February 1986, Volume 28 Issue 2

 

          Research Articles
Studies on the Increments of Two Mangrove Species, Kandelia eandel (L.) Druce and Bruguiera texangula (Lout.) Poir., in China
Author: Lin Peng and Zheng Wen-jiao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(2)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1945)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Cretaceous and Tertiary Aquilapolles in China
Author: Zhou Shan-fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(2)
      
    The Aquilapolles are found in Northeast and Eastern part of China. 183 speices are selected from the world. These 183 speices include Aquilapollenites, Mancicorpus, Fibulapollis and Translucentipollis. It is showed that they appeared from Albian of Early Cretaceous to Early Oligocene(?) of Tertiary. They mainly appeared in Senonian. The Aquilapolles are the most flourishing in Cretaceous during Maestrichtian. Tile six speices of which appeared in Tertiary. They are Aquilapollenites granobaculus, A. punctatus, A. quadrilobus, A. spinulosus, Funk., A. spinulosus (Mtched.) n. corab. and Fibulapollis mirificus. There are two phytogeoprovinces of the sporo-pollen in the Northern Hemisphere during Late Cretaceous. One is "Aquilapolles District "-moist subtropical climatic, Circum-Pacific and Siberia. Another is ※Normapolles District§-arid (or semiarid) sub- tropical climatic, Circum-Atlantic, Europ and India. The author related the process to form the two phytogeopovinees by distribution of continent and sea in that time. In one country, Tertiary Aquilapollenites is wider than Late Cretaceous Aquilapollenites in palaeogeographic range. The Tertiary speices of Aquilapollenites are Aquila-pollenites spinulosus Funk. and A. granobaculus Song in China. Their kinds, amount and distribution fully show an evidence of relict member. They are relict Aquilapollenires and are not recycled fossils .from Upper Cretaceous strata. On Aquilapollenites, the respective characters of the growth and distribution of each Tertiary Epochs are indicated. The author also explores the relations between the growth, distribution and evolution of paleoenvironment in this paper.
Abstract (Browse 1877)  |  Full Text PDF       
Amyelon radicans First Known from China
Author: Li Zhong-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(2)
      
    This paper revises the generic diagnosis of Amyelon, given by Cridland in 1964, and gives a minute description about the first species of Amyelon from China. Although there is a differenee in size of secondary tracheids of A. radicans known from other parts of the world, yet they belong to the same species. In this paper, statistical method is used in discription of secondary xylem rays.
Abstract (Browse 1742)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Biomass of Robinia pseudoaeacia Plantation
Author: Chen Ling-zhi, Ren Ji-kai Chen Qing-lang, Hu Yi-hui, Ban Xian-cheng and Miao You-gui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(2)
      
    The average height of 31-aged Robinia pseudoacacia plantation in west mountain of Beijing is 7 in and the mean breastheight diameter of tree is 8.3 cm. The number of tree per hectare appears 1750. The canopy coverage of plantation shows 0.5. Using tile diameter square at tree breast height times tree height (D2H), as an independing variable, to estimate the dry weight of various parts of trees, between them the significient correlations occur. According to the modle of Wstem=58.88(D2H)0.88 (WBranch)=e7.77+0.001(D2H) (Wleaf)=e5.71+0.0008(D2H) (Wroot)ˊe7.67+0.0009(D2H) 28.45 t/ha of the stem biomass, 11.6 t/ha of the branch biomass. 0.97 t/ha of the leaf biomass, 7.6 t/ha of the root biomass are estimated in arbor layer. The aboveground and belowground biomass of shrub and herb layers axe 13.71 t/ha and 10.72 t/ha respectively in September, the biomass of shrub and herb layer is 24.43 t/ha. 73.05 t/ha of the total biomass in Robinia pseudoacacia plantation is obtained.
Abstract (Browse 2001)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Structure of a New Triterpene Saponin B from Polygala japoniea Houtt
Author: Fang Zha-pu and Yin Guo-jiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(2)
      
