May 1985, Volume 27 Issue 5


          Research Articles
Organogenesis in Leaf Explants of Begonia coccinea
Author: Gui Yao-lin, Gu Shu-rong and Xu Ting-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(5)
Abstract (Browse 1872)  |  Full Text PDF       
Further Observations on Zosterophllum yunnanicum Hs邦
Author: Hao Shou-gang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(5)
    Zosterophyllum yunnanicum, an important and widely distributedspecies in the Lower Devonian of southern China, was first described by Hs邦 in 1966.Later then, Li and Cai (1977), Cai and Schweitzer (1983) described the details of itsmorpholegy, and compered it with other members of the genus Zosterophyllum. In thispaper, the materials of its tracheids, epidermal ceils, stomata and its spores have beenstudied. The tracheids of Z. Yunnanicum are annular, and 9每30 gm across. Epidermal cellsof the axes are elongate, polygonaI, ranging from 70每280 米m by 12每60 米m. The stomata are mainly fusiform, 65每80 米m in length and 40每70 米m in width, probably consisting of a pair of guard-cells enclosing a pore, 8每20米m long and about 1.5米m wide. The density of stomata evidently varied in different parts of the plant. The portion of the sporangium near the rim is composed of rectangle and elongate cells. Theremainder wall of the valve consists of elongate cells, folding often. Spores from the sporangia are 20每55 gm (average 37.1米m) in diameter, smooth with thickened in area of trilete mark, which are 1/4每2/3 of the radius of spore. Some spores look similar to the dispersed spore Retusotriles (Naum.) Streel 1964. Apparently this Plant is homosporous.
Abstract (Browse 1810)  |  Full Text PDF       
Middle Triassic Palynological assemblage in the Wangjiashan Basin of Jingyuan, Gansu and Its Stratigraphical Significance
Author: Du Bao-an
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(5)
    The sediments, overlain by the Middle Jurassic strata in the Wangjia-shan Basin, are a sequence of grey-green sandstones and mudstones and sum more than700 m. It was originally refered to Late Triassic in age. The palynomorph-bearingsamples were collected from the upper part of the sequence in a bore hole. Three sam-ples yielded a, bundant plant microfossils. The sporepollen assemblage consists of 63 species (types) and 51 genera, including 3 new species, namely, Cyclogranisporites callosus, Verrucosisporites wangjiashanensis and Longdongspora jingyuanensis. The component and constituent percentages of palynological assemblage are listedin Tab. 1, in which Pteridophytic spores hold predominant place (67.1%), Gymnospermous pollen reach 32.9%. Among the Pteridophytic spares Punctatisporites (8 forms)plays an important role in assemblage up to 32.3%, followed by Verrucosisporites, Calamospora, Duplexisporites and Apiculatisporis. Besides, Lundbladispora, Kraeuselis-porites and Aratrisporites are represented only by individual specimens. In Gymnospe-rmous pollen Disaccites hold 11.3%, Disaccite striatiti 13.1%, by amplification of Tae-niaesporites reaching 7.2%,others are Piceites, Protoconiferus and Parataeniaesporites.Angustisulcites and Chordasporites are a few in the assemblage. The present assemblage is quite different from the early and upper Triassic paly-nological assemblages of Shan-Gan-Ning Basin, (Qu Li-fan, 1980, 1982) but rather similar to that of the middle Triassic Tongchuan Formation. (Qu Li-fan, 1980; Liu Zhao-sheng et al, 1981) There are 33 genera and 18 species in common between the present assemblage and that of the Tongchuan Formation. Therefore, the present assemblage maybe assigned to the younger age of Middle Triassic. The bearingbed of the spore-pollen assemblage is called the Nanyinger Group. Thisgroup was compared originally with the Yanchang Group of Shan-Gan-Ning Basin, referring to Late Triassic. Based on present data, the Nanyinger Group may include se-diments of younger age of Middle Triassic.
