January 1955, Volume 4 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
A Note on Two Aged Litchi Trees (Litchi chinensis)
Author: Li Lai-yung and Chou Chu-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1955 4(1)
      
    The longevity of fruit trees is of interest both to horticulturists and students of botany as well In southeastern China, Citrus, Euphoria, Litchi and other fruit trees reaching one hundred years of age, can be found in different localities. However, records of fruit trees lasting over several centuries are few. The purpose of this short note is to bring the records up to date on two aged litchi trees in Fukien Province. Both had been claimed to be over one thousand years old. It should be noted that the original crowns of both trees are dead, but shoots come out of the trunks developed and formed the present crowns. One of these trees located on the grounds of Si-Sian monastery, Foochow city, was according to report, planted one thousand and three hundred years ago by a monk named Hui-Lin (2). This tree still bears some fruits each year. Our preliminary study (5) of the quality of its fruits, in 1949, showed that it contains 12.97% total sugar of which 8.67% is reducing sugar and the rest being inverted sugar. Its ascorbic acid content is 22.64mg. in 100 grams of fresh pulp (see table (1)). The second tree called Sung Hsiang is located in the Sungs, Family temple yards in Putien City. The tree still lives and bears some fruits. Measurements of the Circumference and diameter of several litchi trees of known ages are included for reference of the age of thess two trees, Though the evidences are not enough to prove the exact age of these two trees the fact that Litchi chinensis is a long-lived treeseem certain.
Abstract (Browse 2062)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Some Microelements on the Yield and Quality of Tomato through Spraying
Author: Li Chen-shen, Chen Cheng-wen and Huang Cheng-fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1955 4(1)
      
    The present investigation aims at finding the effect of some microelements upon the yield, time of maturity, general growth conditions and the quality of fruit including its ascorbic acid content, total acid content and soluble solids. The elements concerned are: boron, copper, manganese and zinc. These four elements and a mixture of the four in three different concentrations namely, 10, 20, and 50 p.p.m, were applied in four separate sprays at ten-day intervals after transplanting. The results are summarized as follows. 1. Plants sprayed with manganese and zinc at 20 p.p.m, as well as those sprayed with a mixture of boron, copper, manganese and zinc at all concentrations were more vigorous, with larger and healthier looking leaves than the checks. Those treated with copper at all concentrations caused dwarfing together with a smaller leaf area and a stunting effect on fruit growth. We have not been able to detect any noticeable effect on those sprayed with different concentrations of boron. 2.. In general, we found an increase in yield in tomato fruits after the plants were sprayed with the four microelements. For example, a mixture of the four elements applied at 10 and 20 p.p.m, concentrations as well as those treated with manganese and copper sprays at 10 p.p.m, concentration all brought about a 50 % or over increase in yield. Basing on our observations made on the first and second picking, spraying also caused the fruits to ripen earlier. 3. Besides, spraying with microelements also brought about an increase in the ascorbic acid content of the fruits. It was found that spraying with manganese and copper at 10 and 20 p.p.m, as well as spraying with zinc or the four elements mixed at all concentrations, all produced an increase in the ascorbic acid content of the fruits. An increase as much as 55.90 % was brought about by spraying with manganese at 10 p.p.m, concentration. No noticeable effect was observed in plants sprayed with boron at low concentration such as 10 p.p.m. However, spraying with boron at 20 p.p.m, caused suppressing effect on the ascorbic acid content of the fruits. Zinc induced an increase in the total acid content of the fruits. It seems that manganese at 20 p.p.m, also caused an increase in the total acid content of the fruits. On the other hand, we found a decrease in total acid content of the fruits caused by spraying with boron and copper. Spraying with a mixture of the four elements as well as spraying with manganese or zinc alone, all induced an increase in the total soluble solids. No definite effect on the amount of soluble solids has been observed by spraying with boron or copper.
Abstract (Browse 2194)  |  Full Text PDF       
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Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1955 4(1)
Abstract (Browse 1899)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Porphyra II. On the Conchocelis-phase of Porphyra tenera Kjellm. and Its Conchospores
Author: C. K. Tseng and T. J. Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1955 4(1)
      
