March 1986, Volume 28 Issue 3

 

          Research Articles
The Chemical Constituents of Pyrrosialingua
Author: Mizuo Mizuno, Munekazu linuma, Toshihisa Imai, Toshiyuki Tanaka and Min Zhi-da
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(3)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1876)  |  Full Text PDF       
Correlation of RuBP Activity with PSU density in Higher Plants
Author: Hao Nai-bin, Zhang Yu-zhu, Ge Qiao-ying, Jia Zhi-wang and Tan Ke-hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(3)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1918)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Petrified Forest from Beijing
Author: Duan Shu-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(3)
      
    This paper deals with some fossil woods found in a hill near to Xiadelongwan village, Yanqing district, about 120 km north of Beijing. There are more than 30 thick fossil trunks 0.6每2.5 m in diameter. They arc erect above the ground 30每50 cm, grey, light brown and grey-black in color. Two species are identified: Xenoxylon latiporosum (Cramer) Gothan and X. sp. along with Zamites sp. and Neocalamites sp. All of them are from the Houcheng Formation of late Middle Jurassic. These fossils are well- preserved. It show that the climate of Beijing by the Middle Jurassic was subtropical, hot and damp, rich in rainfall. The well-marked growth-rings of these woods show that the seasonal changes were quite clear. Spring woods are very wide which indicates that the growth rate was very fast.
Abstract (Browse 1969)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Species and Ecotypes of Amyelon
Author: Li Zhong-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(3)
      
    This paper deal with a new species of Amyelon Amyelon xui, found in the Late Permian coal balls from Wangjiazhai of Shuicheng district, Guizhou province, China. The morphology and structure of the new species are deseribed. The three species: A. radicans, A. iowense and A. xui are investigated in comparetive morphology, anatomy and ecology. It is thought that these ※species§ possibly represent different ecotypes. In this paper, environment of formation of the coal balls and phylogeny also are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1872)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characteristics of Phytogeochemistry in Copper Mine Area of Hongtou Shan, Liaoning Province
Author: Kong Ling-shao, Wang Mei-lin, Hu Yi-hui, Miao You-gui and Kong Fan-zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(3)
      
    The contents of copper, zinc, lead nickel and cadmium for 322 samples of 44 species growing on copper mine area of Hongtou Shoo were determined. The results showed that the average contents of zinc, nickel, lead, cadmium in dry matter are 51.313 ppm, 1.536 ppm, 0.361 ppm and 0.058 ppm respectively. The variable range of zinc and cad- mium contents is larger, difference between minimum and maximum value is about 30每40 times. Zinc, lead and nickel contents in leaves of xylophyta in dry matter are mostly higher than in branches, but cadmium content of branches in dry matter is higher than leaves. The contents of lead and zinc in plants of minerelization areas are higher than that in non-minerelization areas. The results of correlative analysis showed that the linear regression between the metal contents in plants and soils are significant, for example, Lespedeza bicolor Thalictrum thumbergii, Arundinella hirta et al. It is important in phytogeochemical methods of prospecting for mineral. However, the correlative coefficients between the elements contents in leaves and branches of Quercus liaotungensis and in soils are not obvious. The correlative coefficient of nickel in plants and zinc, lead, cadmium and organic matter contents in soils are mostly negative value, without significant correlation. The results of the principal component analysis showed that the correlation of cadmium and zinc is significant among five elements in the plants. The contributive rate of first principal component is 33.94%, the positive target of the main target constitute is cadmium and zinc.
Abstract (Browse 2128)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Artemisia anornala S. Moore
Author: Xiao Yong-qing and Tu You-you
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(3)
      
    From the alcoholic fraction of Artemisia anomala S. Moore, we isolated and iden- tified eight constituents: coumarin, herniarin (7-methoxycoumarin), palmitic acid, scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin), trans-o-hydroxycinnamic acid, trans-o-hydroxy- p-methoxycinnamic acid, triein (3∩, 5∩-dimethoxy-5, 7, 4∩-trihydroky-flavone) and cyclohexanehexol monomethylether. They were all isolated in first time from A. anomala ,S Moore except coufarin and herniarin.
Abstract (Browse 1939)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on the Volatile Flavor Constituents of Sichuan Preserved Vegetable (Brassica juncea Czern et Coss.)
Author: Lin Zheng-kui and Hua Ying-fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(3)
      