    A new triterpene saponin B has been isolated from the earial parts of Polygala japonica Houtt in folk-lore medicine. Its molecular: C48H78O20, m.p. 199每202⊥, [汐]D23+30.0 (C, 0.5, CH3OH). Acidic hydrolysis of this saponin gave a sapogenin (2汐, 3汐, 24-tri-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oic acid) and D-glucose. The structure of saponin B was elucidated as 28-O- [汕-D-glucopyranosyl (1↙2) -汕-D-glucopyranosyl (1↙2) -汕-D-glucopy- ranosyl] 2汐, 3汐, 24-trihydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oic acid mainly by 13C-NMR, MS and some chemical transfomations.
Abstract (Browse 2057)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Diterpenoids ot Rabdosia macrocalyx var. jiuhua Z. W. Xue et X. W. Wang
Author: Wang Zhao-quan, Wang Xian-rong, Dong Jin-guang and Wang Xue-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(2)
      
    Four diterpenoids have been isolated from the dried leaves of Rabdosia macrocalyx var. juihua Z. W. Xue et X..W. Wang. Three of them were shown to be known diter- penoids, excisanin A, excisanin B and macrocalyxin A, while the one, a new kauranetype diterpene, was named jiuhuanin A. On the basis of physico-chemical constants, spectroscopic analysis of the new compound and properties of its derivatives, the structure of the compound was identified as (1). Jiuhuanin A was shown to have cytotoxicity in vitro against cultures of Hela cell and A549 cells.
Abstract (Browse 1776)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Manganese on Hydrogen and Oxygen Evolution of Blue Green Algae Spirulina platensi
Author: Gu Tian-qing, Wang Fa-zhu and Zhou Pei-zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(2)
      
    This paper reports that the hydrogen evolution in dark and the oxygen evolution by light from intact cells of Spirulina platensis treated with 0.8 mol/l this (pH 8.0) were inactivated, but they were restored after removing tris. The restoration of activity is related to manganese and increased with its amount raised in the liquid medium. If the manganese in medium is too high, the inhibition of hydrogen and oxygen evolution will take place. DCMU, methylamine, hydroxyl, amine hydrochloride which are the inhibitors of PS j inhibit not only evolution of oxygen, but also of hydrogen.
Abstract (Browse 2052)  |  Full Text PDF       
Contrast in Enzyme activities Between the Two Kinds of Epidermal Cells in Garlic Protective Sheath During Senescing
Author: Li Xian-zhang, Yin Wei-yi, Shao Li-mei and Lou Cheng-hou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(2)
      
    During the transformation of the protective sheath of garlic from a fleshy scale into a tough skin, most cells of the outer epidermis undergo wall thickening by secondary deposition, yet among them, a few cell interspersed after the fashion of stematal distribution, remain unthickened at the early stage of development (Plate i, Fig. 1). While the unthickened cell maintains its original shape and protoplasmic contents, the nucleus and cytoplasmic constituents in the thickening cell begin to disassemble themselves to some extent and ※nuclear extrusion§ from one cell into the other (Plate i, Fig. 2) can frequently be detected under microscope after the specimen is treated with a nuclear stain (Plate i, Fig. 3). During middle stage of senescence cytochemical localization of several enzyme activities in the thickening and the unthickened cells (Plate i, Fig. 5每8) have revealed striking contrast between the two kinds of cells: The unthickened cell is rich in ATPase (as well as in cytochrome oxidase and peroxidase) activity; whereas the thickening cell fails to show any. Conversely, the thickening cell is full of APase (and in polyphenol oxidase) activity but the unthickened cell shows none or very weak. Nevertheless, the conspicuous differences of the two kinds of cells do not last long the unthickened cell also transforms itself into the thickening one in succession at the late stage of senescence. Finally, the unthickened cell is composed of secondary deposition of wall materials and a narrow empty cell cavity (Plate i, Fig. 4). Prominent differences in cellular structure and in enzymic activity at middle stage and their final trans- formation into the same rind structure toward the end of senescence seem to indicate that the unthickened cell is reserved to collect a large part of the evacuating cellular contents from adjoining thickening cells and to transpose them to the tissue underneath epidermis, hence the name ※post cell§ is given.
Abstract (Browse 1955)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of the Root of Libanotis buchtorimensis Fisch Dc.
Author: Wang Chang-dai and Chen Ju
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(2)
      
