June 1984, Volume 26 Issue 6


          Research Articles
Early Cretaceous Sporo-Pollen Assemblage from Lingxiang Group in Southeastern Hubei
Author: Zhang Zhen-lai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(6)
    The Lingxiang Group is of a volcano-sedimentary rock series, which is situated between Lower volcanic and Upper volccanic Formations in southeastern Hubei. Its geological age is net ascertained either beloning to Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous period. Thc rich fossils spores and pollen described in this paper is fonnd in thc greyish-black shale from the middle part of this group, including about 120 species of spores and pollen grains assigned to 67 genera. 9 new species and 2 combinations among them arc described, namely, Impardecispora rara, Neoraistrickia dchiscenta, Api-culatisporis taiheensis, Baculatisporites yangziensis, Reticulatisporites hubeiensis, Coptospora lingxiangensis, C. laevigataeformis, Araucariacites grenulatus, Callialasporites shizishanensis and Araucariacites limbatus (Balme), Inaperturopollenites minor (Mal.). The sporo-pollen assemblage is characterized by the predominance of the pollen of gymnospermous (76.3%) in comparison with the spores of pteridophyta (22.7%), the pollen of Angiosper)nous (0.7%) and Acritarchs (0.3%). The pollen of Gymnospermous mainly consists of Classopollis (45.9%), with abundant Inaperturopollenites (6.3%), Araaeariacites (4.6%), Exesipollenites (3.3%), Callialasporites (2.9%), Jiaohepollis (2.4%), Cycadopites (4.8%) and bisaccata pollen (3.7%). The spores of Pterdophyta is characterized the dominance of Lygodiaccae (13.4%), which includes Cicatricosisporites, Plicatella, Schizaeoisporites, Lygodiumsporites, Lygodioisporites, Toroisporis, Converracosisporites, Concavissimisporites, Yerrueosisporites, Klukisporites, Impardecispora, Pilososporites, with abundant Cyathidites (3.0%), Osmnndacidites (1.2%), Leptoledites (0.8%), Pterisisporites (0.7%) etc. It is very rarely that the pollen of Angiospermous designed as Magnopollis and ?Tricolpites. Beside, Jugella amounts merely to 0.7%. The present spore-pollen assemblage is similar to that in south China characterized Classopollis, Psophosphaera-Cicatricosisporites, Schizaeoisporites-absent or present very rarely pollen of Angiospermous. Therefore, the Lingxiang Group is likely to belong to the early to middle lower Cretaceous in age (Valanginian to Barremian). It is suggested that the climate in southeastern Hubei should be dry tropical-subtropical type at that time. Impardecispora rara Zheng sp. nov. (Pl. I, fig. 7) Trilete, laesurae distinct, about 3/4 of sporo-radius; commissures distinctly raised and flanked by a distinctmargo. Equatorial contour triangular. 46 to 47.5 mierons in equatorial diamcter. Distal exine sculptured with low verrucae, verrucae smaller in inter-radial and polar areas, ones crowded on apical regions; basal diameter 2 microns, height less than 1 microns. Neoraistrickia dehiscenta Zhang sp. nov. (Pl. I, fig. 25) Trilete, laesurae short, about 1/2 of sporo-radius, split open a triangular. Equatorial contour rounded-triangular to subeircular, 35C38.5 microns in equatorial diameter. Distalexine sculptured with short, sparse bacula. Bacula size different, basal diameter 2 to 2.5 microns, height 2 to 4 microns. Round and obtuse at the distal end of the bacula. Apiculatisporis taiheensis Zhang sp. nov. (Pl. I, fig. 22) Tetrad, equatorialcontour of single spore subcircular. Equatorial diameter about 30 microns. Distal surface sculptured by small, sparse with sharp points and basal diameter I to 2 microns, longth 2 to 4 microns. Baculatisporitcs yangziensis Zhang sp. nov. (Pl. I, fig. 23) Trilete, lacsurae short, about 1/2 or a bit longer than 1/2 of sporo-radius. Equatorial contour circular. Equa-torialdiameter 40C45 