June 1985, Volume 27 Issue 6

 

          Research Articles
Callus Induction and Plantlet Regeneration in Grapevines
Author: Wang Yun-zhu, Ge Kou-lin, Zou Gao-zhi, Yang Jin-shui and Ye Ming-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(6)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1980)  |  Full Text PDF       
Microfossil assemblage from the Late of Middle Carboniferous in Western Shaan-Gan-Ning Basin, Northwest China
Author: Geng Guo-cang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(6)
      
    In this paper, some results of the study on the sporepollen of the Yanghugou Formation in the western Shaan-Gan-Ning (Ordos) Basin of Northwest China axe reported. Plenty of well preserved microfossil, which 136 types belong to 62 microspore genera and one megaspore genus, including 2 new genera , 13 new species, I Acritarch (Chamosphaera pseudozonatus gen. et sp. nov.), from 8 bore-holes and outcrop have been discribed. In generally, the microfiora of the Yanghugou Formation is similar to the Taiyuan Formation (Upper Carboniferous). According to the spore-pollen assemblage of Yanghugou Formation may correlate with those in the Middle Carboniferous of Great Britain, Belgium the north of France, German and North America. Besides, the assemblage are similar to Middle Carboniferous of Nortth Shandong and Hengshanbu of Ningxia in the microfossil assemblage. The geological age of the beds is considered to Late of Middle Carboniferous.
Abstract (Browse 1880)  |  Full Text PDF       
Vegetation and Environment of the Hypsithermal Interval of Holocene in Eastern Hebei Plain
Author: Li Wen-yi and Liang Yu-lian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(6)
      
    There are two peat fields, the Maohebei peat field and Daziying peat field, both situated in the delta of the lower reaches of the Liao River in the Eastern Hebei Plain, North China. The peat bogs were deposited at 10000每3500 years ago. From the point view of vegetational history, the pollen assemblage zones correlated with the radiocarbon dating materials are established. On this basis the profile may be divided into three zonation systems. Zone M-l, 10000每9000 14C yr. BP. The temperate needle leaf and deciduous woodlots scattered among herbs, with a mild and cool climate. It can be correlated to the Boreal or the Anathermal interval. Zone M-2, 9000每5000 BP. Pinus and Quercum mixtumum ( Quercus, Ulmus, Tilia, Corylus) woodland and Vermuth steppes, with warm and semihumid climate. And about 7500 BP a maximum warm took place. It can be correlated to the Atlantic. Zone M-3, 5000每3500 BP. Pinus-Quercus woodland and Vermuth steppes with warm and semihumid, correlated to Subboreal. Both M-2 and M-3 can corrspond to the Hypsithermal interval of the Holocene subdivisions, i.e. the Optimum. In this interval some subtropical elements sppeare in the assemblage, such as Myrica, Antidesma, and Fagara which reflect that the weather might be warmer than that of the present in the same region. Some ecological dynamics of the vegetation are expressed in the assemblages. When climate became warm from Boreal to Atlantic, Corylus increased a little earlier than other deciduous but soon decreased. Ulmus declined at 5000 BP. This reflects situation is just the same as in North Europe. The woodland destroyed by human activities in culture and agiculture might be an important factor of vegetational and environmental changes. However the great increase of Pinus and Artemisia following the decrease of Ulmus and Tilia gives effective support to the tendency of climatic change, becaming cooler and drier in the Sub- boreal of Hypsithermal interval. This is an attempt to establish the pollen percentage diagram and pollen influx diagram by mean of exotic pollen. The pollen influx record shows similarities to that of the pollen percentages. However, the pollen influx is more obvious in representing the vegetation and environment changes.
Abstract (Browse 2477)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Identification of Steroidal Saponins from Dioscorea parviflora Ting
Author: Liu Cheng-lai, Chen Yan-yong and Ge Shao-bin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(6)
      