    Two crystalline substances were isolated from the root of Libanotis buchtorimensis (Fisch) Dc., one of them identified as trans-P-hydroxy-cinnamic acid. It was first found in this plant, Compound (p)is anew compound, white needle crystal, melting point 189-191⊥, with the empirical formula C14H14O4, its structure was elucidate by means of UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS, It was named libanotin A.
Abstract (Browse 1888)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Isolation, Identification and Bioactivities of Daucosterol in the Roots ot Paeonia lactiflora
Author: Xu Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(2)
      
    A white crystalline powder substance (m.p. 290每292⊥; [a]23D=-48.3˚) was iso- lated from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora. It was identified by chemical and spectral analysis as 汕-sitosterol-D-glucoside, i.e. daucosterol. It amounts to 4℅10-5 of the dry material Bioassays showed that daucosterol increased the fresh weight of cucumber cotyledons, promoted the elongation of wheat coleoptiles, and delayed the destruction of chlorophyll. Daucosterol also induced the initiation of root and leaf of isolated cucumber cotyledons. These phenomena showed that daucosterol was an active phytosetroid and exhibited both auxin-like and kinetin-like activities.
Abstract (Browse 3580)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Cgmparative Study on Morphology and ATPase Activities of Maize Hybrid and Its Parents During Early Embryogeny
Author: Jin Hui-fen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(2)
      
    We observed tissue sections of single hybrid of maize 328 and its parents during early embryogeny, determining ATP ase activities and observing plant features. The results obtained show that maize embryogeny can be divided into three periods, that is, 1) The period of 3每7 days after pollination is known as an original embryonic period. 2) The period of 9每20 days after pollination is known as the period of undergoing rapid differentiation of all the tissue organs. 3) The period of 25每45 days is known as the period of further differentiation, perfection and elongation of organal system. The size of volume of hybrid embryo is between its parents during the second period. That of the hybrid embryo during other two periods is larger than that of its parents. Hybrid embryo always shows that the number of its cells is more, its cells are closer together, the colour of the stained cells is darker, the cells differentiate clearly, the time that embryonic organs differentiates lasts longer. The results of determinig ATP ase activities it may be seen that during 1每2 days after pollination ATP ase activities in hybrid ovaries are obviously higher than in its parents* ovaries. On the third day after pollination ATP ase activities in hybrid ovaries once go down. After that ATP ase activities go up again. During 15每45 days ATP ase activities in hybrid embryo (unincloding endosperm) are all higher than those in its parents. Hybrid 328 has advantage over its parents in yielding capacity, plant height, spike length, number of seeds per spike, 1000 seed weight. The results show close correlation and supplement among cell differentiation ability, ATP ase activities and plant features.
Abstract (Browse 1708)  |  Full Text PDF       
Karyological Studies in Cunninchamia unicanaliculata and var. pyramidalis
Author: Xu Bing-sheng (Hsu Ping-sheng) and Fang Yong-xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(2)
      
