6). These vesicles can then be trapped in the ER cavity. Breakdown of the endomembrane system follows next. A multitude of small vacuoles, vesicles (coated or not) impregnated with sap, fibrils and granules respectively, deformed mitocondria, chromatic aggregates, etc. can be found in suspension within the deteriorating cell (Fig. 7, 10). In addition, degradation of polysaccharides can also take place. Withdrawal of the cell content from shrinking nucellar layer and its flow into the antipodal section is through the ruptured wall where the cellulose skeleton is turned loose and fluffy at the opening. The protoplasmic fragments in transport are those structures of definite submicroscopic constitution, resulted from disassembly and disinteg ration of the protoplasm and from reassorment of protoplasmic constituents. 3. The antipo dal cells are separated from each other by partial walls riddled with cytoplasmic canals. The naked portion of the ceU can be in direct access to the invading fragments, which can be utilized and incorporated by the antipodal cell and participate in the building of new cell possibly by reorgnization (Fig. 12a) which may be a special mode of cell proliferation in antipodals. Amitosis of antipodal nucleus also has been observed (Text Fig. 3). Discussion is made in regards to the physiological significance of the nutritional supply in form of protoplasmic fragment and of the self-propelling mobility of the fragment. Alth ough the antipodals still proliferate to some extent even after fertilization, they meet the same fate as its predecessor, the nucellus, and soon vanish during the establishment of en dosperm. In food transport, the interconversion of polymer-monomer of saccarides, etc. is fre quently involved. In the present case of material transport, interconversion at higher levels plays a dominant role as shown in the assembly and disassembly of protoplasmic constituents and in the orgnization and disorgnization of ephemeral tissue.
Abstract (Browse 2246)  |  Full Text PDF       
Anther Factor(s) in Barley Anther Culture
Author: Xu Zhi-hong and Huang Bin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(1)
      
    The effects of anther tissues were studied systematically on microspores forming multicellular units and furthermore on pollen callus formation in the anther culture of Hordeum vulgare (cv. Sabarlis). Anther productivity was found to be greatly enhanced by use of medium previously conditioned by anthers. In 15 experiments observed, anthers produced 26 times on average more calli in the conditioned medium than in control, in a few cases, even more than 80 times more calli formed. According to this, the authors supposed that cultured anthers released some components, anther factor (s) (AF), which is important to androgenesis in the culture. To achieve high yields of callus, culture was restricted to anthers which had been subpected to cold pretreatment. The temperature stress could not be replaced by the AF. However, for conditioning medium, anthers at binuclear stage were found to be more effective than the test anthers either with or without the pretreatment. Anthers from other 8 barley varieties were also effective for conditioning, as the difference of anther productivity still existed in the culture with conditioned medium between various genotypes tested. Anther response and callus yield were increased in both the culture of anthers at mid and late-uninuclear stage by use of conditioned medium. AF interacted synergistically with m-inositol. Cytological observation showed that AF increased apparently the formation of MPGs, while m-inositol mainly stimulated callus formation from MPGs. To some extent, the effect of exogenous hormone(s) could be replaced by AF. The anther response and pollen callus yield could be much enhanced by increasing anther inoculation density, which also raised the AF level in the culture. Thus, by use of the temperature stress prior to anther culture and culture of test anthers in conditioned medium with m-inositol, or at higher inoculation density, a very high production of pollen callus could be obtained in barley anther culture. For meeting the more specialized requirements of less responsive species or genopypes, the principles given here may be provide some basic information.
Abstract (Browse 1857)  |  Full Text PDF       
Purification and Characterization of Total mRNA from Apium graveoleus L.Leaves
Author: Cheng Zhen-qi(Cheng Chen-chi), L Jun-xuan, Zhang Lan-fang, Wei Xi-ping and Zhao Kun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(1)
      
    The common procedure for purification of total messenger RNA (mRNA) from plant leaves, Apium graveoleus L. as material, has been described. The activities of protein synthesis and reverse transcription of the mRNA were determined. The leaves of Apium graveoleus L. different stage of growth contain variable content of the RNA (total RNA and mRNA). The length and distribution of the poly(A) at 3-end of the mRNA were estimated. The maxium length of poly(A) were determined as 165 5 A-residues.
Abstract (Browse 1832)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Rhododendron capitatum Maxim
Author: Wang Sheng-xin, Ji Lan-ju, Yi Fu-shen, Jiang Shan-hao and Zhou Bing-nan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(1)
      
    Ten compounds were isolated from the aqueous extract of Rhododendron capitatum Maxim and identified as scopoletin, fraxefin, grayanomxin , , , raffinose, hyperin, capitatin, quercetin and myricefin, respectively, on the basis of physico-chemical properies, UV, IR, NMR and MS data. The capitatin was a new compound.
Abstract (Browse 1945)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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