Abstract (Browse 2037)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Discovery of a New Monosulcate Pollen-Zhonghuapollis gen. Nov.and Its Stratigraphical (Significance)
Author: Yu Jing-xian, Zhang Zhen-lai, Zhou Shan-fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(5)
    A new Monosulcate pollen has been discovered from the upper partof Lower Cretaceous deposits of Hubei, Jiangsu, Jingxi and Hebei Provinces. Thesepollens have a monosulcate on their distal surface with salient features and differ fromCycadopites and Benettites. We call them Zhonghuapollis gen. nov. They are widespread geographically and only restricted to the later Early Cretaceous deposits, so very useful in stratigraphical dividing and correlation of this deposits.
Abstract (Browse 1890)  |  Full Text PDF       
Selection Study of Optimum Temporal Remote Sensing Images for Vegetation Resources Inventory
Author: Zou Shang-hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(5)
    Vegetation remote sensing data from sensor change with phenologyand the sun altitude angles. Therefore, the optimum temporal images must be selectedfrom different periods for vegetation studies. The season of the greatest vegetationreflection difference in the visible and near-infrared regions is the optimum temporalfor the vegetation classifying studies. The results indicate that the absolute difference and relative difference of plantspecies in reflectance axe the greatest in spring and early summer. Then the greatestnumber of crop types can be identified in the images. The autumn images are most suitable for identifying deciduous leaf vegetation, for the leaf pigments of all kinds appear at that time. Vegetation reflectances in MSS5 and MSS7 decrease with the decrease of the altitude angles of the sun. Therefore, appropriate images of the sun altitude angles must be selected for the study of vegetation. The author concludes that the optimum temporal images of remote sensing for vegetation studies in Hubei Province or north tropics are those taken in April, May and November.
Abstract (Browse 1869)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Main Chemical Components of the Essential oil from Rosa rugosa Thunb
Author: Wu Cheng-shun, Wang Yi, Zhao De-xiu, Sun Shou-wei, Ma Ya-ping and Chen Jian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(5)
    The plant of Rosa rugosa Thunb. now is cultivated widely in northern China and other places is characterized as Rosa rugosa cv 'Plena' with violet-redflowers, The essential oil extracted by steam distillation, from its flower is a famousfragrance: The flower can be used as medicine and food. The chemical components ofthis essential oil have been determined by chromatography, IR, DC-MS and other methods. Thirty components have been identified, such as 汕-citronellol, geraniol, geraniolacetate, citronellyl acetate, methyl eugenol, linalool etc. Their contents in the oil havebeen determined also. The chemical components of absolute oil have been determined byGC-MS. All these results can be used to compare with that of Rosa damascena Millfrom Bulgarian 'Valley cf rose and other Rosa sp.
Abstract (Browse 2355)  |  Full Text PDF       
Geniconitine, A New Diterpenoid Alkaloid from Roots of Aconitum geniculatum Fletcher
Author: Hao Xiao-jiang, Chen Si-ying and Zhou Jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(5)
    From the roots of Aconitum geniculatum Fletcher, seven diterpenoidalkaloids were isolated, six of which were identified as yunaconitine (1), crassicaulinei(2), vilmorrianine C(3), talatisamine (4), chasmanine (5), and 8-deacetyl-yunaconitu-ne(6), geniconitine, a new diterpenoid alkaloid, was established as (7)by means of MS,IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, and chemical methods.
Abstract (Browse 1814)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cyanide-Resistant Respiration in Relation to Fruit Respiratory Climacteric
Author: Lu Zhong-shu, Yang Cheng-de and Ceng Fu-li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(5)
    Changes in respiratory rate and the effects of respiratory inhibitorson respiration were determined in apple (Malus sylvestris cv. Delicious) and red pepper (Capsicum fructescens) fruits dusting different stages of development and ripening.The results showed that there was an abrupt rise in respiration daring ripening inapple fruit, but the respiration of the red pepper declined continuously throughout theripening period. Thus the apple is climacteric and the red pepper is non-climacteric fruit. The respiration of apple fruit was sensitive to KCN (1 mM) during the period ofdevelopment but changed to CLAM-sensitive and CN-resistant during preclimactericand climacteric phases, indicating that a diversion of respiratory pathways from the cy-tochrome path to the alternative path has occurred. The respiration of the red pepperfruit was CN-sensitive thoughout the whole period of fruit ripening, suggesting thatthe operation of the CN-resistant path was insignificant. Slices from climacteric apple fruits developed induced .respiration after aging, bothKCN and CLAM (1 mM) inhibited the induced respiratic considerably. However, slices from red pepper fruits showed no evidence of induced respiration after aging. Slices from climacteric apple fruits infiltrated with 3 mM CLAM before aging, reducedthe peak of the induced respiration by about 30%, indicating that the development ofinduced respiration was suppressed by the presence of CLAM. The above results indicated that the: climacteric fruits were characterized by diversion of traffic from the cytochrome path to the alternative path during ripening andby the development of induced respiration after slicing and aging. While in nonclimacteric fruits no .diversion of electron transport path was observed during ripening andno induced respiration occurred after aging. Although both the eytochrome and alternative pathways were present in the tissue of red pepper fruits, the alternative pathwas not operating except when the cytochrome path was blocked or was saturated by electron flow.
