April 1984, Volume 26 Issue 4


          Research Articles
Tissue Necrosis of the Regenerated Bark of Eucommia ulmoides
Author: Li Zheng-li(Lee Cheng-lee) and Gui Ke-ming, Luo Zheng-rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(4)
Abstract (Browse 1745)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Paleocene-Eocene Palynoflora from the Tantou Basin in West Henan
Author: Wang Da-ning, Sun Xiu-yu and Zhao Ying-niang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(4)
    On the basis of palynological data the Paleoeene-Eocene palynoflora from the Tantou Basin in west Itenan are divided into three sporo-pollen assemblages. They are given ill ascending order as follows: 1. The first assemblage (Dazhang Formation) characterized mainly by the predominance of palynoforms of Ulmaeeae anal various Proteaeeous pollen, being assigned to Late Paleoeene and indicating a dry-hot climate. 2. The second assemblage (Lower part of the Tantou Formation) marked by the presence of various Triporopollenites and Tricolporopollenites, belonging to the Early Eocene. A moist-hot climate is reflected. 3. The third assemblage (the Upper part of the Tantou Formation) represented by aboundant pollen grains of saeeated elements (consisting of Pinaeeae and Podocarpaeeae) and the occurrence of Aquilapollenites pollen which plays an important part in this assemblage. It is interpreted as belonging to the middle to early Eocene. The climate was moist and warm. As indicated by the sporo-polleu assemblage the present Paleoeene to Eocene flora in the whole phytoprovienee may belong to a flora transitional from western to eastern China. In this paper the distribution of Aquilapollenites pollen and its stratigraphicai significance are also discussed and it is considered that this kind of pollen distributed in the Paleoeene of China is eertainly not redeposited. At the same time, sonm palynoforms of certain significance for delimitation of Paleoeene and Eocene are provided.
Abstract (Browse 1896)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study On the Growth Natures and the Ecological Characteristics of Chinese Fir on the River Bank in North Jiangsu Provincer
Author: Cai Shou-kun, Yang Zhi-bin, Wei Houg-tu and Zong Shi-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(4)
    The growth natures and ecological characteristics of Cunninghamia lanceolata are summarized as follows: 1. In the growth rhythm: a. The rapid growth stage appears from 4th year to llth year. b. A fast growth season is significant from June to Septamber. On the basis of eeotype of Cunninghamia lanceolata, the correlative analysis has been applied. The growth of the standing forest expresses an obvious correlation with temperature, relative hmnidity and precipitation, c. The growth in height proceeds at night and stops at day. 2. The growth is not affected, when the salt content of the soil is <0.05%. While the growth is evidently restrained by salt, when the salt content of the soil reaches 0.1%. 3. Cunninghamia lanceolata is a tree species with great adaptability to soil acidity. It can grow in the soil with pH 4每9. 4. The thinning experiment has shown that the suitable stand density is 150 trees/mu.
Abstract (Browse 1806)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Phytocommtunity and the Relations of the Element Contents Between Plants and Soils at Qing Chengzi Mining Area of Liaoning Province
Author: Hu Yi-hui, Kong Ling-shao, Wang Mei-lin, Kong Fan-zhi and Miao You-gui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(4)
    The types of plant community and the floristic compositions in the leadzine abnormal and normal areas identified by geochemical exploration are basieally similar. According to the chemical analysis the contents of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd of plants and soils in abnormal areas are higher than in normal areas. The absorption coeffieients of heavy metal elements by plants change with various chemical element, in the order of Cd>Zn, Cu>Pb. The results of the correlation analysis showed that the linear relationship between the contents of Pb, Zn in plant communities and in soil are singnifieant. There is a considerable linear correlation of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd in soil and in Carex callitrichos, Sangnisorba officinalis, Polyoinum lopothitolium, Spirea pubescens, respectively. A close correlation presented in the contents of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd between Carex callitrichos and soils. The multiple correlation coefficient is 0.999 (N=8, P<0.01). It may be suggested that Carex callitrichos can indicat the contents of Pb, Zn in soils.
