January 1985, Volume 27 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
Chemical Component Studies on the Essential oil of Artemisia cina Berg
Author: Liu Guo-sheng, Liu Cheng-de, Fong Hong-ju, Hu Qiu Cheng Guang-rong, Xu Da-yi, Cao Su-lan, Chang Qing-yun and Li Nian-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(1)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1874)  |  Full Text PDF       
Induction of Endosperm Plantlets in Lycium
Author: Gu Shu-rong, Gui Yao-lin and Xu Ting-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(1)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1752)  |  Full Text PDF       
Tertiary Sporo-Pollen Assemblage of-Zhujiangkou Pearl River North Basin and Its Stratigraphicai Significance
Author: Lei Zuo-qi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(1)
      
    The Tertiary sediments in the Zhujiangkou (Pearl River North) Basin are well developed, containing very rich pollens and spores. Polynological research has been going on since 1977. According to the characters, they may be divided into seven palynological assemblages as follows: 1. Taxodiaceaepollenites-Gothanipollis assemblage (Corresponding to the Baoan Formation). The assemblage mainly consists of Alnipollenites, Quercoidites, Liquidam- barpollenites, Taxodiaceaepollenites and Pinuspollenites. In addition it contains some Polypoiisporites, Ostryoipollenites, Retitricolpites, and rare characteristic species: Utri-culariapollis tritremites, U. tetratremites, Trilobapollis leps, T. ellipticus, Opcrculumpollis operculatus, Ulmoideipites krempii, Ulmipollenites minor and Gothanipollis bassensis, referring to Early-Middle Oligocene age. 2. Ostryoipollenites-PinuspoUenites assemblage (Corresponding to the Zhuhai Formation). The assemblage is similar to the preceding assemblage. In the same manner are well development of Quercoidites, Ostryoipollenites, AlnipoUenitcs, Liquidambarpollenites, Polypodiisporites, Pinuspollenites, Dicolpopollis, with a certain amount of Cupuliferoipollenites, Dacrydiumites, Cedripites, Ulmipollcnites, and minority of Trilobapollis, but such older pollen grains as Utriculariapollis tritremites, U. tetratremites and Opcrculumpollis operculatus have never been discovered harein. Its age is Late Oligocene. 3.Quercoidites-Retitricolpites assemblage (Corresponding to the Zhujiang Formation). The assemblage is different to the preceding assemblage inacute attenuation of Ostryoipollenites, Alnipollenites, Pinuspollenites and Cedripites, some oleder Angiospermonus pollen as Trilobapollis, Gothanipollis, Ulmoideipites krempii, Ulmipollenites minor have never been discovered herein. The assemblage is characterized by the abundance of Quercoidites, Liquidambarpollenites, Dicolpopollis and Retitricolpites. In addition present many Florschuetzia trilobata, F. semilobata and F. levipoli and Zonocostites cf. ramonae, suggeting Early Miocene. 4. Florschuetzia trilobata-F, semilobata assemblage (Corresponding to the Lower member of the Hanjing Formation). The assemblage mainly consists of Florschuetzia trilobata, F. semilobata, Cupuliferoipollenites and Polypodiisporites. In addition it contains some Polypodiaceaesporites, Quercoidites, Rctetricolpites and rare Florschuetzia levipoli and Zonocostatites of ramonae, probably referred to the Early stage of Middle Miocene. Florschuetzia levipoli-Zonocostatites cf. ramonae assemblage (Corresponding to the Upper member of the Hanjiang Formation). The assemblage is characterized by the abundance of Florschutzia levipoli, F. trilobata, Zonocostatites cf. ramonae, Cupuliferoipollenites, Polypodiaceaesporites, Polypodiisporites, and also by preferred of F. semilobata, Quercoidites, Dicolpopollis, probably referred to the Late stage of Middle Miocene. 6. Chenopodipollis-Cupuliferoipollenites assemblage (Corresponding to the Yuechai Formation). The assemblage mainly consists of Cupuliferoipollenites, and presence of Graminidites, Chenopodipollis, Polypodiisporites, and rare Florschuetzia levipoli, F. semilobata, Zonocostatites cf. ramonae, but pollen grains F. trilobata have never been discovered herein, assigned to Late Miocene. 7. Cupuliferoipollenites-Polypodiaceae assemblage (Corresponding to the Wanshan Formation). The assemblage consists of Polypodiisporites, Polypodiaceaesporites, Cupuliferoipollenites, and also by presence Graminidites, Liquidambarpollenites, Quercoidites, and rare Florschuetzia levipoli, F. semilobata, Zonocostatites cf. ramonae, referring to Pliocene age. According to the present sporopollen assemblage, it may be supposed the paleoclimate of Zhujiangkou (Pearl River Mouth) Basin in the Oligocene Epoch was certainly rather cold and arid; in the Neogene Period was warn and wet.
Abstract (Browse 2299)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Floristic Phytogeographical Differentiation of Xizang Tibet
Author: Zheng Du
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(1)
      
