March 1985, Volume 27 Issue 3


          Research Articles
Fertilization and Histochemical Investigation on Pulsatilla chinensis (Bung) Regel
Author: Mu Xi-jin and Wang Fu-xiong Wang Fu-hsiung
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(3)
    Fertilization and variation of protein and starch grains in Pulsatilla chinensis (Bung) Regel have been studied at light microscopic level with histochemical test. Based upon the observations, the main conclusions are summarized as follows: The mature pollen grains are two-celled in which the generative cell shows the stronger protein staining than the vegetative cell. And vegetative cells are full of starch garins. When the pollen tube enters into the embryo sac, one synergid is destroyed, or in a few cases synergids are intact. Occasionally two synergids are disorganized as pollen tube penetrates. However, most of the remaining syuergids break down during fertilization, only in a few cases it remains till early stage of embryo development. The contents discharged by the pollen tube consist of two sperms, which stain intensely blue with protein dyes, a great amount of protein and starch grains. Mature female gametophyte (embryo sac) consists of an egg apparatus, central cell, which has a huge secondary nucleus, and antipodal apparatus which retain in course of fertilization. A few of embryo sac contain two sets of egg apparatus, a central cell with two huge secondary nuclei and two sets of antipodal apparatus. In some nucleoli of the central cell the comb-like structure pattern may be detected clearly. There are 1每2 small nucleoli in some egg cells and central cells. All the cells in embryo sac show protein positive reaction. According to the different shades of the color in cells, its may be arranged in the following order: antipodal cells, synergids, central cell and egg cell. Only a few small starch grains are present near nuclei of central cell and egg cell before fertilization, but no starch grains remain in most of the central cell, the synergids and antipodal cells. The fertilization is of the premitotic type. The fusion of the sexual nuclei progresses in the following order: 1, sperms approach and lie on the egg nucleus and secondary nucleus; 2, sperm chromatin sinks themselves into female nucleus, and male nucleolus emerges with the sperm chromosome; and 3, male nucleoli fuse with the nucleoli of egg nucleus and central cell nucleus, and finally forming the zygote and the primary endosperm cells respectively. Nevertheless, as it is well known, the fertilization completes in central cell obviously earlier than that in egg cell. Though it has been explained in cereals and cotton, in Pulsatilla chinensis the main reason is that nucleolar fusion of the male and female nucleoli in egg nucleus is slower than that in secondary nucleus. And the dormancy of the primary endosperm nucleus is shorter than that of the zygote. In the process of fertilization, histochemical changes are considerably obvious in the following three parts: 1, from the begining of fusion of male and female nuclei to form zygote and primary endosperm cell, Protein staining around female nucleus appears to increase gradually; 2, no starch grains are detected in embryo sac. Though only starch grains are carried in by pollen tube, they are completely exhausted during this period; and 3, near completion of fertilization starch grains appear again in zygote, however, not yet in primary endosperm nucleus till its dividing for the first time. The present study reveals that antipodal cells and synergids seem to play a significant role in nutrition of the embryo sac during the fertilization.
Abstract (Browse 1788)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study of Late Triassic Plants from Qinghe of Yanbian District, Sichuan Province
Author: Chen Ye, Duau Shu-ying and Zhang Yu-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(3)
    This paper deals with fossil plants 144 species belong to 46 genera col- lected from Qinghe of Yanbian District, Siehuan Provinee. In this paper 5 new species are described, i.e.: Marattia sichuanensis, Drepanozamites multipartitus, Podozamites sichuanensis, Pityostrobus yanbianensis and Scoresbya entegra. The dominant group of the Qinghe flora is Cycadophyta (9 genera and 38 species) Filicopsida is also a large group (12 genera and 32 species) in this flora, of which Dipteridaceae, Angiopteridaceae, Marattiaceae and Osmundaceae are rieher in species than others. Pteridospermae is fairly numerous in this flora. Ginkgoales and Coniferales are very rich. The dominance of Podozamites forms the most conspicuous feature of this flora. Based on the characters of this flora, it closely resembles Yipinglang flora of Yunnan, Xujiahe flora of Sichuan, Tonkin flora of Vietnam, Nariwa flora of Japan and East Greenland flora, but is younger than the Daqiaodi flora found in Baoding of Si- chuan. The age of the flora is assigned to the middle Keuper-Rhaetic stage of the late Triassic. The climate of that time was tropic-subtropic in nature.
