January 1986, Volume 28 Issue 1


          Research Articles
The Diterpenoid Alkaloids of Aconitum nagarurn var. lasiandrurn W. T. Wang and Its Chemotaxonomic Significance
Author: Chen Si-ying, Li She-hua and Hao Xiao-jiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(1)
    From the roots of Aconitum nagarum var. lasiandrum W. T. Wang, seven diterpe- noid alkaloids were isolated and determined as follows: denudatine of atisine-type (7), songorine and songoramine of veatchine-type (1 and 12), virescenine of lycoctonine-type (13), neoline, 14-acetylneoline and fiavaconitine of aconitine-type (2, 3 and 8). A. nagarum var. lasiandrum W. T. Wang is a typical species of Ser. Bullatifolia which contained four types diterpenoid alkaloids. On the basis of distribution of diterpenoid alkaloids, phytogenesis add morphological evolution of Chinese species of genus Aconitum, probably Chinese species of genus Aconitum modernly advanced and divided from this serics.
Abstract (Browse 2118)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Structures of Macrocalyxoformin B, C and E
Author: Wang Zhao-quan, Wang Xian-rong, Dong Jin-quang and Xue Zhao-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(1)
    From the leaves of Rabdosia macrocalyx(Dunn) Hara form (Labiatae), three new diterpenoids, macrocalyxoformin B, C and E, were isolated together with oleanolic acid, 汕-sitosterol and daucosterol. Their structures were established as (1), (3) and (7) by spectroscopic and chemical evidence respectively. Macrocalyxoformin B and C were shown to have inhibitory action on Hela cells, Staphylococcus aureus in vitro.
Abstract (Browse 2092)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Regulation and Distribution of LHC-I and LHCP2 between the Photosystem I and Photosystem II
Author: Chu Zhong-xi and Mao Da-zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(1)
    Evidences were provided in this paper that the relative distribution of chl-protein complexes of PSi and PSj could be regulated by Mg2+. addition of Mg2+ led to decrease in the amount of chl-protein complexes of PSi and increase in the amount of chl-protein in complexes of PSj. There was no effect of Mg2+ on the spectral property of LHCP1, but the addition of Mg2+ could change the spectral property of LHCP2 so that it became similar to that of the LHC-i. CPIa2 was a complex of reaction centre of PSi and LHC-I. LHC-I might be contacted specially with LHCP2 in chloroplast membranes. Addition of Mg2+ probably cansed the motion of LHC-I from PSi to PSj and became more closely connected with LHCP2. The relative amount of CPIa2, CPIa1, LHCP1 and LHCP2 in chloroplast membranes could be regulated by different light intensity. There were more CPIa2, LHCP1 and less LHCP2 in chloroplast membranes from the shade plant Malaxis monophyllos and sunflower grown under weak light, both of them lacked equally CPIa1. There were less CPIa2, LHCP1 and more LHCP2 in the sun plant spinach and sunflower grown under strong light, and they possessed equally CPIa1 chl-protein complexes. It is suggested that LHCP1 and LHCP2 are different light-harvesting Chl-protein complexes. The LHC-I and LHCP2 are mobile light-harvesting chl-protein complexes and shuttle back and forth between PSi and PSj They play an important role in the regulation and distribution of excitation energy between the two photosystems.
Abstract (Browse 1987)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fluorescence of Wheat with Incompletely Developed Chloroplast Membranes
Author: Zhang Qi-de, Lin Shi-qing, Lou Shi-qing and Kuang Ting-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(1)
    Low temperature (77K) fluorscenee emission spectrum of the incompletely developecl chloroplast membranes of wheat, and the fluorescence induction transient of its intact leaf at room temperature were studied. The main peaks of the fluorescence emission spectrum of the incompletely developed chloroplast membranes were at 685 nm and 725 nm respectively. The positions of these two' peaks were almost the same as that in chlorophyll bless mutant barley Chlorina f2. This showed that the incompletely develop- ed chloroplast membranes of wheat did not develope peripheral antenna of PSI but only contained internal antenna of PSI as the case of Chlorina f2. The fluorescence induction transient of wheat leaf with incompletely developed chloroplast membranes did not show the typical time course of O↙P↙S↙M↙T and lacked second peak (M) and showed a slow decline as P decayed. This is the same as that of Chlorina f2 leaf. The fluorescence rise in induction period of the leaf with incompletely developed chloroplast membranes was much different from that of normal wheat leaf. These results can be explained by our previous assumption[3] that the occurence of typical fluorescence induction transient is based on the coexistence of LHCP of PSII and peripheral antenna of PSI and on their cooperation with each other.