    Cunnighamia unicanaliculata D. Y. Wang et H. L. Liu and var. pyramidalis D. Y. Wang et H. L. Lin, two new taxa recently found in south-western Sichuan Province of China, have both a very restricted yet sympatric geographical distribution, including Dechang and Miyi districts.[7] There is a debate as regards the specific status of C. unicanaliculata. A comparative karyological investigation, including chromosome numbers, karyotype analyses and measurements of nuclear volume and DNA contents, was under- taken in order to shed some light on the phylogenetic relationships between these taxa and C. lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. The kaxyotype formulas of the above two taxa and C. lanceolata are as follows: C.unicanaliculata; K(2n) = 22 =L8m+ S12m+S2sm; C. unicanaliculata var. pyramidalis: K(2n)= 22= L8m +S10m+S4sm; C. lanceolata (Type A): K(2n) =22 = Lsm+ S14m S2sm; C. lanceolata(TypeB): K(2n) = 22 = L8m + S14m . Frown the above karyotypes, we have found that C. unicanaliculata and var. pyrami- dalis, which are very similar to each other, are closely related to C. lanceolata (Type B), but seem more strongly differentiated in the following respects: (1) the former posses- sing 1--2 pairs of chromosomes with submedian primary constrictions each, while the latter with all chromosomes possessing median primary constrictions; (2) the satellites of the former being always located on the 4th pair of chromosomes, whereas the position of satellites of the latter varying with geographical distribution, being usually on the 1st and 4th pairs of chromosomes; (3) B-chromosomes being present in the latter (predominantly in the geographical races of southwestern China) but not seen in the former; (4) the average chromosome volume of C. unicanaliculata var. pyramidalis being 623.44, while those of the four geographical races of C. lanceolata being 667.2每796.0; (5) the comparative DNA amount of C. unicanaliculata var. pyramidalis being 5.54, while those of the various geographical races of C. lanceolata being 6.20每7.67. Upon an overall comparison of the data with regard to karyology, geographical distribution, ecology, morphology and isoenzymic patterns of the taxa in question, we come to the following conclusions. Cunninghamia unicanaliculata and var. pyramidalis are most likely taxa originated from natural populations of C. lanceolata. The extreme environmental conditions of the habitats axe thought to have played an important role in the production of these two new taxa. An elevation of over 2000 meters and the periodical aridity of climate of the habitat, which differed remarkably from those of C. lanceolata, made possible the isolation of alternative populations, accompanied by selection for adaptation to extreme environments. But the differences between these two newly found taxa and C. lanceolata are karyologically minor and morphologically quantitative and tend to display a more or less continuous variation pattern. It is, therefore, suggested that they are probably geographical races or ecotypes of C. lanceolata, and are not distinct enough from the latter to warrant specific status. It seems best to treat both C. unicanaliculata and var. pyramidalis as infraspecific catorories of C. lanceolata.
Abstract (Browse 2046)  |  Full Text PDF       
Scanning Electron Microscope Observation on Endosperm Starch Grain Cnaracters in Orvza sativa subsp. Hsien
Author: Wu Shi-zhao, Huang Chao-wu, Ou Li-cai, Kong Xiang-yang, Yan Hong-ming and Lin Yu-zhao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(2)
      
    Scanning electron microscope observation on the characters of endosperm starch grains of wild rice anti seventeen hsien rice varieties belonging to first and second season cropping indicated that endosperm starch grains of hsien rice generally were polyhedron in sharp and edgy angle indistinct of polyhedron, individual starch grain nearly subrounded in the parts called white belly and white centre. General diameters are in an extent of 3.3每9.3 mm. The shapes of the endosperm starch grains between wild rice and cultivars are similar and sizes leas than hsien rice varieties, but the sizes of the endosperm starch grains of the first eropp4ng axe large than those of the second cropping. The shapes of endosperm starch grains of the varieties to have good exterior quality are polyhedron and structures are arranged closely, Hance, it can be primarily distinguished the good quality of grains from the poor by observation on the endosperm starch grains of varieties.
Abstract (Browse 2205)  |  Full Text PDF       
Selection and Characterization of High pH Resistant or Salt Resistant Variants from Haploid Triticale callus (n=28)
Author: Zhang Cheng-he, Cao Jun and Bao Wen-kui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(2)
      