microns. Exine i to 2 microns thick, sculptured with thick bacula in distal and equatorial regions. Bacula reduced in proximal area, about 17 microns in diametcr. Distal bacula 1.5 to 2 microns wide, 3 to 5 microns long. Bacula xpanded papillate at the distal end. Reticulatisporites hubeiensis Zhang sp. nov. (Pl. II, fig. 4) Trilete, laesurae distinct, long, about 4/5 of sporo radius; commissures distinctly raised and flanked by a distinct narrow margo. Equatorial contour rounded-triangular. Equatorial diameter 52.5 to 75 microns. Exine 1.5 to 2 microns thick, distal surface sculptured with big reticulate, lumen of reticulum 6 to 10 microns in diameter, muri i to 2 microns wide and 0.5 microns high. Coptospora lingxiangensis Zhang sp. nov. (Pl. , figs. 28C29) Trilete, laesurae short, thick, about 1/2 to 2/3 of sporo-radius. Equatorial contour subcircular. Distal area broke open an irregular hole about 10.5 to 17.5 microns in diameter. Exine 1.5 to 2.5 microns thick. Proximal surface smooth, distal surface sculptured with regular, fine and close granulate. 25 to 37.5 microns in equatorial diameter. Coptospora laevigataeformis Zhang sp. nov. (Pl. , figs. 30C31) Trilete, laesurae long, ahnost reaching equator. Equatorial contour subcircular. Distal area broke open an irregular hole about 18 to 22.5 microns in diameter. Exine 2 to 3 microns, surface smooth. 40 to 45 microns in equatorial diameter. Araucariacites granulatas Zhang sp. nov. (Pl. , fig. 12) Inaperturate pollen grains, with elliptical amb. Longth of pollen grains 67.5 to 75 microns, breadth 52 to 57.5 microns. Exine 1 to 2 microns thick, usually heavily folded. Exine surface sculptured with thick and dense granulate. Callialasporites shizishancnsis Zhang sp. nov. (Pl. , fig. 8) Pollen grains monosaccate, equatorialcontour subclrcular, size range of equatorial diameter 62.5 te 75 microns, included the saccus. Central body subcircnler, diameter 40 to 57.5 microns. Trilete mark distinct raised and somewhat curved, thick, long, almost reaching equator of pollen grains. Equatorial saccus 10 to 12 microns wide. Body cxine 1 to 2 microns thick. Both body and saccns surface sculptured with thick and dense granulate. Contour line of pollen grains with small zigzag shape.
Abstract (Browse 2423)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Comparative study on Diurnal Changes of Photosynthetic Rate in Stipa grandis Community in Nei Monggol Region
Author: Jiang Shu, Sheng Xiu-wu and Qi Qiu-hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(6)
    The stol)po dominanted by Stipa grandis is one of the zonal type in middle part of Nei Monggol (Inner-Mongolia). Several stands with different biomass and plant height appeared after an accidental fire caused by smoking. On these stands and an additional irrigation treatment, at eomparative study on ph9tosynthetie rate was performed by means of assimilation chamber. The results are as follow: 1. In Jnly, 1981, with little precipitation, the diurnal curve of photosynthetic rate in all stands showed double peak form and midday depression being pronouneed, while in stands August, it become slight. Particularly, in stands with ample supply of water and fertilizer, the midday depression was ahnost absent. 2. The peak value of photosynthetic rate before noon was diferent from that of afternoon. In arid weather, the peak before noon was higher than in the afternoon, while under rainy weather the reverse was observed. 3. The net photosynthetic rate per day in different stands was different too. the highest one being the stand with sand cover, the next being that with thick soil and burned, and the lowest one being that with thin soil and after burning. All these faets show that the change of and difference in photsynthetie rate are eorrelated with water and nutrient conditions in the environment.