    Four steroidal saponins were isolated from rhizomes of Dioscorea parvi- flora Ting collected from Yunnan Province. Their chemical structures have been elucidated by means of chemical and spectrometric analyses as gracillin [i]; deltonine [j]; protogracillin [k] and deltoside [l]. Deltoside is the first time obtained in pure state from Dioscorea plants.
Abstract (Browse 2075)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Triterpenoid Saponins of Rhizomes of Panax laponicus C.A. Meyer var. angustifolius(Burk.) Cheng et Chu
Author: Wang Zhe, Jia Zhong-jian, Zhu Zi-qing Chu Tze-tsin, Yang Chong-ren, Zhou Jun, Ryoji Kasai and Osamu Tanaka
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(6)
      
    From the rhizome of Panax japonicus C. A. Meyer var. angustifolius (Burk.) Cheng et Chu collected in Yunnan, 10 triterpenoid saponins were isolated with SiO2 chromatograph and reversed phase chromatograph. The saponins were identified as ginsenoside Ro (1), Rd (7), Rg1 (8), Rhl (9), notoginsenoside R1 (6), chikusetsusaponin l(4), la(2), zingibroside R1(3), oleanolic acid 28-汕-D-glucoside (10) and oleanolic acid 3-汕-D-glucuronoside (5) respectively, by means of 13C-NMR, MS of acetate, and chemical methods, as well as compared with authentic samples. Among the rest, (5), a prosaponin of ginsenoside Ro (1) was firstly isolation from species of genus Panax. The fact that saponin constituents of rhizome of var. angustifolius was similar to P. japonicus and var. major, further supported the view that three taxes belonged to a variational limit of one species.
Abstract (Browse 2109)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Survey of Occurrence of Nuclear Extrusion in Various Higher Plants with DAPI (Flu-orescent) Stain
Author: Li Xian-zhang, Shao Li-mei, Yin Wei-yi and Lou Cheng-hou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(6)
      
    DAP (4,6.Diamidino-2-phenylindole) has been shown in this investigation to be a convenient and reliable DNA-specific nuclear stain which will exhibit pale blue fluorescence under ultraviolet irradiation. It could be employed to stain the nucleus in living plant specimens by simply immersing them in highly diluted DAPI solution (ca. 0.5 ppm) for 2每24 hours. The specimen with stained nucleus is still capable of exhibiting cyclosis. The seedling may grow steadily in such solution. Hence, the whole procedure is well suited for the preliminary survey of occurrence of nuclear extrusion in various higher plants chosen at random. As most investigations on nuclear extrusion have been intensively conducted on two monocots (wheat and Allium), special attention is paid to dicots. Free hand sections consisting of several layers of cells in thickness are taken from the various parts of a plant (flower bracts, petals and stipule) to avoid artificial indlced by injury ,and stripping. The main findings are summarized in Table, and the microscopic record illustrated in figures. The preliminary survey has adequately demonstrated that the frequency of successful detection of nuclear extrusion in plant samples taken at random is rather high although its occurrence is rare. Patient search under microscope is usually required. In general it is present in embryonic as well as in senescent tissues and in tissues of transitory existence such as the leaf hairs, but it is absent in mature normal function-organs. The results are in conformity with those of prefious observations.
Abstract (Browse 2293)  |  Full Text PDF       
Mieroeleetrofocusing and Its Application to the Study of Pollens and Anthers
Author: Luo Yu-kun and Yah Long-fei Yen Lung-fei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(6)
      
    A simple method of microelectrofocusing was described in detail. The micromethod has several advantages: high sensitivity, high reproducibility, easy operation and loss cost. It is especially suitable for the analysis of amall amount of biological materials. We had applied this microelectrofocusing to the analyses of protein components and isozymes of acid phosphatase and esterase of pollens and mathers. The results indicate that microelectrofocusing is a useful tecrnique for the study of proteins and enzymes of minute amount of biological materials.
Abstract (Browse 1925)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Structure of Natural Populations of Wild Soybean (Glycine soja) in Beijing Region
Author: Hu Zhi-ang and Wang Hong-xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(6)
      