Abstract (Browse 1704)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Structures of Macrocalyx in A and C
Author: Wang Xian-rong, Wang Zhao-quan, Dong Jin-guang and Xue Zhao-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(4)
    Two new diterpenoids which show antibacterial and eytotoxie activities, macrocalyxin A and C have been isolated from the leaves of Rabdosia macrocalyx (Dunn) Hara. Their structures were established as (1) and (4) by spectroscopic and chemical data respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1735)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Identification for Steroid Saponins of Dioscorea collettiti Hook fvar hypoglauca Palibin Pei et Ting
Author: Tang Shi-rong and Pang Zi-jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(4)
    Two steroid saponins of yamogenin (A, C) had been isolated from the rhizome of Dioscorea collettii Hook. f. var. hypoglauca (Palibin) Pei et Ting. By means of acetylation, acid hydrolysis, enzymolysis, IR, MS and 13C-NMR the structure of saponin A named hypoglaueine A was proved as yamogcnin-3-O-[bis-汐-L-rhamnosyl (1↙2, 1↙3)]-[汕-D-glueopyranoside. Saponin C was identified as protohypoglaucine A.
Abstract (Browse 2097)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Bisflavon車ids of the leaves of Cephalotaxus fortunei Hook fvar alpina Native to China
Author: Ma Zhong-wu, He Guan-fu and Yin Wan-fen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(4)
    Cephalotaxus fortunei Hook. f. var. alpina Li. is native to China. Two bisflavonoids were isolated and identified as sciadopitysis and amentoflavone-4'ㄛ4'''ㄛ7ㄛ7''-tetramethyl ether.
Abstract (Browse 1928)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Alkaloids of Phlegmariurus fordii (Baker) Ching
Author: Tong Shao-hua and Xiang Gui-qiong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(4)
    Three alkaloids were isolated from the whole plant of Phlegmariurus fordii (Baker) Ching. One of them was identified as known Iycodoline. The other two, named phlcgmariurine A, and phlegmariur!ne B, are new alkaloids. The structure of A, was determined by means of spectral analysis and X-ray diffraction. It was proved to be a new tri-cyclie alkaloid as (i). The structure of B, was elucidated as (j).
Abstract (Browse 1870)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Estimation of Harringtonine and Homoharringtonine of Antileukemic Alkaloids in Cephalotaaeus tortunei Hook F. and C.sinensis (Rehd et Wils) Li
Author: Ma Yan-qing Guo Meng-ru, Zhu Tai-ping, Ma Guang-en, Lu Chun-er, Huang Hua and Yang Yun-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(4)
    Harringtonine and homoharringtonine are the potent antileukemic alkaloids, which were isolated from some species of Cephalotaxus. Recently the variation of the relative contents of these two alkaloids in the species of C. fortunei Hook. f. and C. sinensis (Rehd. et Wils.) Li were investigated. By assaying different parts of these two plants, the double alkaloid (harringtonine, homoharringtonine) contents were showed: the leaves with twigs was 0.0167%, barks 0.014%,stems 0.008%, roots 0.0251%, seeds 0.0296% in C. fortnnei and the leaves with twigs 0.0136%, barks 0.0134%, stems 0.0113%, roots 0.0174%, seeds 0.030% in C. sinensis. The variations of the relative alkaloid contents in monthly average were also described in this paper.