    The geoecological conditions of Xizang (Tibet) are very complicated. An approach on the floristic phytogeographical differentiation of Xizang has been made in the present paper with a quantitative floristic method. According to areal types of the species the flora of Xizang may be classified under five major geoelements: the north temperate zone geo-element (N), the Central Asiatic geoelemcnt (C), the Qinghai-Xizang Tibetan Plateau geo-element (T), the Sino-Himalayan geo-element (SH) and the tropical geo-element (Tr). Different diagrams of spectra of floristic elements of Xizang are presented. Four cross-sections were chosen for illustrating the regional differentiation of spectra of floristic elements of Xizang. It is obvious that the SH-geo-element prevails in the Eastern and Southeastern Xizang and the Trgeo-element is confined at lower elevation of the southern flanks of the Himalayas. On the contrary, on the Plateau proper the Tgeoelement dominates and the C-geo-element plays a significant role in the northwestern part of Xizang. It corresponds to the following horizontal zones of vegetation from southeast to northwest: montane forest-alpine meadow-alpine steppe-alpine desert. An example at the southern slopes of the Eastern Himalayas has been taken to investigate the vertical variation of the spectra of floristic elements, the boundary between the both subbelts of the montane evergreen broad-leaved forest belt at an elevation of 1,800 m has been proposed as the upper limit dominated by the tropical geo-element. On the basis of dominance spectra of the fioristic elements in the grid-square system floristic boundaries are defined, which separate different floristic regions from one another, thereafter a floristic division of Xizang has been discussed. There are the sub-region of the "Himalayan flanks belonging to the Indo-Malaysian sub-kingdom of the Palaeotropical kingdom, the Sino-Himalayan sub-kingdom and the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau sub-kingdom of the Holarctic kingdom.
Abstract (Browse 1915)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Indentification of Protosaponins from Fresh Rhizomes of Dioscorea zingiberensis Wright
Author: Liu Cheng-lai and Chen Yan-yong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(1)
      
    Five steroidal chemical compounds were isolated from the fresh rhizomes of Dioseorea zingiberensis Wright gathered from Sichuan Province. Their chem ieal structures have been elucidated as diosgenin palmitate [i]; 汕-sitosterol [j]; gra- cillin [k]; protogracillin [l] and 3-O-{汐-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1↙3)-[汕-D-glucopy- ranosyl (1↙2)]-汕-D-glucopyranosyl}-26-O-{汕-D-glucopyranosyl}-diosgenin [m]. [m]is a new steroidal saponin, named protozingiberensissaponin.
Abstract (Browse 1888)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of High Temperature on Chloroplast Ribosomes and Biosynthesis of Chloroplast Proteins in Wheat
Author: Liu Zuo-chang and Su De-yin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(1)
      