Abstract (Browse 2393)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes in Ethylene Production and 1-Aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid Levels in Climacteric Apple Fruits Ralls under Low O2 and High CO2
Author: Li Zhen-guo, Lin Yu, Xu Rong-jiang, Gu Wen-mao, Zhuang Shen-liang and Gao Jin-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(5)
    Ethylene production was severely inhibited in climacteric applefruits treated with either low O2(O2 :1每3%, CO2: 0%)or high CO2(O2:15每21%, CO2:10每20%) for 4, 10, and 15 days, respectively. In treatment with low O2 for 10 or 15days, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) was accumulated in large quantity,but in the fruit treated with high CO2, the content of ACC was slightly lower than thatin control fruit. When the fruit was turned to air after 4-days treatment with low O2, ethylene production and ACC content were able to recover to control level. But in the fruits withlow O2 for 10 or 15 days ethylene production was 100 times lower, and ACC contentwas much higher than those in control even 30-35 days after they were turned to air. It appears that inhibitory effect of the low O2 treatment for longer than 10 days on theconversion of ACC to ethylene was irreversible. In the case of high CO2 treatment fordifferent periods ethylene production obviously decreased at first, then followed by arapid increase. When the fruits were turned to air ethylene production in the treat-ment for 4 days was able to recover to control level, but it remained much lower in tre-atment for 10 or 15 days than that in control throughout the period of recovery. However, ACC contents in both treatments were slightly lower than those in control during a few days after the removal of treatment, but increased slightly after 2-3 weeks.Furthemore, the ability of flesh discs to convert exogenous ACC to ethylene was redu-ced remarkably by the treatment of fruits with either low O2 or high CO2 for longerthan 10 days.
Abstract (Browse 1775)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Development of Mitochondria of Mung Bean Cotyledons During Imbibition
Author: Shen Quan-guang, Liu Cun-de, Li Shou-quan, Yan Tian, Yan Long-fei and Tang Pei-sung
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(5)
    The development of mitochondria in the course, of imbibition ofmung bean cotyledons was studied. Mitochondria were prepared by differential centrifugation, and purified by discontinuous sucrose, density gradient centrifugation. Theelectron micrographs revealed that the mitochondria isolated from dry seeds cotyledonslook like small vesicles, when cotyledons were imbibed for two hours, the mitochondrial cristae were not observed, but after four hours, a few cristae appeared on the innermembrane. Till 12 hours, the inner membrane systems wore well-developed. Al this time.all the space in mitochondria are filled with cristae. With the structural integrity of the mitochondria, the functions of oxidation and phosphorylation were graduallyshown, For instance, ADP/O ratio and RCR were not able to be measured in the imbibition of 2 and 4 hours, but at 6th hours, ADP/O Was increased by 0.6, RCR nearly 2.0, After 24 hours imbibition, ADP/O and RCR were increased to 1.5 and 3.5 respectively. The activity of cytochrome oxidase reached the highest after imbibition for 3 hours (2.54 OD/mg protein/min). If cotyledons were imbibed continuously, the activityof this enzyme in mitochondria remained constant. The activity of ATPase located onthe inside of the mitochondrial inner membrane was gradually enhanced from the beginnning of imbibition. These results suggest that the assembly of cytochrome oxidaseand ATPase on mitochondrial membrane may not be synchronous.