    The volatile constituents of Sichuan Preserved vegetable (Brassica juncea) were separated by a distillation-extraction device, and 41 compounds were identified by tile GC-MS-DS, and with the retention index of GC. The samples were obtained by N2 blast adsorption with the Porapak Q as adsorbent. They were then eluted with ether and separated by the column chromatography of silica gel. The concentrate fractions obtained were again eluted with benzene and ether. It was identified that the con- centrate fractions possessed the characteristic odor of Preserved vegetable (Brassica juncea), and that the characteristic odor compounds were: 3-butenonitrile, phenyla- cetonitrile, 3-phenypropiononitrile, allyl isothiocyanate, 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate, di- methyl trisulfide, 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene, 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)-benzene, 7-methoxybenzofuran. The result of this study may be helpful to improve the aroma quality of preserved vegetable, to develop its new varieties, and to research the aroma of food stuffs.
Abstract (Browse 2047)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Structures of Reniformin A, B, and C
Author: Wang Xian-rong, Wang Zhao-quan, Dong Jin-guang and Wang Xue-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(3)
      
    Three new cytotoxic diterpenoids reniformin A, B and C, have been isolated from the leaves of Rabdosia latifolia var. reniformis Z. W. Xue et X. W. Wang. Their structures were established as (1), (2), and (3) by spectroscopic and chemical data respectively.
Abstract (Browse 2124)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Proteins in Mung Bean Mitochondria
Author: Zou Yu-ping, Yan Long-fei and Tang Peg-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(3)
      
    The mung bean mitochondria were obtained by sucrose cushion centrifugation in quite pure form. The outer membrane and the mitoplast were separated by digitonin treatment followed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. SDS gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the 42每44 KD protein in mung bean mitochondria was located in mitoplast rather than in the outer membrane. Co-electrophoresis with rabbit muscle actin showed that the rabbit muscle actin coincided with the 44 KD band in plant mitochondria. These results suggest that one of the motive force of the swelling and shrinking of the mitochondria may be generated from the mitochondria themselves.
Abstract (Browse 1992)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Circular Dichroism (CD) Spectra of Iron-Molyb-denum Protein from Azotobacter vinelandii Nitrogenase
Author: Huang Ju-fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(3)
      
    Since the unsymmetry of metal cluster(P-cluster), which was under different redox states, in FeMo protein of A. vinelandii nitrogenase could be observed by circular dichroism, the numbers of the redox equivalent for the P-cluster was obtained by CD titration of DT-stripped FeMo protein with oxidant, i.e. plotting →汛450nm against the number of equivalent of oxidant added. After exposure to air, at the beginning P-cluster was reversibly oxidized, then followed by irreversible oxygen-damage. Dithiothreitol (DTT) was able to increase the C2H2-reduction activity of FeMo protein, which was not severely damaged by O2, or by other stronger oxidants, but could not change their CD spectra. It seems that the reactivation may be not due to the restoration of the P-cluster to its reducing state.
Abstract (Browse 1861)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Intraspecific Variation of Chromosomes and Peroxidase Isozymes in Picea meyeri Rehd
Author: Lai Shi-deng, Lin Yu-hong and Liu Zuo-chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(3)
      
    In this study the chromosomes of Picea meyeri Rehd were observed and the B- chromosome relative to peroxidase and cytochrome oxidase isozymes was analysised. The chromosome number in normal plant was 24. Most plants lacked B-chromosome. However, two B-chromosomes were found in very few plants. These few plants showed abnoemal fertility. Their diameter increment lower too. An additional Pb and was found in enzymograph of peroxidase in B-chromosome bearing plants, but lacked the Pa1, These Plants also produced an additional band of cytochrome oxidase Cb. These plants with B-chromosomes Showed specific isozyme pattern. We can regard the isozymes as a biochemical marker of the B-chromosome.
Abstract (Browse 1836)  |  Full Text PDF       
Esterase Isozyme analyses of the Species and Their Varieties of the Genus Gossypium
Author: Sun Chuan-wei and Liang Zheng-lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(3)
      