    The chloroplasts of wheat have chanced greatly at high temperature condition(34⊥). When wheat grown at 34⊥ for 10 days, its chlorophyll content was 6 times less than that under the normal condition(22⊥). The ribosomes were isolated from the leaves by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. It is found that only 80 S ribosomes existed in wheat leaves grown at the high temperature and the formation of 70 S ribosomes is specifically prevented. Since the absence of 70 S ribosomes in chloroplast, proteins synthesis can no longer proceed. Analysis of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicates that the bands of chloroplast proteins from the leaves of wheat at the high temperature are less than those under normal condition. One of the poly- peptides the large subunit(MW=57000 daltons) of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, which is coded for by chloroplast genome and synthesized on 70 S ribosome in chloroplast, was lost. The photosynthetic intensity is decreased due to the blocking synthesis in chloroplast of some polypeptides which play the important role in photosynthesis.
Abstract (Browse 2015)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Light Quality and Norflurazon on the Formation of Plastid Pigments in Cotyledons of Pinus sylvestris
Author: Tong Zhe
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(1)
      
    The effects of different light qualities and a special inhibitor of carotenoid biosynthesis on formation of plastid pigments of cotyledons of Pinus sylvestris were studied. The experimental results indicate: 1. The rate of synthesis of carotenoids in far-red light is relatively higher than that of chlorophylls, on the contrary in red light the rate of chlorophyll synthesis is higher. 2. When biosynthesis of carotenoids is inhibited, in white light the rate of total chlorophyll synthesis reduced with similar proportion. Accumulation of chlorophyll, however, is relatively much more than that of carotenoids. The highest molar ratio of chlorophyll/carotenoids is approximately 10.0. This implicates that chlorophyll and carotenoid synthesis proceed with certain independence. 3. After 4h exposure of strong white light of 9 day-old pine seedlings grown with 10-5 mol 1-1 norflurazon in farred light, contents of carotenoids and total, chlorophyll of cotyledons increase. Chlorophyll a biosynthesis promoted by light is higher than photooxidation of the pigment.
Abstract (Browse 1885)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structure and Function of Chloroplast Membrane XVI. Comparative Studies on Some Photosynthetic Characteristics between Normal and Mutant Barleys
Author: Zhang Qi-de, Lin Shi-qing, Lou Shi-qing, Tang Chong-qin, Li Shi-yi and Kuang Ting-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(1)
      
    Some photosynthetic characteristics of mutant barley Chlorina f, were studied in comparison with that of normal variety. They were quite different in chlo- roplast membrane structures, pigment protein complexes, the content of electron transport components and photosynthetic functions. The absence of Chlb in mutant barley, as demonstrated by absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra, caused some defects of membrane structure and lose of the ability to regulate the distribution of excitation energy between PSII and PSi. In comparison with the normal variety, the mutant barley contained much less chlorophyll per leaf area, but more P700, Cyt f and PQ on the chlorophyll basis. These differences surely affect their photochemical activities. As envisaged by fluorescence spectra, peripheral antenna of PSi is absent in mutant barley membrane besides the lacking of Chl a/b-protein of PSj. Fluorescence induction transient of mutant barley leaf did not show the typical time course of O↙P↙S↙M↙T. The coexistence of light harvesting Chl a/b-protein eomplex of PSj and peripheral antenna of PSI and their cooperation with each other seem to be necessary for the occurence of typical fluorescence induction transient.
Abstract (Browse 1752)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relationship Between Protein Synthesis, ATP and Adenylate Energy Charge in Isolated Mung Bean Axes during Imbibition
Author: Liu Cun-de, Shen Quan-guang, Jia Zhi-wang, Yan Tian, Yan Long-fei and Tang Pei-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(1)
      