    In order to exploit the genetic resources of wild soybean (Glycine soja) which is the progenitor of cultivated soybean (Glycine max), the genic frequencies of Ti (coding trypsin inhibitors) and Sp1 (coding 汕-amylase isozymes) for 13 populations of wild soybean in Beijing region were determined. There are 2 alleles (Tia and Tib) in Ti locus of Beijing populations. Calculation of heterozygosity indicates Sp1 is polymorphic, while this monomorphic within a population. Based on the vatiation (from 0 to 50%) for heterozygosity of Sp1 among populations, with special reference to the values of genetic distances among populatious, and no heterozygote has been found in 1300 plants which would be heterozygotes if they were outbreeder, we suggested that wild soybean in natural populations is absolute inbreeder. The frequencies of Ti and Sp1 alleles vary from place to place extremely, however, no correlation exists between allozyme frequencies and ecological factors. Field investigation has shown that there is a threat from the reduction in available habitats, caused by building irrigation works .and urbanization. Finally, sampling strategy for conservation of genetic resources of wild soybean was discussed and some suggestions were made.
Abstract (Browse 2188)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Pollen Morphology of Family Salicaceae in Gansu
Author: Wang Jing-quan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(6)
      
    Pullen grains of 2 genera 31 species of the family Salicaceae ia Gansu have been investigated. The comparative studies of the pollen grains were carried out by means of seanning electron microscope and light microscope. The two genera (Popu- lus L. and Salix L.) can be distinguished by their pollen characters such as the shape of pollen, type of aper ure, ornamentation of exine etc. 1. Shape of pollen grains 1) Spherical (rounded) : Populus L., 2) Ellipoidal, (subrotund): Salix L. 2. Type .of aperture 1) Atreme: Populus L., 2) 3-colpate, 3-colporoidate or 3-syncolpate: Salix L. 3. Ornamentation of exine 1 ) Cavernulous: Populus L., 2) Tubercular: Populus L., 3) Spinulate: Salix L., 4) Rugulose: Populus L. and Salix L., 5) Finely-reticulate: Populus L., 6) Reticulate: Salix L., 7) Crass-reticulate: Salix L., 8) Rugulose-Spinulate-Cavernulous: Salix L., 9) Rugulose-Reticulate: Salix L. Basing upon the above pollen characters, the genera Populus L. and Salix L. are con- sidered two good and natural taxa, and the genus Populus L. is more primitive than the genus Salix L.
Abstract (Browse 2386)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Fertilization of Gastrodia elata B1.Orchidaceae
Author: Liang Hai-xing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(6)
      
    Gastrodia elata B1. is a species of parasitic orchid, its organized structure is much reduced. Although its embryo sac is rather simple (4-celled), the double fertilization proceeds normally. The fusion of sexual nuclei is referred to the premitotic type. The primary endosperm nucleus may divide once or not, and degenerate on the 6th or 7th day after fertilization. The nucleoli of generative and vegetative nuclei in the pollen tube are conspicuous. Generally the sperms form after the contact between the generative cell and vegetative nucleus. The nucleoli of sperms are also clearly distinguished. Daring the fusion of male and female nuclei in fertilization two male nuclei always show the distinct nucleoli.
Abstract (Browse 2074)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Development and Structure of the Late Embryo in Torreya grandis
Author: Tang Zhong-xun, Chen Zu-keng and Wang Fu-xiong Wang Fu-hsiung
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(6)
      