Abstract (Browse 1822)  |  Full Text PDF       
Heat Injary and Changes in Electrical Resistance of Leaf Tissue
Author: Yu Shu-wen, Tan Chang, Yang Hui-dong and Yu Zi-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(4)
    More effective means are needed for early diagnosis and quantitative evaluation of plant injury caused by various stresses. Measuring of tissue electrical resistance has been used in the research of SO2 injury recently and satisfactory results has been obtained. The present paper describes the change of tissue electrical resistance in connection with the response of plants to high temperature. Wheat and tobacco leaves were tranted with different high temperatures (30每60⊥). Electrical resistance was measured during and after the treatment by means of Zhu*s newly improved method of the determination of the mid-region voltake drop on passing a stable electric current through the leaf tissue. Experimental results showed that electrical resistance changed regularly with the increase of temperature. At the range of nninjurious temperature, tissue electrical resistance kept the same level as control. Around the subinjurious temperature, electrical resistance increased remarkably and could be gradually restored after the cease of treatment. At injurious temperatures, tissue electrical resistance rised at first, and then declined. The higher the temperature, the earlier and quicker the decline, and finally it reached the lowest level showing the death of the tissue. If leaves were taken back to ordinary temperature at the rising stage or just the beginning of decrease, they could recover, in general, in their electrical resistance. They conld not recover after a substantial drop of electrical resistance, showing the oeeurence of irreversible injnry. Therefore the changes of tissue electrical resistance reflected to a certain degree the extent of heat injury. Ion leakage and ethane production were also measured parallelly. As for reflection of the extent of heat injury, changes of tissue electrical resistance is more sensitive than both ion leakage and ethane produetlon. The rise of tissue electrical resistance at thc earlier stage of heat treatment is discussed in connection with the changes of the two constituents of tissue electrical resistance-membrane resistance and apoplast resistance.
Abstract (Browse 2033)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Photoperiodic Responses in Short-Day Plant Helianthus tubevotus
Author: Zhao Ke-fu, Zhang Ai-hua, Zhou Sbu-bo and Li Ming-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(4)
    Plants of Helianthus tuberosus, variety white tuber, were treated with various daylengths of 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18 h. for 25 days as soon as six leaves on a plant appeard Irradiation for 6每13 h per day induced the plants to form flower buds and flowering, daylength with 14 h or longer kept the plants in vegetative growth. The experiments showed that this variety of Helianthus tuberosus required short days for flowering and the critical daylength was about 13 h. The plants were treated with short days for different durations. At least 17 days were required, Formation of flower buds and flowering had positive correlation with the number of short days over 17 days. After short-day induction, the shorter the daylength is, the more the flower buds inverted. Long-day treatment after an appropriate period of short days wouid reduce the number of flower and induce new vegetative branches from flowering granehes.
Abstract (Browse 2168)  |  Full Text PDF       
Influences of High Temperature and Low Humidity on the Fatty Acid Compositions of Membane Lipids in Wheat
Author: Yang Jing-feng, Cheng Bing-song and Wang Hong-chun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(4)
    The major components of fatty acids of the membrane Lipid in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are palmitie 16:0), paimitoleic (16:1), stearie (18:0), oleeic (18: 1), linoleic (18:2) linolenic acid (18:3) and a few others. Of the total fatty acids, palmitic, linoleie and linolenic acid are predominant in amount. Under the condition of high temperature and low humidity the contents of palnfitie and oloie acid in the membrane lipids increased and the linoleic and linolenie acid decreased, which resulted in high degree of saturation of membrane fatty acid. It was found that the influence of high temperature on the fatty acid compositions was stronger than that of low humidity. Two winter eultivars showed different in their resistance to high temperature and low humididty, and a difference in degree of saturation of membrane fatty acid Was also detected. The resistant eultivar possessed a higher degree of staturation of fatty acid than the sensitiveone. Similar trend was obtained from various oultivars to high temperature and low humidity. This seems to be a corelation between the resistivity of wheat cultivar to high temperature and low humidity and the degree of saturation of membrane fatty acids.