    The increase in ATP and E.C. in the mung bean axes during imbibi- tion was accompanied by an increase in the rate of protein synthesis. When the axes were treated with 5℅l0-5 M, and 5℅10-4M 2,4-Dinitrophenol at the first 4 hours of imbibition respectively, the production of ATP was inhibited, and the E.C. value decreased; at the same time, the incorporation of 3H-leucine into the trichloroacetic acidinsoluble protein was inhibited also. CCCP (1℅10-5M and 1℅10-4M) had a similar effect as DNP on mung bean axes. Incubated with 0.2 米g. ml-1 cycloheximide for 4 hours, the protein synthsized reduced by 69% compared to the control, the ATP and E. C. were slightly higher than the untreated one; while incubated with 1 米g and 5 米g cycloheximide, the protein synthesis almost stopped, the content of ATP decreased slightly, and E. C. value remained constant. When the mung bean axes were incubated with 1 米g, and 10 米g. ml-1 of actinomycin D for 4 hours, the protein synthesis was inhibited 23%, and 48% respectively. On the other hand, ATP, E. C. and the adenylate pool were not affected. These results showed that protein synthesis in mung bean axes during im- bibition was highly sensitive to the changes of ATP level and E. C. value. In contrast, adenylate pool was not affected by the actinomycin D.
Abstract (Browse 1857)  |  Full Text PDF       
Mesophyll Protoplast Fusion Induced by External Electric Fields
Author: Song Yong-gen, Xia Zhen-ao and Zhang Lin-Xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(1)
      
    Applying an alternative electric field (sine wave, 500 KHz, 175每225 v/cm) generated from a self-made cell fusion apparatus, the mesophyll protoplasts of barley, (green or green and etiolated), broadbean or tobacco formed chain arrangement between two parallel electrods so that a very small area of the membranes of the protoplasts to be fused was brought into close contact. On the additional application of a single square pulse (10每40 米s, 800 v/cm, depending on the kind of protoplasts investigated), the reversible breakdown of plasma membranes was induced and then protoplast fusion was triggered. The protoplast fusion frequency was over 50%. The relation between square pulse and fusion percentage and other factors influencing fusion was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1908)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytochemical Localization of Adenosine Triphosphataes Activity During Cytomixis in Pollen Mother Cells of David Lily and Its Relation to the Intercellular Migrating Chromatin Substance
Author: Zheng Guo-chang(Cheng Kuo-chang), Nie Xiu-wan, Wang Yi-xiu, Jian Ling-cheng, Sun Long-hua and Sun De-lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(1)
      
    Standard lead precipitation procedures have been used to examine the localization of ATPase activity during cytomixis in pollen mother cells of Lilium davidii var. willmottiae (Wilson) Roffill. Before cytomixis, cells at this stage of development show ATPase activity on plasma membrane, in the endoplasmic reticulum, dictyosomes, plastids, plasmodesmata, and in part of the groundplasm; however, there is no ATPase activity on the chromatin and nucleolus. During cytomixis, the chromatin substance begin to transfer from one cell to an adjacent cell, reaction product indicating ATPase activity is observed associated with the chromatin and nucleolus. ATPase activity is also found with the cistenae of both endoplasmic reticulum and dictyosomes, and some plastids. There is no deposition of ATPase reaction product associated with the plasm membrane and intercellular spaces. After cytomixis, the chromatin is little or no deposition of enzyme reaction product. ATPase activity, however, is consistenlly found within the intercellular space and on the plasm membrane, and also occur in the endoplasmic reticulum, dictyosome and plastid. The presence or absence of ATPase activity in the cell structure of pollen mother cells before, during or after eytomixis is discussed in relation to the active uptake or export of water for short-distance transport. It is also suggested that the intensive ATPase activity in the nucleus during cytomixis of pollen mother cells is evidence for a transport system involved in the active movement of the intercellular migrating ebromatin substance.
Abstract (Browse 1919)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Ovule Structure and Development of Male and Female Gametophytes in Araentotaxus
Author: Chen Zu-keng and Wang Fu-xiong Wang Fu-hsiung
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(1)
      