Abstract (Browse 2015)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Alpine Cushion Vegetation of Xizang
Author: Li Bo-sheng, Zhang Jing-wei, Wang Jin-ting and Chen Wei-lie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(3)
    The alpine cushion vegetation is a peculiar type of the alpine vegetation, Which widely distributes in the Qinghai-Xizang plateau, range Tianshan and the Eastern Pamir of China, and developes best in Xizang. In this paper, the problem of the correct differentiation of the alpine cushion vegetation are discussed, in addition, Some Characteristics of the environment, distribution and composition of the alpine cushion vegetation in Xizang are analysed and discussed. The authors suggested that the Xizang plateau is an another original center of the alpine cushion vegetation besides the Pamir plateau according as authors had analysed the basic characteristic of the alpine cushion vegetation in Xizang. The following 5 main formations of the cushion vegetation of the Xizang are summarized: Form. Androsace tapete, Form. Arcnaria bryophylla, Form. Arenaria pulvinata, Form. Thylacospermum caespitosum and Form. Chionocharis hookeri.
Abstract (Browse 2092)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Carrierea calycina Forest of the Jinfo Shan, China
Author: Ying Jun-sheng, Ying Tsun-shen, Ma Cheng-gong and Zhang Zhi-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(3)
    The Carrierea calycina forest is confined to Jinfo Shah (28˚58∪N; I07˚27∪E), Sichuan province. Field observations were made in this mountainal area in 1978. In this paper the composition and structure of the interesting community, its enviroment, as well as the dynamics are discussed. The Carrierea calycina forest contains 113 species of higher plants. Among the higher plants 72 species (64.2%) are endemic to China, 20 species have a Sino-Japanese distributional pattern, and a few are Sino-Southeast Asia, elements (table 1). According to the coefficient of similarity of the components, sameness in the bedrock underlying the forest, and dominant species, the forest occuring in four quadrats can be consider- ed the Corrierea calycina community. Based on Raunkiaers classification of life form, the phanerophytes rank first in the type of Carrierea calycina community amounting to 51.8% (fig. 1). Analysis of the population structures of Carrierea calycina and Lithocarpus cleistocarpus indicate that the Carrierea calycina community is not in a steady-state condition. The species Lithocarpus cleistocarpus would replace the Corrierea calycina in the community.
Abstract (Browse 2006)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Chemical Study of the Volatile Oil ot Lysimachia Foenumgraecum Hance
Author: Liu Guo-sheng,Fang Hong-ju, Li Nai-wen, Hu Qiu, Jiang Ke, Kang Zhi-quan and Bian Ya-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(3)
    The present paper reports that 0.17% fragrant, yellowish green colored volatile oil was obtained from Lysimachia foenumgraecum Hance by steam distil- lation with the following physical constants: nD20 1.4824, d1515 0.9059, [汐]D25 -18.6 (c=1.1,CHCl3). 2. From the volatile oil a large amount of palmitic acid was separated and identified by its rap, elementary analysis and IR. 3. The volatile oil was divided into the acidic portion, the constituents in which were later transferred into their methyl esters (A), and the neutral and phenolic por- tion (B). (A) and (B) were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The result of analysis showed that a total of 59 chemical constituents were indentified in the volatile oil; (A) con- sisted of 20 and (B) consisted of 39 constituents. 4. From the results as shown in the GC figures I and 2, hexahydrofarnesylacetone, being a rarely occured constituent in the natural product, and dibutyl phthalate might be considered to be the principal neutral costituents, just as the hexadecanoic acid and margaric acid to be the principal acidic constituents in the volatile oil of Lysimachia foenumgraecum Hance.