Abstract (Browse 1940)  |  Full Text PDF       
Biochemical Studies on Hydrocyanic Acid Potential and Amino Acid in Sorghums
Author: Wu Xian-rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(1)
    This research is conducted to study the HCN-p of several types of sorghum, as well as their changes in amino acid. The HCN-p of sorghum seedling reached its maximum in 4每6 days after germination. It was found that the first leaf of the seedling has the highest HCN-p. Among the 14 varieties studied, Atlas had the highest HCN-p (1984ppm), whereas NP-22 had the lowest value (479ppm). Light-grown seedlings had higher HCN-p. There was no obvious difference in protein amino acid in sorghum seedlings with .different HCN-p. However, the free amino acid content did vary in the sorghum varieties. The content of free tyrval, pheleu and ileu in etiolated Atlas seedlings was significantly higher than that in NP-22 seedlings. However, under condition of light, the five free amino acids lowers significantly in content in Atlas when compared be NP-22. This proves that Atlas had a more sensitive enzyme system and under presence of light, its free amino acid content was rapidly converted to cyanide.
Abstract (Browse 1890)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regeneration from Protoplasts of Ligusticurn wallichii Franch
Author: Li Zhong-yi and Chen Hui-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(1)
    The hypocotyls of the embryoid derived plantlets of Ligusticum wallichii Franch were used for protoplast preparation. Protoplasts were obtained with the enzyme mixture containing 1.5% Onozuka R-10, 0.3% Macerozyme R-10, 0.5% Snailase, 5 mmol/l CaCl2, 1 mmol/l KH2PO4, 0.6 mol/l manitol, at pH 5.6每5.8 and 27⊥. Protoplasts were cultured in a modified MS liquid medium containing 1 mg/l 2,4-D + 0.5 mg/l 6- BA. The first divisions were found after twelve days, and the dividing cells formed cell colonies of 0.5每1 mm after about fourty days. When they were transferred to MS agar medium (with half quantity of macronutrients) supplemented with 2,4-D (0.5mg/l) and 6-BA(0.5mg/l), they grew into calli. At last, on the medium without any phytohormones, the growing calli differentiated embryoids which developed into plantlets with many green leaves and roots.
Abstract (Browse 1911)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Primary Study on the Test-Tube Fertilization of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Author: Yue Shao-xian, Liu Bo-lin and Chen Shan-bao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(1)
    With improving the method of sterilization and pollination, the percentage of seed set of rice in test-tube fertilization is enhanced to 75%.
Abstract (Browse 1984)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on the Application of C17 Medium for Anther Culture
Author: Wang Pei and Chen Yu-rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(1)
    Media with varied levels of minor elements and KNO3, NH4NO3, KH2PO4, MgSO4﹞7H2O, CaCl2﹞ 2H2O and Fe-Salts were screened to obtain high yield of callus from wheat anther by using orthogonal tests. Of all the seven minor elements treated, the one without NaMoO4﹞2H2O and with 11.2 mg/l MnS04﹞4H2O was found to be the most effective. Among the five kinds of organic materials tested, biotin appear- ed to have the highest influence on the induction frequency of anther callus and its opimum dosage was 1.5 mg/l. Based on these data, C17 medium was developed and its induction frequency of callus with good quality from wheat anther reached 12.19% in the Institute in 1980. The maximum diffrentiation freguency of anther callus obtained was 50% on C17 medium. C17, medium compositions are as follows (Mg/l): 1400 KNO3, 150 CaCl2-2H2O, 150 MgSO4﹞7H2O, 300 NH4NO3, 400 KH2PO4, 27.85 FeSO4﹞7H2O, 37,25 Na2-EDTA, 11.2 MnS04﹞4H2O, 8.6 ZnSO4﹞7H2O, 6.2 H3BO3, 0.83 KI, 0.025 CuSO4﹞5H2O, 0.025 CaCl2﹞: 6H2O, 8 glycine, 0.5 nicotinic acid, 0.5 thiamine hydrochloride and 1.5 biotin. The re- differentiation medium is supplemented with 2 2,4-D+0.5 KT+7000 agar+90000 sucrose, pH5.8. The dedifferentiation supplemented with 0.5 IBA+2 KT+7000 agar+ 30000 sucrose, pH 5.8.