Abstract (Browse 1863)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Ribonuclease in Cotyledon Segment of Phaseolus radiatus L During Dedifferentiation
Author: Zhang Jing-lan, Xu Gui-fang, Tang Ding-tai and Niu Yu-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(4)
    Ribonuelease activity and its isozyme pattern of mung bean cotyledon segment were determined during dedifferentiation. The results showed that the activity of ribonuelease in the dedifferentiated tissue is higher than that of control, three new bands of isozyme appear during callus formation. Addition of cycloheximide (CHM) at 0 or 24 hours inhibits either the enzyme activity or the appearance of new bands. These facts indicate that the changes of ribanuelease are at translation level.
Abstract (Browse 1706)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Scanning Electron Microscopic Observations of the Leaves in Some Conifers
Author: Wu Han
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(4)
    Scanning electron microscopic observations of the leaves in some conifers are described. These are hyplocheilie stomata surrounded by different morphological subsidiary cells. In Keteleeria, the lateral wall of larger subsidiary cells possesses prom.inant eutieular globoides. Cuticular semigloboides between the sinuoms epidermal anticlinal walls are most obvious in other epidermis. However the single laver of cushion cells which looated underneath the guard ceils of the abaxial epidermis in Cathaya is discovered. The mesophyll ceils with incurved walls of Cathaya consist mainly of single layer of flat oubical cells flat longi-cubieal cells as of the polytriehaeeous lamcllae, thus it may be designated as mesolamellae. It not only supports the establishment of Cathaya Chun and Kuang as a new genus of the Pinaeeae but also may be another important biosystematical evidence between Cathaya and Pinus. The distribution and polymorphism of foliar solereids in Amentotaxus which are different from leaves of other gymnosperms described. The transfusion tracheids are also different in some ways from other genera.
Abstract (Browse 1899)  |  Full Text PDF       
Morphogenetic Aspects of Gynogenetic Embryoid and Callus in Ovary Culture of Oryza sativa L.
Author: Tian Hui-qiao and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(4)
    This paper is a further study on the morphogenetic processes of gynogenetic embryoid and callus formation in rice unpollinated ovary culture. Techniques for culture and for specimen preparation were basieany the same as in previously reported experiments in our lab. During early stage of culture, gynogenetic structures within the embryo sacs were predominantly young pear-shaped proembryos. A few of them developed later along a more or less normal pathway into differentiated embryoids. However, most proembryos grew much larger without embryo differentiation and finally turned to callusing. A discussion is given to the morphogenetic aspects of such kind of callus, which is considered to be a structure somewhat similar to the ※protocorm§ described by Nostog in barley proembryo culture. In this paper, the process of proembryo abortion and the oecurenee of polyembryony are reported as well.
Abstract (Browse 1835)  |  Full Text PDF       
Observations on the Developmental Femal Gametophyte and the Process of Fertilization of Amcmum visllosum Lour.
Author: Qian Nan-fen and Zhang Zhen-jue
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(4)
    The development of megarametophyte antl the process of fertnization are investigated in detail and the following results are obtained: 1. The development of the embryo sac conforms to Polygonmn type. The pollen tube reaches the base of style about 16 hrs., enters into the ovary, 16每18 hrs. and then it, to the embryo sae, 24每28 hrs. after pollination. 2. Pollezt grains are 2-celed at maturity. 3. When the pollen tube reaehes the mieropylar end, both synergids are intact; but their nueleolus become small. Pollen tube enter the synergid through the filiform apparatus and the synergid is degenerated. 4. Pollen tube discharges two sperms which move towards the egg cell and the secondary nucleus respectively. 5. One sprm fuses with the egg nucleus and another with the secondary nueleus. The proeess of syngamy is siniilar to that of secondary nucleus fusion. Primary endosperm nueleus s formed 30 hrs. after pollination. The zygote is formed 30每62 hrs. after pollination. 6. There is no distinct correlation between the syngamy and secondary nueleus fusion.