Abstract (Browse 2034)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil from Leaves of Jiang-Zhang
Author: Zhu Liang-fang, Lu Bi-yao and Li Yu-jing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(6)
    Jiang-Zhang is a Physiological type of Cinnamomum porrectum (Roxb.) Kosterm. The essential oil of leaves of Jiang-Zhang can be extracted by steam distillation, with yields of 0.5C0.8%. It contained dtral (-,-citral) 64.11% and can be used in aromatic and medicinal industries. We used the methods of GC, IR, GC/MS/DS and prepared derivative and 47 chemical constituents were identified, as follows: -thujene (0.06 %), -pinene (2.42%), camphene (1.26%), sabinene (0.21%),- pinene (1.38%) myrcene(0.38%), -phellandrene (0.32%),3-carene (0.01%), p-cymene(0.21%),-limonene (1.57%), 1 8-cineole (0.82 % ), -phellandrene (0.10 %), cis-linalool oxide(0.07 % ), linalool (8.43 % ) epicamphor(0.26 % ), camphor(1.10 %), borneol( 1.07 % ), -citral (neral) (28.28 % ), geraniol (0.25%), nerol (0.47%), -citral (geranial) (35.83%), methyl citronellate (0.12%), n-undecane (0.18), safrole (0.02), methyl geranate (0.23%), geranyl formate (0.09%), -copaene (0.12%), trans-methyl cinnamate (0.02%), n-dodecane (0.20), -elemene (0.12%), caryophyllene (4.67%), -guaiene (0.04), -guaiene (0.06%), -selinene (0.97%), azulene (0.38%), -cubebene (0.30%), n-pentadecane (0.05%), -gurjunene (0.04 %), epi--santalene (0.46 %), aremophliene (0.05 % ), alloaromadendrene (0.03 % ), -elemene (0.26%), trans--farnesene (0.04%), (z)--farnesene (0.30%), r-elemene (0.03%), -bisaboiol(0.41%), cedrol (0.16%), respectively.
Abstract (Browse 2623)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Free Amino Acid Content in Anthers of Malesterile and Fertile Plants of Taigu Wheat, with Special Reference to Free Proline Content
Author: Zhu Guang-lian, Dens Xing-wang, Zuo Wei-neng and Cao Zong-xun (T. H. Tsao)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(6)
    Biochemical analyses were made on anthers and pistils at various developmental stages of both male-sterne and fertile plants of Taigu wheat. Analyses ineluded total free amino aeids and free proline. The following results were obtained: 1. There was no significant difference between the content of free proline in anthers of male-sterile and fertile plants at reduction division of mierospore mother cells. 2. In anthers with early uninucleate miorospores, the content of free proline of fertile plants was remarkably higher than that of male-sterile plants. It is interesting to note that at this stage the content of free proline in fertile plants rose to 1.65% of the dry weight of the anther, constituting 50% of the total free amino acids, and amounted to 7-fold of that in male-sterile plants. This result is in line with the results obtained with most cytoplasmic malesterile plants reported by other workers, although malesterility in Taigu wheat is controlled by the nueleus. 3. In pistils, at the stages eorresponding to the early uninneleate and the binueleate stages of the pollen, the free proline content of fertile plants was twice as much as that of the male-sterile plants. This differenee disappeared gradually after fertilization. 4. Tile content of total free amino aoids did not fluetuate as much as the free proline content. There was no differenee in anthers of both types of plants during reduction division of mierospore mother cells. In anthers with early uninueleate pollen grains, total free amino acid content of fertile plants exceeded that of male-sterile plant, the difference levelled off at latter stages. In pistils, before fertilization, the content of total free amino acids of the fertile phmts was slightly higher than that of the male-sterile plants. After fertilization t}fis difference was no nmre noticeable.
Abstract (Browse 1948)  |  Full Text PDF       
Mg2+ Induced Fluorescence Change in Relation to Thylakoid Surface Electric Charge in Two Varieties of Soybean Chloroplasts
Author: Li Liang-bi, Zhou Pei-zhen, Zhai Xiao-jing, Zhang Zheng-dong, Ma Gui-zhi, Xu Jia-jing and Yu Gui-fen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(6)
    The effects of Mg2+ concentration on chlorophyll a light-in-duced variable fluorescence and eleetrophoretie velocity of chloroplasts obtained from two varieties of soybean (Ji-Pei No. 1 and Feng-Shou Yellow) were recorded. The light induced variable fluorescence yield and the eleetrophoretie mobility of two kinds of ehloroplasts in the suspending medium containing low level of salt differs from each other. But, the fluorescence yield of chloroplast membranes from two varieties of soybean is relative to that of eleetrophoretic mobility. The pattern of kinetic change of Mg2+ induced variable fluorescence intensity is similar to that of eleetrophoretie mobility. The optimum concentrations of Mg2+ required for the effect on chlorophyll fluorescence and the electrophoretie velocity change are also similar These results indicate that Mg2+ induced excitation energy distribution change between the two photosystems is intimately related to Mg2+-indueed alteration of thylakoil membrane surface eleetrostat.ie property. The possible role of earboxyl group of proteins on Mg2+ induced effects has been discussed in this paper.