Abstract (Browse 2667)  |  Full Text PDF       
Culture of Explants from Immature Inflorescence of Octoploid Triticale
Author: Sun Jing-san Sun Ching-san and Zhu Zhi-qing Chu Chih-ching
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(1)
    Immature inflorescence explants of octoploid Triticale cultured on MS medium with 2 mg/l 2,4-D showed high capacity for callus formation (100%) and subsequent plant regeneration on same medium. Chromosomes of regenerated plants were counted. Most of them showed 2n=56 which is a octoploid complement fur octoploid Triticale, but some plants were composed of decaploid cells with 70 chromosomes and aneuploid cells. The chiasma of homologous chromosomes in tip cell was found.
Abstract (Browse 1986)  |  Full Text PDF       
Influences of Special Damage Upon Exposed Surface of Girdled Trunk in Eucommia ulmoides
Author: Cui Kc-ming and Li Zheng-li(Lee Cheng-tee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(1)
    Mechanical injury to the exposed surface of the girdled trunk of Eueommia ulmo- ides Oliv. was conducted by scraping frames 10℅l0 cm2 in four varieties of shapes, i.e. ﹍﹜| |﹜旭 and ↓ The scraping edge was 2 cm in width and 1 mm in depth. One month after treatment, periderm was formed at the central portion of all the scraped areas, however, among them the thickness, degree of differentiation and starch distribution of the regenerated bark were different. The newly-formed bark of the ﹍ -shaped area was the thickest, and vascular cambium-like meristem was formed in the central portion which later gave rise to vascular tissues. The thickness of the newly formed bark in Ii -shaped area was half as :thick as the former, although similar tissue differentiation was observed. The thick- ness of the newly-formed bark in旭-shaped area was half of that in﹍ -shaped area. The flat meristematic cells were only seen in the deeper layer, and no vascular tissues were visible. The thickness of the newly-formed bark in the ↓ -shaped area was only 1/4 of that in ﹍ -shaped area. There were undifferentiated parenchyma cells below the periderm in which very few flat meristematic cells were formed later.
Abstract (Browse 1890)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Endodermoid in Garlic Scape: Its Fine Structure and Physiological Function
Author: Zhang Wei-chen, Yah Wen-mei and Lou Chen-hou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(1)
    In garlic scape there is a distinct boundary layer of cells between the cortex and stele. Its fine structure and possible ruction seem to agree with the endodermoid first defined by Esau[7], hence the frame. Lightand electron-microscopic examination and cytochemical test have revealed that this particular laryer is probably responsible for the withdrawal of cellular contents of parenchyma to the peripheral vascular bundles, during a long period of storage the excised withering scape would thoroughly exhaust itself to give rise to the new apical cloves. As already shown, the laticiferous tubes scattered throughout the cortex are always turgid, and their sap is rich of nutrients in variable proportion[3]. Possibility of mobilizing these nutrients by the aid of endodermoid to join in phloem transport also has been discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2050)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Supramolecular Architecture in Chloroplast Thylakoid Membranes of Warigal Wheat
Author: Zuo Bao-yu and David J.Simpson and John V.Possingham
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(1)
    Thylakoid membranes of chloroplast from first leaf and flag leaf of wheat Warigal were examined by freeze-fracture and rotary shadowing etectron microscopy. The shape, size, density and size distribution of freeze-fracture partieles of their four faces were measured and plotted as three-dimensional histograms by a Hewlett-packard 9874 A digitizer with a HP 9845 B Computer and HP 9872 C plotter. When comparisons were made among different fracture faces and between the corresponding faces of the first leaf and the flag leaf, we found that the supramolecular architecture on the four fracture faces of the flag leaf differs from that on the corresponding faces of the chloroplast thytakoid membranes of the first leaf. The most significant difference was that the EFs particles contain the photosystem j reaction centres associated with LHCP and the PFs particles were mostly light-harvesting complex. There was a 15% increase in EFs particle density, a 22% increase in PFs particle density and a 28% increase in EFu particle density. The large PFu particles contained the photosystem i reaction centre and the flag lcaves contained 5% more than the first leaves. In addition, the stacking of thylakoid membranes in the flag leaf was 5% more than those in the first leaf.Thus, it provides theoretical basis for the fact that the flag leaf has higher photosynthetic rate.