Abstract (Browse 2153)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of the Hydrocarbon Fraction of the Essential Oils from Caryopteris tangutica and C. Glutinosa
Author: L邦 Yi-chang, Yang Yu-cheng, Jin Yan-jun, Pu Zi-lian and Shi Yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(3)
    The chemical constituents of the hydrocarbon fraction of essential oils of Caryopteris tangutica Maxim. and C. glutinosa Rehd were examined by means of GC-MS-COM and GC retention time data on a 45 m capillary column coated with OV- 101. 21 components have been saparated and identified, i.e. 汐-thujene, 汐-pinene, cam- phene, sabinene, 汕-pinene, 汕-myrcene, 汐-terpinene, p-cymene, limonene, 汕-ocimene-y, 汕- phellandrene, 汐-terpinolene, 汐-cubebene, 汐-copaene, 汐-cedrene, 汕-caryophyllene, 污-cadinene, 1-aromadendrene, 汐-humulene, 汕-bisabolene and 汛-cadinene. The quantitative determination of these components was carried out by GLC also.
Abstract (Browse 2032)  |  Full Text PDF       
Some Characteristics of Photosynthesis and Nitrogen Fixation in Heterocysts Isolated by Digitonin
Author: Zhong Ze-pu, Zhang Hui-miao and Bai Ke-zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(3)
    A simple method for the preparation of heterocysts from blue-green alga Anabaena variabilis was described. The vegetative cells were disrupted by vibration at 30⊥ in a buffer solution containing digitonin plus mannitol (0.3% digitonin, 0.7 M mannitol, 10 mM EDTA-Na and 10mM TES pH 7.8) for 50 min. In combination with differential centrifugation, isolated heterocysts of 90% purity were obtained. The isolated heterocysts reduced acetylene in darkness when ATP and Na2S2O4 were supplied. The activity was linear under dark for more than 4 hours and reached a maximum of 5.31n mol C2H2/106 heterocysts per hour which was 10% of the activity of the intact algae filaments on the basis of their heterocysts. Under light with H2 supply, the light dependent acetylene reduction activity was not detectable. Fluorescence spectrum from the isolated heterocysts was studied at 77˚K (exciting beam at wavelength near 430 nm). The results show that the heterocysts contain PSi but Lack in PSj. The DCIP+ascorbate↙methyl viologen activity of this isolated heterocysts was 360 米 mol O2 consumed/mg Chl. h. The above results indicate that isolated heterocysts by this method possess an activity of PS i of DCIPH2↙MV photosynthetic electron transport.
Abstract (Browse 2029)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Simi-Evergreen Broad-Leaf Forest on the South Slope of the Eastern Himalayas
Author: Li Bo-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(3)
Abstract (Browse 1757)  |  Full Text PDF       
Priming Effect of PEG on Seed Germination
Author: Zheng Guang-hua, Xu Ben-mei and Gu Zheng-hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(3)
Abstract (Browse 1945)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Ultrastructural Changes Induced by Radiation in the Meristematic Cells of Root Tips of Wheat
Author: Zhou Jun-yan and Wang Qin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(3)
Abstract (Browse 1767)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of the CN-resistant Respiration in Callus Cultures of Nicotiana tabacurn during the Period of Differentiation
Author: Liang Hou-guo, Liu Liang-huan, Wu Bo-ji, Li Qi and Sun Ai-qun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(3)
    The callus cultures obtained from unpollinated young ovaries of willow leaf tobacco were transplanted separately on subculture medium (M-l) and differentiation medium (M-2). They were called M-1 callus and M-2 callus respectively. Only meristematic cells and parenchymas could be observed in M-1 callus. The M-2 callus, however, was able to differentiation into vascular systems, embryoids and bud primordia. The respiration of M-1 callus exhibited CN-insensitive. The relative contributions of alternative pathway and eytochrome pathway to the total respiration were 29每38% and 44每51% respectively during the culture period of 25 days. It was obvious that the bulk of the respiratory electron flux was mediated by the eytochrome pathway. The greater part of the respiration in M-2 callus was insensitive to cyanide. The relative contributions of alternative pathway and cytochrome pathway to the total respiration were 41每47% and 29每32% respectively. These results suggested that the increase in the participation of the alternative pathway in total respiration was probablely related to the differentiation of the callus culture.