    . The problem relating to the origin of spores in the large-scale cultivation of porphyra, an important marine crop in the Orient, remains unsolved up to date. This is a problem of great interest to scientists and porphyra raisers as well. To the Japanese algologists in particular, this has been an outstanding problem for years. We have now obtained enough evidence to prove that the spores, which suddenly appear in autumn in great quantity in Tsingtao and similar regions, adhere to rocks and other substrates and develop into the well-known porphyra thalli, are the conchospores from the Conchocelis-phase of Porphyra tenera. This conclusion is based on the following two facts: 1. We have discovered abundant growths of Uonchocelis in the empty shells of the local oyster, Ostrea cucullata Born. This is the most common shell-bearing invertebrate on the littoral rocks in regions where abundant growths of porphyra are also found. 2. In the laboratory, we have succeeded in cultivating on shells of Meretrix meretrix L. the Conchocelis-phase of Porphyra tenera starting from carpospores and growing to maturity and spores production. As much as 1,200,000-1,500,000 conchospores are found in a single litre of the culture solution. These conchospores are gathered on bamboos and palm fibers and cultivated both in the laboratory and in the sea. In four weeks, the spores have grown to 12 mm. Porphyra thalli. . On the morphology of Conchocelis rosea Batt., now the Conchocelis-stage of Porphyra, algologists have divergent difference of opinions, especially in the following three phyllogenically important characteristics: 1. On the structure of the chromatophores: we have shown that it changes with the stages of growth and development. In the carpospore stage (of Porphyra), the chromatophores are not distinctly definite the pigments appearing somewhat diffused; inthe filamentous part of Conchocelis, the chromatophores are parietal and ribbon-shaped; in the fertile cell rows, the cells when mature each contains a centralstellate chromatophore with a distinct pyrenoid; in the conchospore stage, thechromatophores again become somewhat indefinite, the pigments appearing semi-diffuse. 2. Pit-connections as suggested by Rosenvinge are very :distinct, and cytoplasmic connections between neighboring cells definitely present. 3. The position of the conchospores are not of the Erythrotrichia-type; the protoplasm of the sporangia are all involved in the formation of spores. We have observed in many of the mature sporangia, a division of the entire cell content into two spores. . In the first report of the series, we have summarized the life history of Porphyra tenera Kjellm. A revision must now be made since we have now shown that conchospores are not liberated when water temperature is much higher than 20; therefore, summer dwarf porphyra can only come from the monospores of the early summer dwarf porphyra.
Abstract (Browse 2130)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Report on the Synthesis of Aspartic Acid from Fumaric Acid and Ammonia with Aspartase Prepared from Higher Plants
Author: Tang, Pei-sung Chow Pei-chen and Wang Tien-tuo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1955 4(1)
      
    The conversion of ammonia and fumaric acid to aspartic acid is demonstrated in vitro withenzyme suspensions prepared from etiolated soybean and mung bean sprouts as well as from leaves of spinach and alfalfa, and from wheat seedlings The plant tissues were ground in Waling blendor, in presence of phosphate buffer pH 7.2. The pulp, after freeing from fibrous material, was twice precipitated with acetic acid at pH 4.6, centrifuged, and resuspended in phosphate buffer pH 7.2. To 8 ml of the above enzyme suspension were added 1 ml of 0.2 N sodium fumarate and 1 ml 0.2 N ammonium sulphate as reactants. The mixture was left to react, with the addition of a few drops of toluene to prevent bacterial growth, at 25 for 9,4 hours. At the end of the incubation period, the contents were chromatographed on filter paper with water-saturated phenol as solvent. A distinct spot of aspartic acid appeared after treatment with ninhydrin solution. It was taken to be the evidence of enzymic synthesis of aspartic acid since neither the enzyme suspension nor the reactants mixture incubated alone under the same condition produce any detectable amount of aspartic acid. That the aspartic acid formed is through direct addition of ammonia on to fumarate is demonstrated in the case of soybean by the inability of either succinate or malate to replace fumarate in this reaction.
Abstract (Browse 2081)  |  Full Text PDF       
An Interspecies Cross of Brassica pekinensis Rupr. Brassica oleracea var. fimbriata Mill
Author: Feng Wu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1955 4(1)
      
    1. In the cross, Brassica pekinensis Rupr (n=10) Brassica oleracea var..fimbriata Mill. (n=9), the author, employing "repeated pollination" method, obtained an interspecies hybrid plant with only 9 pairs of chromosomes. The hybrid showed high percentage of pollen abortion but no aberrant chromosome behavior in meiotic divisions. All there are contradictory to what the MendelMorganist would expected. 2. Besides "repeated pollination" method, the author also applied crushed stigmatic tissue of the plant and heat killed pollen of the plant to the stigma which is being pollinated, with the hope that these treatments might in some way aid the pollination process, and consequently facililate the cross. No positive results, however, were obtained. 3. The hybrid plant showed rather vigaurous growth. The possibility that the hybrid can be cultivated into a new variety of higher economical value is pointed out.
Abstract (Browse 2298)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Vernalization of Rice
Author: S. H. Tang, J. S. Liu, L. C. Yu, K. N. Wu, C. K. Tsun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1955 4(1)
      
    From 1953 to 1954 a series of experiments has been carried out at Nanking on the vernalization of 59 varieties of rice collected from various parts of China. The results of these experiments may be summarised as follows: Different varieties, from early to late varieties, require different temperatures for the vernalization of rice. In general, all the varieties used gave favorable response to high temperatures (15--30). Among the 59 varieties, 8 of them require a temperature of 25--30, and 13 of them 15-20. For the majority of the varieties tested 12 days are usually sufficient; For the completion of vernalization, but 11 varietiesrequire more than 6 days and 10 varieties less than 6 days to complete this stage of development.
Abstract (Browse 2038)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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