Abstract (Browse 1867)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Effects of Intermittent Irradiation on Nuclear Aberrations of Root Tip Cells in Vicia faba
Author: Guo Bao-jiang and Ruan Ji-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(5)
    This experiment aims to compare the effect of intermittent irradiationand that of continuous irradiation on dry seeds of Vicia faba by 60Co-污-rays. Experimental results show that intermittent irradiation possess lower damage, higher frequency of chromosomal exchange than continual irradiation. It implied that, living cellsstill have some ability to repair radiant damage, when exposed intermittently to radiation in 0.5-2 hours. The repair ability declines as the dosage increases and tile interval of radiation shortened.
Abstract (Browse 1923)  |  Full Text PDF       
Observation of Androgenesis in Cultured Wheat Anthers at Meiosis, Tetrad, Early Uninucleate and Trinucleate Stage
Author: He Ding-gang and Ouyang Jun-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(5)
    The obtaining of calluses and plantlets from cultured wheat anthersat the stages from pollen mother cell to trinucleate microspore has been reported previously. Haploids as well as diploids existed among the regenerated plantlets derivedfrom anthers at these stages. Present paper reports the study on androgenesis patter-ns of cultured anthers at meiosis, tetrad, early mid- and late uninucleate and trinucleate stage. Cytological evidence of pollen-origin of calluses produced by anthers atthese stages was given. Observation showed that meiosis of wheat anthers was able tocomplete under culture conditions, resulting in releasing microspores, from which multinucleate and multicellular pollen grains formed. In meiosis anthers, abnormal cells,including syncytium and two kinds of binueleate calls were sometimes observed. Theymight be products of abnormal meiosis and abnormal development of tapetum cells. Itwas noted that failure and/or uncomplction of forming callus wall and/or pollen wallin in vitro anthers at meiosis, tetrad and early uninucleate stage occured often. Itmight lead to the low frequency of callus induction. Mature wheat anthers (trinucleate stage) contained both normal and abnormal pollen grains (pollen dimorphism); onlythe abnormal pollen grains developed into embryoids while all the normai trinucleatepollen grains degenerated rapidly. However, the date of the frequency of equal divisionof microspores suggested that abnormal pollen (N pollen, small pollen) could not be theonly source of androgenic pollens in cultured anthers at late uninucleate and other earlier stages.
Abstract (Browse 2218)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Formation of Pollen Dimorphism in Paris axialis in Vivo
Author: Liang Han-xing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(5)
    It is obsreved that the dimorphic populations of pollen are producedin Paris axialis H. Li In vivo. The normal pollen grains and abnormal pollen grainsare 77.1% and 22.9% respectively; more than 70% of abnormal pollen grains conformto the equal nucleus type. The abnormal pollen grains show no delayed development,and thay are stained as dark as the normal ones. During the first mitotic division of microspore, most of the spindles are anticlinal(perpendicular to the intine), the cytokinesis is generally asymmetric, and a completewall is formed. However, a few mitotic spindles of mitotic microspores are periclinal,and the cytokinesis are symmetric. Sometimes a partial wall is observed between twodaughter nuclei, which are produced by the abnormal pollen grains. We believe thatthese phenomena are related to differentiation of the dimorphic pollen.
Abstract (Browse 1938)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fluorescence Banding in Several Species of Plant
Author: Zhang Zi-li, Dong Guang-yuan, Zhang Hui and Lu Yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(5)
    Chromosomal fluorescence banding in Haynaldia villosa (2n=14),Zea mays (2n=20) and Secale cereale (2n=14) have been studied. Stained with Hoe-chst 33258, all three species show chromosomal banding clearly and brightly, but withquinacrine. 2HCl only the staining of H. villosa chromosomes are satisfactory. While thequinacrine fluorescence banding of maize and Secale is not clearer and quench morequickly. The positions of the Ho-banding are basically identical with the Q-banding. A comparison has been made between the fluorescence banding and the C-banding in great detail. The results show that the two barding patterns are about the same, but there are also some differences ,between them. We have also discussed the reason of the similarities and the differences between Ho-banding, Q-banding and C-banding in chromosomes of same species.