Abstract (Browse 1738)  |  Full Text PDF       
Synthesis and Cloning of cDNA Coding for Alfalfa Leghemoglobin
Author: Jing Yu-xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(3)
    This paper presents the method for synthesis in vitro of cDNA coding for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Vernol) leghemoglobin in detail. The first stranded cDNA was synthesized by using leghemoglobin mRNA as template with AM virus reve- rse transcriptase. Then the double stranded cDNA(ds-cDNA) was obtained from the first one with E. coli DNA polymerase i. In order to construct the recombinant DNA, the two methods--addition of homopolymer tails and chemically synthesized restriction site Sal i linker to ds-cDNA were adopted to join and ligate the ds-cDNA and plasmid pBR322 DNA together. The recombinant DNA was transformed to E. coli c600 and 75 transformants were selected according to anapecilin resistant and tetracycline sensitive colonies. Hybridization-selection and cellfree translation preliminarily demonstrated that the cDNAs from two colonies screened are homologous to the mRNAs of alfalfa leghemoglobins, but the characterization of the cDNAs, such as which components they are coded for should be futher investigated.
Abstract (Browse 2015)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Diterpenoid Component Torreyagrandate from Leaves of Torreya grandis Fort Endemic in China
Author: He Guan-fu, Ma Zhong-wu, Yin Wan-fen, Zhang Shu-de, Lin Xiu-yun, Shen Fu-ling and Zheng Qi-tai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(3)
    Torreya grandis Fort. which is endemic in China belong to Taxaceae of Gymnospermae. Edible seeds are famous ※nut§. Three crystal compounds obtained from it's leaves were identified as 汕-sitosterol, 6-hydroxydehydroabietinol and a new diterpenoid torreyagrandate by UV, IR, MS, NMR, X-ray diffraction, etc.
Abstract (Browse 2015)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Identification of Viable Embryo Sacs in Several Angiosperm Species
Author: Zhou Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(3)
    Since the enzymatic technique for isolating embryo sac (ES) has been established on fixed materials of several angiosperms as well as on fresh ovules of Antirrhinum majus in our lab, further works on isolation of viable ESs were carried on. Fresh ovules were macerated in a solution of enzymes, sucrose with or without potassium dextran sulphate by a microshaker at 28每30⊥ for several hours. The enzymes included pectinase, cellulase, snailase and pectolyase Y-23, the combination and concentration of which varied with the plant species and the developmental stages of ESs. To date the mature ESs of Helianthus annuus, A. majus and Nicotiana tabacum and the ESs after fertilization with proembryo and endosperm cells in the two former species were well isolated. Nomarski interference contrast and Hoechst 33253 fluorescence microscopical observations revealed that the ESs retained their cell structure and were rich of ergastic substances. Fluorochromasia induced by fluorescein diacetate further proved that they were really viable.
Abstract (Browse 1837)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Exogenous Hormones on Concanavalin a Binding by the Plasma Membrane of Tomato
Author: Lin Zhong-ping and Cui Qing-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(3)
    The tomato calli were grown on the MS media supplemented with differen.t kinds of exogenous hormones respectively and the protoplasts were isolated from them after subculturing for 3 times. The concanavalin A (Con A) binding capacities of plasma membranes prepared from the protoplasts were compared by using radiochemical assay with 125I-Con A. The result shows that Con A reactivity of plasma membrane is greatly increased by 2,4-D (2 mg/l) treatment and the other growth substances affect on Con A binding capacity variously.
Abstract (Browse 1880)  |  Full Text PDF       
Callus Formation and Morphogenesis of Cultured Mustard (Brassica juncea) Protoplasts
Author: Li Wen-bin, Chen Zhi-zheng, Zhang Da-wei, Chen Zheng-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(3)
    Protoplasts from mustard seedling cotyledons were suspended in Nitsch medium and cultured at 26⊥ under low intensity illumination. When colonies were observed in the cultures, fresh medium (3% sucrose replaced mannitol) was added by equalvolume. When protoplasts developed into small callus the cultures were transfered to modified MS agar medium, in which some of them produced roots while an others gave rise to green spots. Shoot-differentiation experiment is in progress.