    The isozyme make up of esterases of the seeds from fifteen species and twenty-three cultivar of Gossypium was analyzed by isoelectrofocusing. The experimental results are summarized as follows: 1. Differeces were observed in the number of esterase isozyme bands among the species of different genome groups. The cultivated species, G. hirsutum (AD)1 gave rise to 46 isozyme bands, the most among the species of the genus Gossypium. G. barba- dense (AD)2, G. arboreum (A2) and G. herbaceum (A1) gave rise to 42, 40 and 38 bands, respectively. In wild species, G. australe (C3) had 20 esterase bands, the least in all species of Gossypium. The bands given rise from other wild species ranged from 26 to 40. 2. Each species of every genome groups had its marker bands. The results were in agreement with the traditional classification and provided some biochemical evidence for modern classification of Gossypium. 3. It was clear that all cotton species of different genome groups contain 5 main isozyme bands, viz. PI=3.85, 4.61, 5.48, 5.73 and 5.91 in the zymograms. In other words, these zymograms are common characters of Gossypium. 4. The esterase of 23 cultivers in four cultivated species studied showed that no variation in isozyme patterns existed within one species, except the disease-resistant variety Hea-7124 which differs from other 4 cultivars of G. barbadense.
Abstract (Browse 1818)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Embryogeny of Cryptomeria fortunei
Author: Liu Hong-e Lin Hung-(Lin hung-eh) and Wu Xia-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(3)
      
    The embryogeny of Cryptomeria fortunei was observed. By the middle of March the nucleus of functioning megaspore divides twelve times to form about 3000每4000 free nuclear female gametophyte. Wall formation is centripetal. By the end of May the archegonial complex containing 12每16 archegonia surrounded by jacket layer is present at the micropylar end of the gametophyte. The pollen grains are shed at the uninucleate stage. After pollination the pollen grains swell. The microspore nucleus moves to one side and divides to form a large generative nucleus and a small tube nucleus, The generative cell then divides to form a body cell and a stalk cell. When the pollen tube passed through the nucellus and reached the archegonial complex the nucleus of the body cell divides to form two male cells, generally only one of which enters the arehegonium and the fertilization takes place in the upper part of an egg cell. A number of eggs in an archegonial complex may be fertilized. After the fusion of the male nucleus with the egg nucleus, the zygote divides three times to form eight nuclei, which become organized into primary embryo cells and the open tier. The former are only two or three cells, while the latter has five or six cells open towards the top and divides to form the prosuspensor tier and the upper tier. Thus, the pro-embryo of Cryptomeria belongs to the standard type, according to Doyle (1963). Excepting the simple polyembryony, the cleavage polyembryony is a common character in the embryogeny of Cryptomeria. The mature embryo consists of the radicle, the hypocotyl, the plumule and three cotyledons. When the embryogeny of Cryptomeria fortunei is compared with that of C. japonica, there are many differences obtained. The number of archegonia in the archegonial complex of C. fortunei is less than that of C. japonica. The former does not form the archegonial chamber and the chalazal and lateral archegonia, while the latter does.
Abstract (Browse 2005)  |  Full Text PDF       
Observations on Fertilization in Sugar Beet
Author: Shen Jia-heng, Li Hui-rong, Hah Xiao-hua and Wang Pu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(3)
      
    The whole process of double fertilization in sugar beet has been observed, the main results are as follows: About 2 hours after pollination, the pollen grains germinate, the sperms in the pollen tube are long-oval. 15 hours after pollination, the pollen tube destroys a synergid and releases two sperms on one side or at the chalazal end of the egg cell. The sperms are spherical each having a cytoplasmic sheath. 17 hours after pollination, one sperm enters the egg cell, and the sperm nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus rapidly. 21 hours after pollination, the zygote is formed. In the meantime, the primary endosperm nucleus has divided into two free endosperm nuclei. 25 hours after pollination, the zygote begins to divide, forming a two-celled proembryo. The dormancy stage of the zygote is about 4 hours. In the meantime the endosperm is at the stage of four free nuclei. 17 hours after pollination, the sperm nucleus comes into contact and fuses with the secondary nucleus. The sperm nucleus fuses with the secondary nucleus, faster than the sperm with the egg. he first division of the primary endosperm nucleus is earlier than that of the zygote, it takes place about 20 hours after pollination, the dormancy stage of the primary endosperm is about 2 hours. The endosperm is free nuclear. The fertilization of sugar beet belongs to premitotic type of syngamy. From the stage of zygote to the two-celled proembryo, it can be seen that addition- al sperms enter the embryo sac, but polyspermy has not been observed yet.
Abstract (Browse 1895)  |  Full Text PDF       
An Observation on the Development of Middle-Layer in the Anther of Tai Gu Nuclear Mate-Sterile Wheat
Author: Chen Zhu Xi-zhao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(3)
      