    Haploid Triticale callus did not grow on N6 medium with pH adjusted to 10 by 1% NaOH or with 1% NaC1, and was killed totally after culture for 40每50 days. However, living spots could be found in few dead inoculated calluses. When these living spots were transferred to the same medium, some of them will continue to grow and others dying off. These media are called screening media and the calluses growing more or less normally on them, variants. It is supposed that each variant came from a single callus cell. One gram of fresh callus contains about 1.65℅106 cells, and the variation rate for resistance to 1% NaCl, as calculated from total quantity of inoculum, is 0.86 per million cells, and for resistance to pH 10, 0.81. R4 is a variant resistant to pH 10. The variation rate of IL for resistance to pH 11 is 1.01 per million cells. If selection is made directly from the normal callus, the variation rate for resistance to pH 11 could be estimated as (0.81℅10每6)℅ (1.01℅10每6), or 0,82 per 10" cells. For such a low rate of variation, it would be impossible to isolate them under the usual condition of laboratory. However, it could be achieved easily if a stepwise selection schedule is adopted. The variation rate can be increased one to two tithes by pretreatment of callues cells with 0.4% EMS aqueous solution for two hours. When the variants were cultured in normal medium far 3 to 5 passages (28 days between two subcultures), 23每33% of variants could not maintain their resistance, However, the two-third or more variants are stable and maintain their resistance through passages in normal media. Besides, plantlets induced from the callus of pH 10 resistant line TR4, could grow on the pH 10 medium. And callus induced from these plantlets explant maintains the resistance. These facts indicate that the stable resistant variants selected from the callus cells would be valuable for breeding purpose.
Abstract (Browse 1824)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Ultrastructural Feature and Distribution of Microbodies in Mature Embryo Cells of Pinus bungeana
Author: Chen Zu-keng, Wang Fu-xiong (Wang Fu-hsiung) and Zhou Fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(2)
      
    The material of pine seeds used in this investigation was collected in 1982 from Peking. The microbodies of mature embryo ceils are very well developed and their diameter averages about 2每3 米m, even up to 4.3 米m. The appearance is usually ovoid or elliptic. The microbodies are essentially glyoxysomes. The microbody matrix is composed of two types of substances, one type is of a finely granular material in a densely arrangement (Plate k Fig. 6); the other is of coarsely granular or flocculant in appearance and the elements of the matrix are loosely distributed. These matrices usually contain an amorphous inclusion or crystalline arrays in regular arrangement. The inclusion sometimes occupies a small portion of the microbody matrix (Plate k, Figs, 5, 6) and sometimes the inclusion occupies nearly the entire glyoxysome (Plate j, Fig. 3). It is interesting that the ※pockets§ frequently appear in the microbodies of mature embryo cells, and those are actually as a result of invagination in microbodies (Plate j, Fig. 4). In addition, an electron-transparent ※oil body-like space§ occurs occasionally in microbody (Plate i, Fig. 1). The periphery of ※space§ is a constitutive part of matrix or continuing with the matrix. This ※space§ may be due to the degradation in a part of the matrix. While the periphery of the pocket is membranaceous and an electron-opaque cytoplasmic groundplasm was found within the pocket. The microbodies of mature embryo cells in Pinus are mainly distributed in pericolumn cells of the root cap and cortical cells of the hypocotyl. Besides the dominant organelles of lipid bodies in the cells of above mentioned tissues, there are also microbodies, amyloplasts, mitochondria, plastids, endoplasm reticulum and Golgi apparatus, of which the microbodies are the most aboundant organelles. In contrast, the microbodies and other organelle are rare in the parenchyma of the cotyledons in Pinus. Their common and outstanding characteristics in various tissues of mature embryo is that the entire cytoplasm of the cells is almost full of the lipid bodies, and each organelle is directly surrounded by a number of lipid bodies (Plate i〞k, Figs. 1每6). Because of the other organelles are rare in parenchyma of the cotyledons, the lipid bodies are so appressed with each other that the inlaid periphery of lipid bodies frequently occurs in some degree. To sum up, based upon 'the state of distribution of microbodies in mature embryo tissues, cotyledons of Pinus could be considered as the main storage organ of nutrient substances, while the root cap and hypocotyl are the important sites of glyoxysome metabolism. The function of glyoxysomes is to convert lipid into the carbohydrates and to transfer the latter to embryos for growth.
Abstract (Browse 2027)  |  Full Text PDF       
Submergence(Fermentation)Culture of Anisodus acutanguhts Cells and Identification of Hyoscyamine and Scopolamine in the Cultured Ceils
Author: Zheng Guang-zhi, Wang Shi-lin and He Jing-bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(2)
      