Abstract (Browse 1980)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cellular Networks in Epidermal Peels of Onion
Author: Chen Zi-qing, Zhang Wei-cheng and Lou Cheng-hou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(3)
    Cellular networks ill epidermal peels of onion bulb can be distinguished by first removal of superficially attached cytoplasmic constituents with Triton phos- phate buffer and then by staining with Coomassie blue R 250(Fig. 4). Two distinct kinds of networks can be further recognized by treatment with colchicine and cytochalasins: one thinner network underneath the periphery of plasmalemma can be abolished by colchicine (Fig. 7, 8); and the other thicker one which associates tangentially with the nucleus was more distinctive after cytochalasin B treatment (Fig. 5, 6). Discussion is made regarding these two networks in wall-enclosed plant cells as revealed by the present technic.
Abstract (Browse 2127)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Structure of Macrocalyxin D
Author: Wang Xian-rong, Wang Zhao-quan and Dong Jin-guang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(3)
    A new diterpenoid which exhibits cytotoxic activity, macrocalyxin D has been isolated from the e-thereal extract of the leaves of Rabdosia macrocalyx (Dunn) Hara. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic data, the chemical structure of macrocalyxin D was established as (3).
Abstract (Browse 1776)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Contribution to Pollination and Fertilization of Amentotaxus argotaenta
Author: Chen Zu-keng and Wang Fu-xiong Wang Fu-hsiung
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(3)
    The present investigation was conducted during 1980每1982, and mater- ials collected from Jin-Fo shan (Golden Buddha Mountain), at a height of 1400-1600 m, Sichuan province, China. Pollination of Amentotaxus argotaenia began to proceed last week of May, and came into bloom the first week of June. The male strobiles were almost entirely wilting at June 12每15. Thus, florescence of Amentotaxus spread over a period of 3 weeks. While the pollen grains approaching to maturity, most of the microspores divide to form a larger tube cell and a smaller antheridial initial. In this case the mature pollen grains of Amentotaxus consist of two cells. Then pollen grains are attracted down into the pollen chamber in the apex of the nucellus after pollination. The pollen chamber of Amentotaxus in longitudinal section looks like a flask in shape and is very much similar to that of Ginkgo biloba. As pollen grains at pollen chamber begin to germinate, the antheridial initials divide again to give rise to a spermatogenous cell and a sterile cell. At first, the spermatogenous cell is of a size only 11每13 米 in diameter. When the pollen tube reaches the middle part of the nucellus, the spermatogeneous cell is of a size about 30 米. In the middle of July, pollen tube approaches the top of the female gametophyte. In this time, the spermatogenous cell has already been mature enough and is of 58每85 米 in diameter. The nuclei of spermatogenous ceils, 30每36 米 in size, are usually lying in the lateral side of the cytoplasm at its micropylar end. From the middle to the end of July, spermatogenous cells divide to form two unequal sperms, one of which is larger than the other and is the functional one. The large sperm is almost round in shape and about 56 米 in diameter. The small sperm is elliptic in shape, non-functional, and about 33 米 in diameter. The nuclei of the large and small sperms are about 40 米 and 26 米, respectively. In some cases there are lateral pollen tube and sperms in the ovules of Amentotaxus, or the pollen tube even grows toward the lower part of female gametophyte in the chalazal end and there are well developed sperms in such a case. In the middle of July, nucleus of the central cell divides to form a ventral canal nucleus and an egg nucleus. The former then breaks down quickly and the latter continues to develope and moves toward the central part of the egg cell gradually. It is interesting to note that there are a number of nucleolus-like grains in the cytoplasm of the egg cell in Amentotaxus. The large nueleolus-like grains contain a larger central vacuole with several smaller vacuoles surrounding it. These grains show a positive reaction and blue colour by PAS and aniline blue black or coomassie brilliant blue, respectively. The above facts show that the