    A comparative study of middle layer both in sterile and fertile anthers of Tai Gu wheat was made on electron-microscopic level. The submicroscopic structure of middle layer in fertile form was found that its middle layer degeneration was somewhat later than the period mentioned in literatures, and lasted somewhat as long as that of tapetal layer. On the other hand, there was a tendency of early disintegration of middle layer in sterile anthers. When abnormal meiosis of pollen mother cells was progressing and followed by pollen mother cells abortion one after another, the middle layers degenerated gradually, and appeared as irregular dark regions or empty spaces.
Abstract (Browse 1909)  |  Full Text PDF       
Induction of Embryogenic Callus and Histocytological Study on Embryoid Development of Angelica sinensis (Oily.) Diels
Author: Zhang Shi-yu and Zheng Guo-chang Cheng Kuo-chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(3)
      
    The common calluses derived from roots of Angelica sinensis were treated with phytohormones and different kinds of organic adjuvants with various concentrations to induce embryogenic callus. The phytohormones obviously affected embryogenic callus induction and the process of globular, heartshaped, torpedo and cotyledon stages. They could emerge from both inside and surface of calluses. In the developmental process, the embryoid still kept in contact with the base of callus from which it arose.
Abstract (Browse 1909)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Mutagenic Effect of the Chromosome by 5 MeV Electron
Author: Guo Bao-jiang and Ruan Ji-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(3)
      
    In this experiment, electron and y-ray-radiation were used to irradiate dry seeds of Vicia faba. Experimental results show that electron just as affective as 污-ray has significant mutagenic effect on cells. In the range of the dose, the frequency of chromosomal aberrations on the root tip cells, there are singnificantly dose-effect. But the relationship between the dose and frequency of aberrations is close to straight line and redplication. An analysis from the type of chromosomal aberrations by electron also leads to different results, in which there are more bridges and rings by electron than by 污-ray. Therefore, electron possibly have stronger two hit aberrations, and the frequency of aberration increased in proporti on with the square of dose.
Abstract (Browse 1820)  |  Full Text PDF       
Further Embryological Studies on the in Vitro Apogamy in Oryza saliva L.
Author: Li Guo-min and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(3)
      
    In the cultured young ovaries of rice, the processes of megagametophyte develop- ment could be switched to the formation of various abnormally organized embryo sacs and then to the initiation of synergid apogamy. The main pathway leading to apogamy was found to go via a linearly oriented 4-nucleate embryo sac to the formation of a li- nearly oriented egg apparatus, from which it was usually the chalazal synergid giving rise to an apogamous proembryo, and the micropylar synergid degenerated. The proembryo thus produced was located at the base of a vacuolated egg cell (Plate i, 1每7). The second pathway went through a nonlinearly oriented 4-nucleate embryo sac to the formation of an egg apparatus in which the two synergids were located at one side of the egg and oriented longitudinally. In this case it was often the chalazal synergid that could be triggered to apogamy, resulting in a hook-shaped proembryo embracing the egg cel1 from one side (Plate i, 8每11). When ovaries with nearly matured embryo sac were cultured, in a few cases where apogamy was induced, the proembryos observed were all situated at one side of the egg and were hook-shaped (Plate i, 12). All these pathways are summarized in a diagram (Fig. 23). Some interesting changes were observed in the synergid and the egg cell of the cultured ovaries by PAS reaction and mercuric bromphenol blue staining. The egg cells, in contrast to in vivo condition, often contained abundant starch grains,. The synergids and synergid proembryos were rich of cytoplasmic protein (Plate j, 13, 14). We supposed that the egg may supply some nutrients as well as stimulants to the developing synergid in the course of apogamy. The distribution of starch and protein in apogamous embryoids during subsequent development was also described in this paper (Plate, 15每22).
Abstract (Browse 1945)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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