Abstract (Browse 1917)  |  Full Text PDF       
Superoxide Dismutase Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Relation to Senescence of Rica Leaves
Author: Lin Zhi-fang, Li Shung-shun, Lin Gui-zhu, Sun Gu-chou and Gun Juen-yan(Kuo Chun-yen)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(6)
    Superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation, ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate earboxylasc and chlorophyll content in the leaves of rice were investigated during bloomJug to ripening stages. The results indicated that leaf senescence was associated with the decreascs of SOD and RuBP earboxylase activities and chlorophyll content. A marked increase of malondialdehyde(MDA)contcnt, a produet of lipid pcroxidation was observed during leaf senescence, However, the relative high activities of SOD and RuBP earboxylase and chlorophyll content, lower MDA content in hybrid rice senescenee leaves, compared with their three lines, suggest the presence of physiological hybrid vigor. The analysis of polyacrylamide gel eleetrophoresis showed that three SOD isozymes in leaf extract, which were Cu-Zn SOD. Changes of SOD isozymes were observed during leaf agling and at different time of storage of its extract. The destroying effect of oxygen free radical on enzymes and membrane in the course of leaf senescence was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2350)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological Observations on 25 Species of Chinese Ferns
Author: Wang Zhong-ren, Xia Qun and Zhang Zhi-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(6)
    The present work is an extension of a series of the eytotaxonomical studics on Chinese ferns. Chromosome counts of 25 species of pteridophytes from Emei Shan (Mt. Omei), Sichuan, Diancang Shan, Yunnan and Wuling Shan, Beijing have been made. They are summarized in the Table 1. The chromosome numbers of following 15 speceis are recorded for the first time: Selaginella labordei n=8, S. omeiensis n=8. Hyminophyllum omeiense 2n=42, Adiantum refractum n=30, Coniogramme maxima n=60, Athyrium dubium n=40, A. imbricatum n=40, A. kweichowense n=40, Lu- nathyrium wilsoni n=40, Pseudophegopteris pyrrhorachis var. glabrata n=31, Woodwardia omeiensis n=34, Struthiopteris eburnea n=33, Ctenitis heterolaena n=41, Polypodiodes pseudo-amoena n=37, Lepisorus eoaetaneus n=70, and other 4 species represent new cytological races.
Abstract (Browse 1973)  |  Full Text PDF       
Differentiation of Vascular Tissue and Quiescent Centre in the Root Apex of Glycine max (L.) Merr
Author: Jiang Xiao-mei and Qi Xiu-hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(6)
    The differentiation of primary vascular tissue and the development of quiescent centre in the primary root apex of Glycine max (L.) Merr. were observed. The quiescent centre in soybean primary root originated 24 hours after germination, in size to a maximum, and studied by means of [3H]thymidine autoradiography. The height of quiescent centre gradually decreased with an increase of days and was cor- related with the diameter of the root (r=0.94 p=0.01). By the mierodensitometer, most of the cells of quiescent centre are at the 2c level of DNA content and that are in G1. We find that no possible direct relationship between the quiescent centre and the differentiation of vascular tissue of soybean primary root was revealed. The former may not regulate the latter.
Abstract (Browse 2400)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pathways of Androgenesis and Observations on Cultured Pollen Grains in Rice (Oryza saliva Subsp. Keng)
Author: Qu Rong-da and Chen Ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(6)
    (1) Pathways A-V, A-G, A-GV, and B existed in androgenesis of rice. Usually B pathway was predominant. Degeneration could happen on androgenic grains via each pathway during the early stage of androgenesis. (2) Statistics suggested that the multinucleate grains might be converted to multicellular grains by a later formation of cell walls and were consequently one of the sources of callus. (3) Androgenic grains was usually of medium size (35C40 m) with dense protoplasm. In isolated pollen culture, the diameter of androgenic grains increased 2.5C5m per day. Before the breakdown of exine, the cell walls seemed to be thickened and the grains would contract abruptly. (4) Small, slowly-moving starch granules were usually contained within multicellular grains cultured isolately. They were speculated to participate actively in the metabolism of androgenic grains.