Abstract (Browse 2170)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Saponins of the Stems and Leaves of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer
Author: Xu Sui-xu, Wang Nai-li, Shen Mei and Lu Xiao-kai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(1)
    From the stems and leaves of panax ginseng C. A. Meyer cultivatedin Liaoning, China, eleven saponins (L1每L11) were isolaed. Eight of them L5, L6, L7, L8, L9, L10, L11 were proved to be identical with ginsenosides-Rh1, -Rg3, -Rg2, Rg1, -Re, -Re, -Rb2, -Rb, respectively. The two of saponins L5 and L6 were obtained for the first from the stems and leaves of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. The structures of these saponins were determined on the basis of the FD-MS, 13C-NMR, and chemical evidences.
Abstract (Browse 2097)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Chemical Studies on Corydalis hendersonii Hemslㄗ =C. nepalensis Kitamura〞〞
Author: Lin Mao, Liu Xin and Fang Qi-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(1)
    Five alkaloids were isolated from the whole plants of Corydalis hendersonii Hemsl (= C. nepalensis Kitamura) by means of centrifugal TLC method. Alkaloids Cn-20(I) was assigned as a new alkaloid named henderine. Alkaloids Cn-1, Cn-2, Ch-16 and Cn- 19 were identified as 汕-allocryptopine, protopine, stylopine and Cheilanthifoline, respectively, based on mp. UV. IR. MS and 1H-NMR spectra.
Abstract (Browse 2465)  |  Full Text PDF       
Biosystematic Observation on 5 Species of Consolida (Rannnculaceae)
Author: Hong De-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(1)
    The karyotypes of five species of the germs Consolida from SE Europe, Turkey and Iran (see Appendix i for the detail information concerning the vouchers) were studied with 0.05% colchicin pretreatment followed by Carney i fixation and Fenlgen squashing. The result shows that C. regalis ssp. regalis has a karyotype of 2n=16= 1(L)m- (SAT)+ 3(L)m + 6(S)st + 5(S)t+1(S)t(SAT)(Fig. 1A and Plate i, G) and ssp. paniculata has a karyotype of 2n = 16 = 2(L)m (SAT) + 2(L)m + 6(S)st + 6(S)t (Plate j,A) and 8 bivalents in meiosis (Piate j, E, F); C. persica 2n = 14 = 2 (L)m (SAT) + 2(L)m + 3(S) st + 7(S) t(Plate k, B; Fig. 1,B); C. stenocarpa 2n =16 = 2(L)m(SAT) + 2(L)m + 1(S)st + 11(S)t (Plate i, C, Fig. 1, C); C, teheranica (see Appendix i for the nomenclature) 2n = 16 = 4(L)m(SAT) + 2(S) st + 10(S) t (Plate k, D; Fig. 1, D); C. scleroclada var. rigida 2n = 18 = 2(L)m (SAT) + 2(S)st + 14(S)t(Plate j H, i; Fig. 1, E) All the karyotypes here descr- ibed are highly asymmetrical and bimodal, and belong to the type 3C in the karyotype classification system established by Stebbins[14,15]. 2n=18 for the last mentioned taxon has been confirmed by the ,standard microtome sectioning method. Its meiosis was also examined with acetoorcein staining, and 9 bivalents were always found at MI, no meiotic aberrations being Observed. x=7 and x=9 are two new basic numbers even for the whole tribe of Delphineae. It is considered that the karyotype of 2n=18 is derived from that of 2n=16 by centic fission (Robertsonian exchange), while the karyotype of 2n=14 is derived from that of 2n=16 probably by successive unequal interchanges. As shown to Fig. 1 and 2. the complement of C. sclerocleda var. rigida (2n=18) has only one pair of large and metacentric chromosomes instead of 2 pairs of such chromosomes in the other species, but it has 2 extra pairs of small and terminal chromosomes as compared with the species with 2n=16. The complement in the taxon has, therefore, exactly the same fundamental number of chromosome arms as that of the other