    The ovules of Amentotaxus are 2每2.5 cm in length and about 1.3 cm in width. Aril, which contains about 14〞17 secretory canals in transection, is com- posed of parenchyma. The vascular bundles are absent in aril. The integument is com- posed of ceils of outer, middle, and inner regions. The middle region of the integument is about 10 cells in thickness. The Integuments are basally parenchymatous before pollination and then the cells become elongating and thickenning in middle region after pollination. Finally the micropylar canal is forced to be closed. In addition, there are 8每14 vascular bundles with centripetal xylem arranged in a ring in integument. One of the most remarkable feature of the ovule is that there is a pollen chamber formed at the top of nucellus before pollination. At this time because epidermis of nucellus does not disintegrate, the pollen chamber looks like conical in longitudinal section. After pollination the pollen chamber was becoming closed due to elongation and thickenning of cells in the middle region of integument. At the base of ovule there are 4每5 pairs of bracts which contain a larger secretory cavity and a centripetal xylem in a vascular bundle. It is interesting that wax layer of 30每40 米m thick is covered on the surface of integument, aril and bract. Usually 3每4 microsporangia which are hypodermal in origin, occur in abaxial side of a microsporophyll. In some cases the tapetum is partly enlarging and extruding into the developing tetrahedral tetrads. The mature pollen comprises an antheridial initial and a tube cell. About 20 pollen grains may germinate in the same ovule. The megaspore divide successively 8 times to produce 256 nuclei and then cell wall formation takes place. The female gametophyte is about 830每908 米m in length and 500 米m in width. The archegonia are single, terminal, and 6每7 in number. The mature archgonium, with ventral canal nucleus, is about 430 米m in length and 80每108 米m in width. The female gametophyte is often growing against the upper part of the nuceilus and makes the cells of the latter gradually to be disintegrated. The ovule construction of Amentotaxus is in some degree similar to that of Ginkgo in having a comparatively well developed pollen chamber. The mature pollen of Amentotaxus, which is similar to that of Cephalotaxus is composed of 2-cells. In sum, Amentotaxus perhaps is the most primitive genus in Taxaceae and it is closely related to Cephalotaxus.
Abstract (Browse 2405)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Components of the Essential oil from Adcnosma indianum (Lour.) Merr
Author: Ji Xiao-duo and Pu Quan-long
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(1)
      
    This paper presents the chemical constituents of the essential oil of Adenosma indianum (Lour.) Merr. by GC and GC/MS/DS. Fivty-four components which were isolated and quantified. Thirtyfive components have been identified. The main components are 汐-pinene, 汕-pinene, limonene, p-cymene, 1,4-cineol, linalool, fenchone, o-methylanisole and 汛-guaiene.
Abstract (Browse 1855)  |  Full Text PDF       
Microscopical Observations on the Embryoid Formation in Cultured Unfertilized Ovules of Helianthus annuus L.
Author: Yan Hua, Wu Yan Chen Xiao-ming, Wei Zbeng-yuan, Zhou Chang and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(1)
      
    A recent advance in plant experimental embryology is the induction of haploid plants via in vitro culture of unfertilized ovules. Using float culture method on liquid media, we have raised haploid as well as diploid embryoids in sunflower cultivars by ovule culture. The present investigation was aimed to know the origin and developmental processes of these embryoids. Young flowers 1每4 days before anthesis were dissected and ovules were inoculated on N6 medium supplemented with 0.5每2 ppm MCPA and 6% sucrose. During culture period, samples were collected at intervals, fixed, stained and sectioned by paraffin method. Fifty one gynogenie embryoids of various sizes were observed among Ca. 2000 ovules. They were located at the micropylar end of the embryo sacs and proved to be originated from the unfertilized egg cells. At the early stages, they bore a strong resemblance to the zygotic proembryos in vivo, but after a considerable enlargement, they grew into globular, ovoid or elongated big bodies without polarized organ differentiation. Chromosome counts on some mitotic figures in these embyoids revealed their haploid nature. Embryoids were also produced from the endothelial tissue, which proliferated markedly after inoculation, especially at the chalazal parts, resulting in massive multilayered irregular folds and then degenerated. In some eases, cell divisions at one or several places led to embryoid or callus formation. The problems of how to regulate the growth of in vitro ovules in order to promote the gynogenic embryoids and inhibit the somatic embryoids or calli are left for future research.
Abstract (Browse 1990)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Early Development of Embryo and Endosperm of Paeonia lactifiora
Author: Mu Xi-jin and Wang Fu-xiong(Wang Fu-hsiung)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(1)
      