nucleolus-like grains contain not only po- lysaccharides, but also protein. Similar grains may also found in the developing pollen tube. This is a unique feature in Amentotaxus and even in Gymnosperms. Otherwise, there are often two groups of the dense cytoplasm under the egg nucleus in Amentotaxus. Fertilization of Amentotaxus took place around July 20每29 (1980每1982). Interval between pollination and fertilization was about two months. After male nucleus fuses entirely with the female nucleus, the zygote begins to divide by mitosis. During fertilization, in addition that the large sperm enters the egg cell and fuses with the egg nucleus, the small sperm, tube nucleus, and sterile cell are often delivered into the egg cell. But they are disintegrated gradual]y and eventually. It is worthy to note that the nucleolus-like grains and the starches in pollen tube are also released into the egg cell. Then enlargement, fusion, and budding in the nucleolus-like grains may be found within the cytoplasm of the egg cell after fertilization. The history of investigating Amentotaxus found in 1883 has been lasting a long period of 100 years. But researches in sex production has never been studied before. The present work has shown that fertilization in Araentotaxus is very much similar to that in Taxus, Pseudotaxus, and Torreya. In other words, they all belong to the same type, that is, mitosis of zygote taking place after fusion of the two sexual nuclei. This condition constitutes one of the features of Taxaceae. But fertilization in Cephalotaxaceae is different from that of Taxaceae in having mitosis taking place before fusion of the two sexual nuclei. Pollination of Amentotaxus is similar to that of Cephalotaxus with dual-cell pollen grains at shedding stage. On the other hand, interval between pollination and fertilization in Austrotaxus lasts for 13.5 months, and this is the longest one in Taxaceae, and it is similar to that of Cephalotaxus proceeding for 14 months. To sum up, from the point of view of pollination, fertilization, and embryogenesis, Amentotaxus could be considered a primitive type in Taxaceae. Perhaps an order of systematic position of the genera belonging to Taxaceae can be arranged thus: Amentotaxus, Austrotaxus, Taxus, Pseudotaxus, and Torreya. And Cephalotaxaceae may be related to Taxaceae by way of Amentotaxus.
Abstract (Browse 2227)  |  Full Text PDF       
Observations on the Neocytoplasm and Proteid Vacuoles During the Fertilization of Keteleeria evelyniana
Author: Liu Cheng-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(3)
    Distributions and dynamics of the neocytoplasm and proteid vacuoles during the fertilization of Keteleeria evelyniana were studied by histochemical methods. Before fertilization cytoplasmic sheath surrounding the male and female gametes was indistinct. After fertilization, the dense neocytoplasm appeared around the zygote. Part of the neocytoplasm is invaded by mitochondria of maternal origin which had collected in large numbers in the perinuclear zone. The mitochondria contain electron compact little body which looks like a nucleus in the cytoplasm, but not observed in the rosette tier cell of proembryo and jacket cells. Hence, it was showed that the neocytoplasm participated in the development of embryo by all these observations. By using Feulgen reaction, the staining reaction of neocytoplasm was positive, the egg nucleus or zygote nucleus was weaker in positive reaction, while the proteid vacuoles were negative. When the proembryo developed, there were a few starch grains accumulated in the other three tiers except the upper tier. The Feulgen reaction was in- creased in intensity in the suspensor tier and embryonal cell tier nuclei. When the young embryo developed, Feulgen reaction became normal in the nuclei of the embryo initials. The embryo initials and Suspensor cells showed very weak Feulgen positive reaetion in the proembryo and young embryo. The development of the large proteid vacuoles was from plastid. During the early stage of egg nucleus, contents of large proteid vacuoles were less. When the zygote was formed, they reached the highest. However, after the zygote produced, the proteid vacuoles and egg cytoplasm were getting disintegrated following the course of fission of free nuclei. After the proembryo formed, the proteid vacuoles were wholly disintegrated.
Abstract (Browse 2157)  |  Full Text PDF       


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