species with 2n=16 (for example, of C. stenocarpon), but it has two more centromeres. There are at least 2 pairs of chro- mosomes in the complement (3 and 5) which may be telocentric, i.e. T chromosomes in the sense of Levan et al[8] The small dots at the ends of the chromosomes may be the chromomeres in centric regions rather than short arms (Jones[6]). As the plants constantly show 9 bivalents .at the first meiotic division and have very high pollen fertility (98%) as well as good seed-set, the karyotype seems to be a stable one. Therefore, Consolida scleroclada var. rigida may have provided another example of spontaneous centric fission which has resulted in homozygous and stable telocentrics. John and Freemanm have argued for the mechanism of chromosomal structural variation based on the observed facts both in animals and plants. The cytogenetic model for the variation was formulated by Lima-de-Faria as early as in 1956 and revised by Jones[6], and the mo- lecular model for the mechanism recently by Holmquist et al.[4] As in the genus Delphinium, most species of Consolida are pollinated by long-tongued bumble-bees. In C. regalis (incl. both subspecies), C. stenocarpa and C. scleroclada var. rigida the isolated flowers (3每15 for each species) gave no any seeds. The flowers first emasculated and isolated and then pollinated with pollen collected from the same individuals in these three species (10每25 flowers for each species), however, all gave full seed-set. The experiment clearly shows that these three species, though self-com- patible, are obligately out-pollinated. It was Observed that the three species are pro- tandrous. When stigmata become 2-lobed and show their receptive surface, all the stamens have recurved down or laterally, forming a semi-circle, but the styles remain erect. Therefore the receptive stigmata are over 3 mm (C. regalis) or 5 mm (C. stenocarpa and C. scloroclada var. rigida) away from and above the anthers of the same flower Plate I, B, D and F). Self-pollination is thus prevented. Just-opened flowers, however, have always some stamens erect and with their dehiscing anthers correspondent in position to 2-lobed and receptive stigmata of other flowers (compare A with B, C with D, E with F in Plate II). Pollen grains are therefore easily taken by a bumble-bee from dehiscing anthers onto receptive stigmata. Here we see a perfect mechanism which prevents self-pollination and secure out-pollination. It was observed during the experiment that a bumble-bee, Bombus agrorum F., only visited the straight-spurred species, C. regalis (both subspecies), but never visited the curved-spurred species, C. scleroclada var. rigida and C. stenocarpa. Another bumble-bee, B. hortorum L., however, visited both the straight-spurrod and curved-spurred species, but when it visited C. stenocarpa it sometimes kept the body upside down. Consolida teheranica (Boiss.) Hong, on the contrary, is an inbreeder. Its stigmata and anthers become mature at the same time, and its styles and stamens always remain erect with the dehiscing anthers right over the receptive stigmata. It was also found that its corollae are not fully opened (Fig. 3). As expected, two isolated flowers gave 9 good seeds. The results of crossing experiment axe shown in Fig. 4. Only the cross between two subspecies of C. regalis resulted in an interfertile hybrid, which was vigorous, showed normal meiosis, had 94% pollen fertility, and gave good seed-set. The cross combination C. stenocarpa℅C. scleroclada var. rigida gave some 50 % seed set, but the seeds yielded from the cross did not germinate though looked good. The other crosses gave no any seeds.