    The materials used in this investigation were collected during 1980每1983 from Zhuji county of Zhejiang province, China. Seed of Torrcya grandis is an important dry ※fruit§ and used for edible oil. It is endemic to China. The primordia of male strobili are differentiated before October in the first year, while those of female strobili occur later. The microspore mother cells and megaspore mother cells are found in March and April in the second year respectively. The fertilization takes place in August and the dormant embryo overwinters at the proembryo stage. Eventually the proembryo begins to differentiate and its development starts in July of the third year. Thus the interval from fertilization to latembryogeny of Torreya grandis lasts for about 11 months. When the seeds of Torreya grandis are shed 'in August the embryo within the seed is still immature. It requires a period of after-ripening. The experiments show that the embryo resumes to develop and differentiate during 1每3 months in stratification in moist sands. The development and structure of late embryo are characterized as follows: 1. The cotyledon of the mature embryo in Torreya grandis is of 15000 米m in length and 87% of the embryo. The hypocotyl is vary shert and only 13% of the embryo. This kind of structure of the embryo in Torreya is very rare among conifers and in some degree similar to that of Keteleeria. When seed is shed the meristem of cotyledon is just differentiated and only 100每200 米m in length at the end of July to the middle of August. As the seeds are stratified in moist sands for 1每3 months, the cotyledon increases about 100 times than in room temperature in Zhuji county. 2. There is a large secretory canal in either side between the procambium and the cortex of the mature embryo. The secretory canal consists of epithelial cells of 4每5 layers. It is very peculiar in conifers. 3. The shoot apex does not begin to differentiate, until the seed has been fallen from the tree. 4. The column of the root cap is rather short and consists of the cells of about 10 layers in height and 6 layers in width. 5. Proteins are only found in the focal zone of the free apex of the young embryo but without any starch grains. The starch is abundantly distributed in the opposite end from the root initials down to root cap and the entire transitional zone. It is interesting to note that neither proteins nor starch grains are found in the suspensor system. It is assumed that the protein may be the main form of storing material in the actively growing cells and tissues of embryo in Torreya grandis.
Abstract (Browse 2085)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cyto-Chromosomal Analysis of Developing Wheat Monosomics
Author: Zhang Yu-lan and Sun Rong-iing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(6)
      
    In order to achieve the aim of advanced breeding program with the definite direction, it is necessary for us to develop the monosomic lines used for the wheat breeding programs in China. We fixed the wheat ears at appropriate stage in Carnoy*s fluid, and stained with acetocarmine in every generation from the different crosses mentioned above. According to their karyotypes of metaphase 1, the monosomics, normal bodies, monotelosomics, ditelosomics and allotypic bivalents were identified (Plate i, 1每8). In the process of developing monosomic lines ※Beijing Red No.1§, some monosomic lines such as 5A*s and 4D*s, can be directly proved by their phenotypes, other lines of monosomic 1B, 5B add 6B can also be directly proved to be true by their typical chromosomal morphology. In order to check the accuracy of chromosomal orders of monosomic lines, we tested all 21 monosomic lines of ※Beijing Red No.1§ by means of telosomic testing. At the same time we tested the origirnal monosomics of ※Chinese Spring§ as a check. In the F1*s of test crosses, those showing 20 bivalents and one monoelemic (20§+t*) were proved to be right. Whereas those showing 19 bivalents, 1 univalent and 1 allotypic bivalent (19§+1*+1*t*) were proved to be wrong. The karyotypes of F1*s from the test crosses for ※Beijing Red No.1§ can be verified by compairing with that of the check. During some years, we have examined 500 F1 plants of test crosses for monosomic lines of ※Beijing Red No.1§, and some what less plants for monosomic lines of ※Chinese Spring§. The number of observed cells usually was 100每200, the least was 40 and the most was 600. As the result, all F1's of test crosses showed accurate karyotypes. Besides detemning the F1 karyotypes of test crosses, we also analysed and compared their phenotypes with each other (photograph 9每12). According to the pbenotypes caused by the chang in chromosome number, structure and gene dosage, not only we can check the accuracy of testing result, but also locate the genes controlling some characters on the chromosomes or chromosomal arms.
Abstract (Browse 2068)  |  Full Text PDF       
Anatomy of the Secondary Phloem and the Crystalliferous Phloem Fibers in the Stem of Torreya grandis
Author: Hu Yu-shi, Guan Ling-qiang and Tang Zhong-xun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(6)
      