    The present paper reports the early development of embryo and endosperm of Paeonia lactiflora. The main conclusions are as follows: 1 The zygote nucleus divides directly to form a coenocytic proembryo with different number of free nuclei. The result confirms the conclusion of Yakovlev[6] as well as Yakovlev and Yoffe[7] On the occurnce of coenocytic proembryo in Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. (P. moutan Sims), P. albiflora Pall. (P. lactiflora Pall), P. officinalis L., P. tenuifolia L., P. anomala L., P. veitchii Lynch (P. beresowskii Komarov), P. wittmanniana, also it agrees with the report of Cave et al.[4] on the occurence of the coenocytie proembryo in Paeonia californica and P. brownii. From the result of our investigation, there is no basis to support Murgai's conclusion obtained in certain species of Paeonia, i.e., the first division of zygote nucleus is accompanied by wall formation and the coenocyte is a suspensor. The primary endosperm nucleus of P. lactiflora divides often earlier than zygote nucleus, or almost at the same time or later in a few cases; 2 Both mitosis and amitosis occur in the free nuclei in the coenocytic proembryo, and mitosis is dominant. In the later stage of development the amitosis occurs at the micropylar region of the coenocytic proembryo, in the free nuclear endosperm at the chalazal region and the appressed part of the chalazal end of the coenocytic proembryo. In addition, in the region of conenocytic proembryo and endosperm polyploid nuclei, irregular nuclei are also frequently met with; 3 Cell wall formation in the coenocyte and the endosperm initiates by means of both cell plate and freely growthing walls, but in the coenocyte wall formation is earlier than in the free nuclear endosperm. At first, wall formation of the coenocytic proembryo begins at the chalazal end, and then extends toward the micropylar region, and in endosperm it begins at the part appressed to the part of the chalazal end of coenocytic proembryo, and then extends toward the chalazal end. We support Cave*s suggestion of the parallel evolution for Paeonia possessed the coenocytic proembryo has no relation to the coenocytic proembryo of the gymnosperms. Further we consider the evolution tendency of the coenocytic proembryo of Paeonia toward a functional specialization.
Abstract (Browse 2423)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Indentification of Flavonoids from Aerial Part of Bupleurum tenue Buch-Ham-ex D. Don
Author: Li Hong-ying, Lu Chang-gen and Li Xiu-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(1)
      
    The present paper deals with the flavonoid components of the aerial part of B. tenue Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don. Four flavonoid components were obtained by polyamide column chromatography method. On the basis of spectroscopic analysis, preparation of derivatives, acid hydrolysis and physicochemical constants, they were identified as rutin, narcissin, kaempferol and quercetin, respectively, which are not reported in this plant.
Abstract (Browse 1891)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effects of Several Exogenous Hormones on Bark Regeneration After Girdling in Eucommia ulmoides
Author: Li Zheng-li (Lee Cheng-lee) and Cui Ke-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(1)
      
    When the exposed surface of the girdled trunk of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. were daubed with plant hormones, i.e. ethrel, 2,4-D, NAA, GA and NAA+GA respectively in appropriate concentrations, it was found that the 2,4-D, GA and NAA+ GA treated trunks, initiations of phellogen and vascular cambium in callus were earlier than that in control. These trunks treated with ethrel, formation of phellogen alone were earlier. However, initiation of phellogen and differentiation of vascular cambium in the trunk treated with NAA were similar to control.
Abstract (Browse 1835)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

PROMOTIONS

    Photo Gallery
Scan with iPhone or iPad to view JIPB online
Scan using WeChat with your smartphone to view JIPB online
Editorial Office, Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, Institute of Botany, CAS
No. 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093, China
Tel: +86 10 6283 6133 Fax: +86 10 8259 2636 E-mail: jipb@ibcas.ac.cn

Copyright © 2017 by the Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences
Online ISSN: 1744-7909 Print ISSN: 1672-9072 CN: 11-5067/Q