    The growth rate of Anisodus acutangulus cells in the submergence culture was 1.5 g dry wt/l/day, a rate 3 times as that in the suspension culture and more than 10 times over that of the solid static culture: However, the contents of hyoscyamine (0.203 mg/g dry wt) and scopolamine (0.178 mg/g dry. wt) in submergence culture were only slightly higher than those in the two other cultures. But when the 12-day-old submergence culture was supplemented with phenylalanine (5m mol/l) and kinetin (0.1mg/l), it was observed that not only the cell growth rate was increased but also the cellular content of hyoscyamine was raised to a level of 0.217 mg/g dry wt., and that scopolamine to 0.412 mg/g dry wt. The contents of these two alkaloids represented 1.1 and 2.3 times respectively the value of the culture without phenylalanine and kinetin supplements. The optimum date for harvesting the A. acutangulus culture Was on the 14th day of the culture. The monomers of hyoscyamine and scopolamine isolated from the cultured cells were purified and recrystalized, and then identifited as the two compounds in question by the thin-layer chromatography, melting point determination, and ultraviolet, infra-red and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. In this paper, we also summarize and discuss the results of A. acutangulus culture experiments performed in the past 8 years. Our finding seems to inclieate that following a pilot production trial, the tissue culture method could well be employed to produce hyoscyamine and scopolamine from A. acutangulus cells on an industrial scale.
Abstract (Browse 1972)  |  Full Text PDF       
Histochemical Studies on in Vitro Parthenogenesis in Helianthus annuus L.
Author: Wei Zheng-yuan and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(2)
      
    In recent years haploid sunflower embryoids were induced in our lab by culture of unfertilized ovules[6] and these were revealed to be originated from the egg cells, i.e. via in Vitro parthenogenesis[5] The present paper reports some preliminary results of our histochemieal studies on this process. Ovules 1每2 days prior to anthesis were cultured on liquid N6 medium supplemented with 2 ppm MCPA, 6% sucrose and 100 ppm inositol. Samples were fixed at intervals in aceto-methanol (1:3) and processed by paraffin method. In Vivo ovules were also collected at intervals before and after anthesis and processed in the same way serving as a control system. The sections were stained by Feulgen reaction far DNA(Plate i, 1每6), methyl-green pyronin method for RNA(Plate i, 7每12), mercuric bromphenol blue for protein(Plate j, 13每18), and PAS reaction for polysaceharide (Plate j, 19每24). The nearly matured egg cells were characterized by negative Feulgen reaction of the nucleus, negative pyronin staining of the nueleolus, abundant pyroninophylic granules in the cytoplasm, rich cytoplasmic protein, but with- out starch grains. After fertilization, or when parthenogenesis was triggered, the cells of the early proembryo maintained weak Feulgen stain and pyroninophylic granules for a period, which indicated that the RNA synthesized formerly in the egg might play a role in early proembryo development until new transcriptional program was established. Although the early status of the in Vitro parthenogenetic proembryos was similar to that of the in Vivo zygotic ones, the later development was divergent. In zygotic pro- embryos, the starch grains were distributed in a polarized decreasing graduent from the suspensor to the embryo proper, and were Served as temporary stores, ultimately displaced by oil and protein. In parthenogenetic proembryos, however, they often showed an unpolarized, centripetally distributed gradient and turned to be a longterm storage. This abnormal physiological status may have a relation to the underdevelopment of the parthenogenetic embryoids.
Abstract (Browse 1833)  |  Full Text PDF       
Seasonal Changes of Cambial Activity and Phloem Development in Hevea brasiliensis
Author: Wu Ji-lin and Hao Bing-zhong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(2)
      
    There is definitely seasonal activity in cambial growth in the trunk of Hevea brasi- liensis planted on Hainan Island and the cambial growth ceases during leaf-fail and leaf-absent period simultaneously with lower temperature and dries. The sieve elements founction for one-half year to two years. The variation in conducting-phloem thicknesses in a year is not significant and the conducting-phloem retains in about the same thickness during leaf-fall and leaf-absent period as that during the other periods in a year.
Abstract (Browse 1988)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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