    The structure of the secondary phloem and the development of the crystaleiferous phloem fibers in the stem of Torrey grandis were observed under the ligth microscope and SEM. The secondary phloem is composed of sieve cells, phloem parenchyma cells, crystalliferous phloem fibers and stone cells in the longitudinal system, and the uniserite homogeneous phloem rays consisting of parenchyma cells only in the radial system. In the cross section, there are 3每9 sieve cells in radial rows forming discontinuous tangential layers, the crystalliferous phloem fibers often in a single discontinuous tangential layer and the stone cells dispersed in rangential layer of phloem parenchyma. The developmental process of crystalliferous phloem fibers is as follows: initial cells appeared in the end of April and were well differentiated in the first week of May. Some crystals were deposited in the primary wall, while others were free in the cell. At the end of May, the secondary wall of most crysalliferous phloem fibers started to be thickened. With the thickening of the secondary wall, all the crystals were embedded in the wall from June to August From the end of September to the early days of October, the crystalliferous phloem fibers reached their full maturation. It is shown by microchemical identification and EDAX analysis that the crystals embedded in the wail of crystalliferous phloem fibers are calcium oxalate crystals.
Abstract (Browse 2028)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation of Embryo Sac with the Enzyme-Squash Technique
Author: Li Le-gong and Hu Shi-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(6)
      
    The enzyme-squash technique is especially suited for studying the development of megaspores and embryo sacs in angiosperms. Ovulles are fixed in FPA, FAA or Carnoy's for 2每24 hrs. After passing through a series of alcohol and distilled water, they are treated in an aqueous solution of 2% Driselase. for 3-6 hrs. at 28⊥. Ovules are then transferred with a drop of laeto-phenol-glycerin fluid to a slide, covered with a cover glass. By the aid of gently tapping and pressing the cover glass, as that of ordinary squash method, cells of ovules are separated and the megaspores or embryo sacs are isolated, and then examined with phase contrast optics With this technique we have successfully isolated the megaspores and embryo sacs in different developmental stages from fixed ovules of several plant species, including Atropa belladonha, Vanilla fragrans, Belamcanda chinensis, Platycodon grandifIorus and Oenothera odorata. The rosults of the experiments indicate that this technique for isolation of embryo sac has several advantages it is suitable both in tenuinucellate and crassinucellate ovules the manipulation of this technique is rather simple and the special instruments are net required the difficulties of the separation of the embryo sac from its nucellar epidermis or tissues of the chalazal end can be overcome by this method. The initial results of isolation of vital embryo sacs from living ovules has been gotten with this technique.
Abstract (Browse 2143)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Alkaloids Albertisia laurefolia
Author: Xue Zhi, Wu Yun, Zhang Pei-ling, Ma Jian-min and Hu Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(6)
      
    The alcoholic extract of the rhizome of Albertisia laurefolia has been shown to possess antitumor activity. Seven alkaloids were isolated from the alkaloidal fraction of this plant. They were identified as aromoline(i), daphnoline(j), cocsuline (k), cocsoline(m), apateline(n), and N-methylapateline(o). The struture determination of alkaloid l is hampered at present by lack of material.
Abstract (Browse 1916)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Chemical Constituents of Fluggea virosa(Roxb. ex Willd.) Baill
Author: Chen Meng-jing and Hou Lin-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1985 27(6)
      
    Seven compounds have been isolated from Fluggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd) Baill. They are identified as virosecurinine, norsecurinine, two new norsecurinine type alkaloids: fluggeaine ether, fluggeainol and hentriacontane, 汕-sitosterol, glochidenol.
Abstract (Browse 2084)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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