Abstract (Browse 1695)  |  Full Text PDF       
Early Embryogeny and Its Starch Distribution in Amentotaxus
Author: Chen Zu-keng and Wang Fu-xiong Wang Fu-hsiung
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(4)
    The present paper deals with the early embryogeny of Amentotaxus argotacnia (Hance) Pitger and its variation in starch distribution. Amentotaxus is endemie to China. The proembryos of Amentotaxus occurred at the end of July to early August, 1980每1981, When the zygote has sueeessive]y divided for four times, the daughter nuelei are becoming smaller and smaller after each division. At first, the zygote is 80每100 米 in diameter. Then, tbe free nuclei of the proembryo are 50每70 米 in diameter in two-nucleate stage, 36每50 米 in four-nucleate stage, and 29每32 米 in eight- to sixteen-nueleate stage, respectively. The wall formation of proembryos in Amentotaxas as in most other members of Taxaeeae also takes place at 16-nucleate stage. After wall formation the cells u each proembryo are arranged in two groups, upper one constitutes the cells of open tier (O) and the lower one, the primary embryonic eells (PE). The ratio of 0 to PE is 9:7 or 8:8 in some eases. The cells of open tier elongate and divide to form the ceils of upper tier (U) and the prosuspensor eens (S). In such ease, The ratio is U:S:PE= 8:8:8. When the eells of open tier and primary embryonie tier sometimes divide simultaneously, the primary embryo cells result in the embryo cells (E), and the ratio is U:S:E=9:9:14 or U:S:E=8:8:16. The young embryos of Amentotaxus begin to differentiate in the first week of August in Jin-Foshan (Golden Buddha Mountain), 1400 to 1600m. Sichuan Province, China The developmental features of the young embryo in Amentotaxus are as follows: (1) The development of the young embryos lasts for 10 to 12 months. This is very unique in Gymnosperms. The development of tile embryo in Amentotaxus is in some deg ree similar to that of Ginkgo, beeause their young embryos develop in maternal plants, whereas the late embryogeny takes place after shedding of the seed. (2) The young embryos pass through the winter at multieellular stage and the late embryos are still undifferentiated when the arils are getting red and the seeds begin to shed. It is interesting to note that the development of embryos are still staying at embryo seleetion stage of simple polyembryony when seeds were stored for six months in 15-20⊥. As far as our information goes, the embryos in seeds should get over another winter until embryo matures. The embryos in Amentotaxus is un;quo in this respect and it is considered to be primitive. Though the seeds of pteridosperms have large female gametophytcs, none of embryos have been found in their fossil seeds. Probably their embryos are not well developed when the seeds mature and shed. Thus the embryos of fossil seeds are not easily preserved (Cronquist, 1968). The condition of embryonic developaleut in Amentotaxus resembles strongly with that in pteridosperms. From above, Amentataxus eould be the most primitive genus in Taxaceae. (3) Simple polyembryony in Amentotaxus is pronfinent. The prosuspensors sometimes divide to give rise to ※suspensor embryos§. The general tendency of the starch distribution in male and female gametophytes is that the main regions of stareh are gradually transferred frmn mieropylar to chalazal end wiht the development of the ovule. After pollen germination the stareh proceeds together with the sterile cell, tube nueleus and spermatogenous cell down the arehegonium. In early developmental stage of female gametophyte, the starch region always appears round the upper part of the archegonia; after fertilization they mainly appear in tissue of female gamctophyte near the proembryo or young embryo to form the pyramidal region. It is worthy to note that the starch grains of male gametophyte are larger in size than those of female gametophyte and the former is much less in nmnber than the latter. So far as the embryo proper is concerned the starch grains densely appear armmd the nuclei of the embryos, espeeially those of the prosuspensors. Besides, near the basal part of aril and integument there is a stable region of polysaeeharide which shows the positive reaetion for PAS. This region is always present from the origin of aril to its mature and is an important feature of the ovule and seed in Amentotaxus,
Abstract (Browse 2040)  |  Full Text PDF       
Observations on Megasporogenesis and Megagametophyte Development in Paulownia sp and Sesamum indicum by Enzymatic Maceration Technique
Author: Yang Hong-yuan and Zhou Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(4)
    A technique has been recently developed in our lab to isolate embryo sacs by means of enzymatic maceration of ovules (Zhou and Yang, 1982). In the pre sent paper this method was adopted in observing the whole processes of mtgasporgcnsis and megagametophyte development in Pauiownia sp. and Sesamum indicum. FPA fixed ovules were macerated in peetinase-eellulase solution with a microshaker, eleared in lactophenol, and then observed under a microscope with Nomarski interference contrast or phase contrast equipments. In both species, various developmental stages, from megasporocyte till mature embryo sac, were successfully identificd and described (Plate i and j). As a kind of microtechnique, enzymatic method shows some merits as its rapidness in specimen preparation and convenience for obtaining whole structural image Several technical points are discussed hereof.