Abstract (Browse 1919)  |  Full Text PDF       
In Vitro Seed Germination and Developmental Morphology of Seedling in Cymbidium ensifolium
Author: Tian Mei-sheng, Wang Fu-xiong(Wang Fu-hsiung), Qian Nan-fen and Sun An-ci
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(5)
    The process of in vitro seed germination of Cymbidium ensifoliumcultivar Si-ji-lan could be divided into the following five stages: (1) Proembryos wereswollen, outer layer cells became irregular in shape. The tangential wall of outer layer cells of proembryos was thickened. The terminal cells were much smaller than basiccells. (2) Seeds germinated and differentiated into protocorms with terminal or lateralmeristem. (3) On one flank of the terminal meristem a single cotyledon was differen-tiated. (4) After the first foliage leaf was formed in the opposite side of the cotyledon,the protocorms developed into rhizomes. (5) As the third or forth leaf was formed, young roots were initiated. The results stained by Suden IV shot that the possiblecause for quite slow seed germination rate of Cymbidium ensifolium in vitro is due tothe thickened layers of seed coat, reducing its penetrability on the surface of proem-bryo. During seed germination the lipid and starch in the embryo cells were reduced.The reduction of starches may be closely correlated to the meristem formation.
Abstract (Browse 2381)  |  Full Text PDF       
Transmitting Tissae and Pollen Tube Growth in Sweet Pepper
Author: Hu Shi-yi and Xu Li-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(5)
    Fine structural events in the mature stylar transmitting tissue ofsweet pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. var. grossum Bally) have been investigated byelectron microscope with regard to pollen tribe grwoth. The transmitting tissue consists of parenchymatous cells with large intercellular spaces filled with an electron densesubstance. The pollen tubes grow through the intercellular spaces in the intercellular substance. Cells of this tissue are rich in organelles, especially the rough and tubular ER, and numerous lomasomes near the plasma membrane. It is demonstrated that they function as secretory cells. On the other hand, the fact that the transmitting tissue contains many large amyloplastids with several starch grains in the cytoplasm and numerous globular protein bodies in vacuoles, indicates that the transmitting tissue mayhave some nutritive value for the growth of pollen tubes. The results obtained from this observation are in agreement with those of mostspecies reported by other authors and support the conclusion that the transmitting tissue is not a collenchyma tissue and the nature of intercellular substances is essentially same as that of the middle lamella.
Abstract (Browse 2020)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Diterpenoids of Rabdosia ternifolia
Author: Wang Xue-fen, Wei Rong-fang, Lu Wen-jie, Wu Lian-zhong, Zhu Da-yuan, Song Guo-qiang, Feng Sheng-chu and Xu Ren-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(5)
    From the whole plant of Rabdosia ternifolia (Labiatae) two diterpeno-ids were isolated. One of them is a new tetracyclic diterpenoids named ternifolin. Bymeans of spectral methods combined wish chemical conversion ternifolin is assigned as6-acetylsodoponin (k). The other one is identified as sodoponin (i).
Abstract (Browse 1948)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Isolation and Structure of Three New Diterpenes from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook
Author: Deng Fu-xiao, Huang Shou- qing, Cao Jian-hong, Xia Zhi-lin, Lin Sui, Zhu Da-yuon, Jiang Shan-hao and Zhu Yuan-long
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(5)
    This paper deals with the isolation of three new diterpenes: triptono-terpene, triptonoterpene methyl ether and triptolidenol from Tripterygium wilfordiiHook. F. Their structures are assigned as i, j, and k, respectively by means of spectors-copic analyses (UV, IR, 1HNMR and MS), preparation of the derivative and chemicaltransformations.
Abstract (Browse 1830)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Analysis of Components for Oenothera concrete
Author: Zhu Yu-fen, Liu Wei, Gao Xue-qin and Lu Ye
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(5)
Abstract (Browse 1821)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Alloendosperms on Peroxidase Isozyme of Corn Embryo Buds
Author: Zhang Jian-hua and Liu Zheng-meng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(5)
Abstract (Browse 1925)  |  Full Text PDF       


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