Abstract (Browse 2305)  |  Full Text PDF       
Petroleum Sporo-Pollen Assemblage and Oil Source Rock of Yecheng Seg in Xinjiang
Author: Jiang De-xin and Yang Hui-qiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(1)
    Forty-seven species of fossil pollens and spores referred to 33 genera extracted from the crude oil samples collected from the Yecheng Seg of the Talimu Basin in Xinjiang were observed. Based on the investigation of the characteristics of the petroleum sporo-pollen assemblage, the problem on petroleum source of this oil-bearing region is discussed. The principle and method to judge source rock from petroleum sporo-pollen assemblage are specially explained in this paper. The petroleum sporo-pollen assemblage of the Neogene reservoir of the Yecheng Seg consists of Deltoidospora perpusila, Deltoidospora gradata, Cyathidites australis, Cyathidites minor, Biretisporites potoniaei, Dictyophyllidites harrisii, Dictyophyllum rugosum, Cibotiumspora paradoxa, Gleicheniidites senonicus, Gleicheniidites rousei, Undula- tisporites concave, Lycopodiumsporites sp., Osmundacidites wellmanii, Leptolepidites major, Apiculatisporis ovalis, Bennettiteaepollenites lucifer, Cycadopites typicus, Cyeadopites nitidus, Cycadopites minimus, Cycadopites carpentieri, Cycadopites follicularis, Chasmatosporites elegans, Classopollis classoides, Classopollis annulatus, Podocarpidites multesimus, Podocarpidites major, Parvisaccites enigmatus, Quadraeeulina limbata, Caytonipollenites pallidus, PteruchipoUenites thomasii, Alisporites grandis, Alisporites bilateralis, AbietineaepoUenites microalatus, Abietineaepollenites minimus, Pinuspollenites sp., Piceaepollenites sp., Cedripites st)., Ephedripites sp., Eucommiidites troedssonii, Magnolipollis neogenicus, Quercoidites microhenrici, Chenopodipollis multiplex, Artemisiae-pollenites sellularis, etc . This is a typical composite type of petroleum sporo-pollen assemblage, which eomprises the Jurassic species, the Cretaceous species, the Eogene species and the Neogene species of spores an, d pollen. In accordance with the characteristics of the above mentioned petroleum sporopollen assemblage, the source rock of the Yecheng Seg is considered to be Jurassic Period in age, and the black shales and mudstones of the Middle Jurassic Yangye-Taerga Formation are judged to be the most favorable source rocks in the region.
Abstract (Browse 2080)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Study on the Litter Decomposition of Chinese Pine and Oriental Oak
Author: Hu Yi-hui, Chen Ling-zhi, Kong Fan-zhi and Ren Ji-kai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(1)
    In this paper, the decomposition rates of the litter of Pinus tabulaefomis and Quercus variabilis placed in chinese pine plantation on Xi Shem in Beijing have been studied, the results showed that the differance between two kinds of litter was insignificant. The ratio of weight loss of litter placed in chinese pine plantation for 591 days was 24.2-28.06%. The exponential decay model has been used, the litter decomposition rates were estimated 0.190-4).210 g/g/year for Pinus tabulaeformis and 0.176-0.203 g/g/year for Quercus variabilis. The chemical component analysis of litter re- presented that the weight loss of litter was caused by losing gross fat, soluble sugar; tannin, organic carbon initially. The correlation coefficients between the weight loss rate and the net chemical component loss of Pinus tabulaeformis and Quercus variabilis were 0.970 (p<0.05) and 0.982 (p<0.05), respectively.
Abstract (Browse 2242)  |  Full Text PDF       
Editorial Office, Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, Institute of Botany, CAS
No. 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093, China
Tel: +86 10 6283 6133 Fax: +86 10 8259 2636 E-mail: jipb@ibcas.ac.cn

Copyright © 2018 by the Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences
Online ISSN: 1744-7909 Print ISSN: 1672-9072 CN: 11-5067/Q