Abstract (Browse 1759)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Fine Structure of the Scutellum of the Oat Seed During Germination
Author: Xu Shi-xiong (S.Y.Zee) and Chen Qing-rang ( H. Y. Chan )
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(4)
    Structural changes in the seutellar parenchyma and epithelial cells of oats during the first 3 days of germination were followed by electron microscopy. The seutellar parenchyma cells contain more protein bodies than the epithelial cells, otherwise the general fine structures of the two types of cells arc quite similar: When the seed starts to germinate the protein bodies change into vacuoles and the proteins inside the protein bodies gradually disappear. Spherosomes are in abundance ill the seutcllar cells of the dry seed. Few disappeared during germination. Other cellular organelles, such as the mitochondria, endoplasmie reticulum, plastids, Golgi apparatus and glyoxysomes are scarcely seen in the seutellar cells of the dry seed. They become more obvious and easily recognizable after germination. In the dry seed, the walls of the epithelial cell that abut the endospernl show a two layered structure, consisted of an inner and outer layer. The outer layer becomes hydrolysed during seed germination, but the inner layer remains intact. The scutetlar epithelial cells are known for their ability to secret enzymes ute and absorb nutrients from the endosperm. But in the fine structural studies we have not been able to locate any specific strurcture that could be related to their known functions of enzyme secretion and nutrient absorption.
Abstract (Browse 1892)  |  Full Text PDF       
Electron Microscopic Observation of the Azolla-Anabaena azollae Relationship
Author: Sun Jing-san (Sun Ching-san), Zhu Zhi-qing, Chu Chih-ching, Chen Wei-lun and Li Shou-quan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(4)
    The structure of Azolla pinnate leaves was examined by means of light and transmission electron microscopy. Emphasis was put on the ultra structural cytology of leaf cavity hairs both in association with Anabaena and in Anabaena-free cultures of Azolla and on the roles of the hair in substance change between the symbionts. The cavity hairs were multicultural and branched. There were numerous mitochondria, plastids, endoplasmic reticular and ribosome*s in the cytoplasm of the hair. A. marked characteristic of the hair was the cell wall ingrowths; There were large electron-transparent area between the in growing cell wall and the plasmolemma. Some vesicles were found in this area. It was suggested that these vesicles as transporters played the role in transporting substances. Electron microscopy revealed that some differences were present between the basal cell and the terminal branched cell of the hairs. In the latter, the cytoplasma, organelles, growing wall and vesicles were richer in the electron-transparent area than in the former This feature of the terminal branched cell showed that the terminal cell of the hair was more active in absorption and/or secretion of metabolites than that of the basal cell. Some hairs were found near the stem apex of Azolla. It was suggested that these hairs functioned in supplying the nitric compounds for the algae living on the stem apex of Azolla. These algae had no ability to fix nitrogen because of lacking heterocyst. In the absence of Anabaena azollae, the leaf cavity hairs were still present in Azolla pinnata. However, a lot of osmiophilic substances can often be seen in the vacuole of this hair.
Abstract (Browse 1790)  |  Full Text PDF       


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