Abstract (Browse 2321)  |  Full Text PDF       
Tissue Culture and Plant Regeneration in Caladium
Author: Zhu Zhi-qing Chu Chih-ching, Sun Jing-san (Sun Ching-san), Chen Wei-lun and Lu Si-cong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(6)
    The explants taken from leaves and infloresecnees of Caladium bicolor and C. hortulanum produced calli on N6 and MS media supplimented with 2, 4-D. When the ealli were transferred onto hormone-free medium or the medium containing kinetin and low concentration of auxin, they differentiated embryoids in a large amount. This study provided a method of rapid propagation for Caladium.
Abstract (Browse 2885)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Airborne Pollen and Its Allergy in Nanning, Guangxi
Author: Zhang Jin-tan (Chang King-tang), Chen Ke, Mo Guang-you and Chen Xiang-tao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(6)
    Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region is a subtropic monsoon climate. Plants are various and their blossom period are long. To prevent and cure the respiratory allergic diseases, we made an investigation on the diffusion patterns of airborne allergic pollen grains and spores and their allergization as well in Nanning. Our work paves a way for further similar researches in the south of our country. The relationship between airborne pollen quantity and the climate, the diffution patterns of various pollen grains and the pollen quantity of higher level and lower level are discussed in the present paper.
Abstract (Browse 1934)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Structure Anomalous Secondary Growth of Stem in Gnetum montanum
Author: Gao Xin-zeng, Chen Yao-tang, Deng Yue-fen and Li Rong-ao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(6)
    In the stem of Gnetnm montanum Mgr. the general arrangement of various tissues and its pattern of secondary growth are very similar to those of angiosperms. The most conspicuous similarity lies in that the xylem contains vessels and the phloem, sieve elements and companion ceils. In climbing species of G. montanum, secondary growth initiates in s normal manner which is followed by the development of new combium at various loci among the parenehyms cells towards the periphery of each bundle. It does not initiate from the phloem parenchyma which is in agreement with the findings of Pearson (1929) and Maheshwari etc. (1961). Gradually these loci become incorporated into a continuous cylinder, producing a normally oriented ring of xylem and phloem separated by broad medullary rays. The growth of the first ring ceases at the commencement of the further formation of the outer, successive rings.
Abstract (Browse 5669)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Components of Swertia devidi Frauch
Author: Yu Rui-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(6)
Abstract (Browse 1928)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Study on the Essential Oil from the Seeds of Forsytha suspensa Vahl
Author: Liu Guo-sheng, Liu Ji-xian, Fang Hong-ju and Hu Qiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(6)
Abstract (Browse 1870)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Structure of Henryine A
Author: Wang Zhao-quan, Wang Xian-rong, Dong Ji-guang, Xue Zhao-wen and Wang Xue-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(6)
    A diterpenoid having ent-kaurene-skeleton, ttenryine A, has been isotated front the ethanol extract of Rabdosia henryi (Hemsl) Hara (Labiata) leaves collected in west Hubei. The structure of henryine A was determined as ent-7, 14-dihyd-roxy-19-hydroxymethyl-Kaur-16-en-ll, 15-dione() by means of spectroscopic analysis. This compound of diterpenoid was shown to have inhibitory action on Hela cells and staphylococcus aureus, et al in vitro.
Abstract (Browse 1898)  |  Full Text PDF       
Early Development of the Endosperm in Kingdonia uniflora
Author: Mu Xi-jin (Mu Shih-kin)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(6)
Abstract (Browse 1895)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Species of Pterophyllurn from Haizhou Formation of fuxin
Author: Zheng Shao-lin and Zhang Wu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(6)
    This paper is to deseribe one new species of Bennettitalean plants Pterophyllum fuxinense and its cuticles from the coal-bearing beds of the Haizhou Formation on Fuxin of Liaoning province. According to the assemblage of the fossil plants, the writers consider that the Haizhou Formation may be assigned to Lower Cretaceous in age.
Abstract (Browse 1956)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Identification and Isolation of Steroidal Saponin from Dioscorea gracillima Miq.
Author: Tang Shi-rong and Wu Yie-feng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1984 26(6)
    Two trisaecharides of diosgenin (A, B) had been isolated from the rhizome of Dioseorea gracillima Maq. (collected from Jiangsi, Lu Shan). By means of acetylafion, acid hydrolysis, IR, MS and 13C-NMR etc. saponin A and saponin B were identifieated as dioscin and gracillin, respectively. Its yieldingratio is 3:1 (A:B).
Abstract (Browse 1971)  |  Full Text PDF       
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