April 1986, Volume 28 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
Isolation and Identification of Steroidal Saponins of Dioscorea collettit Hook var. hypoglauca (Palibin) Pei et Ting II
Author: Tang Shi-rong, Jiang Zhi-dong and Pang Zi-jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(4)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1789)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Isolation and Structure of Cordatanine from Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd
Author: Chen Wen-sen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(4)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1820)  |  Full Text PDF       
Hormonal Control of Somatic Embryogenesis and Callus Growth of Saintpaulta ionantha in Vitro
Author: Zhang Pi-fang, Ni De-xiang, Wang Qi and Wang Kai-ji
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(4)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1801)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Ultrastructure of Chloroplasts of Virusinfected Barley Leaves
Author: Huang Jin-sheng, Wang Lian-rong and Yu Xue-shu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(4)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1840)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Localization of Adenosine Triphosphatase Activity in the Phloem of Garlic Scape
Author: Dong Wei-xiang and Zhang Wei-chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(4)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1850)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Morphology, Structure and Development of the Glandular Hairs in Mentha haplocalyx Brig.
Author: Huang Jian-cheng, Dong Zhong-min and Hu Zheng-hai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(4)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1820)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Cuticles of Two Fossil Cycads and Epiphytic Fungi
Author: Zheng Shao-lin and Zhang Wu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(4)
      
    Cuticles of two fossil cycads and seven epiphytic fungi are described in this paper. They are Nilssonia sinensis Yabe et Oishi, Ctenis lyrata Li et Ye; Perisporiacites shaheziensis sp. nov., Notothyrites haizhouensis sp. nov., Microthyriacites pilcatus sp. nov., M. fuxinensis sp. nov., Stigmateacites polymorphus gen. et sp. nov., S. simplex gen. et sp. nov., Liaoningnema multinoda gen. et sp. nov. Materials were collected from the Shahezi Formation of Changtu district and the Haizhou Formation in Haizhou mine-field of Li- aoning Province, China. The age of these tossils is Early Cretaceous.
Abstract (Browse 2097)  |  Full Text PDF       
Field Studies of the Wheat Stomata Resistance Influenced by Soil Water Content
Author: Lu Zhen-min, Niu Wen-yuan and Zhang Yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(4)
      
    Concurrent observations of soil water potential and leaf stomata diffusion resistance were made on two, plots of wheat grown at Datun Agro-ecological Experimental Station in Beijing under two different soil water conditions. These data were further complemented by weather and physiological observation. In this paper, we mainly analysed the influence of soil water potential on the status of wheat leaf stomatal resistance. The results indicate that: (1) there is a obvious influence of soil water potential on the status of wheat leaf stomata under normal conditions and (2) there is a different upper and lower epidermis stomata of wheat leaf respond to the soil water potential. The lower epidermis stomata are more sensitive to soil water potential than upper epidermis one. (3) There is a linear relationship between the ratio of lower and upper epidermis stomata resistance and soil water potential in root layer, according to this we can diagnose the degree of wheat water deficit.
Abstract (Browse 1874)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Structure of Macrocalyxin E
Author: Wang Xian-rong, Wang Zhao-quan and Dong Jin-guang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(4)
      
    Macrocalyxin E, a new diterpenoid has been isolated from the leaves of Rabdosia macrocalyx (Dunn) Hara. Its structure was established by spectroscopic and chemical data.
Abstract (Browse 1730)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Identification of Steroidal Saponins from Dioscorea panthaica Prain et Burkill
Author: Li Bo-gang, Tang Yi-fang and Shi Yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(4)
      
    Two steroidal saponins have been isolated from the rhizomes of Dioscorea panthaica Prain et Burkill. collected from Sichuan province. They were identified as 3-0-{汐-L- rhamnopyranosyl (1↙4)- [汐-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1↙2) ]-汕-D-glucopyranosyl } -diosgenin (dioscin) and 3-O-{汕-D-glucopyranosyl (1↙3)-[汐-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1↙2)]-汕-D-glucopyranosyl}-diosgenin (gracillin) on the basis of mp., m. mp., TLC. acetylation, acid hydrolysis, IR, MS, and 13C NMR.
Abstract (Browse 2199)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Components of Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge
Author: Cheng Dong-liang, Sun Rong-qi, Li Xiao-rui, Zou Pei-xiu and Zhu Zi-qing(Chu Tze-tzing)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(4)
      
    Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge has been characterized as one of the most destructive plants to livestock in the North-Western China. Its chemical components have not been studied. We have been isolated four flavonoids from the aerial parts of Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge. They have been identified as quercetin, rhamnocitrin, isoquercitrin and rhamnocitrin-3-glucoside by UV, IR, 1HNMR and MS spectra of these flavonoids. Their acetyl derivatives have been prepared and their 1HNMR and MS spectra are fully in accord with this conclusion. The rhamnocitrin-3-glucoside has been found first of all in Oxytropis species. It is perhaps valuable for chemotaxonomy of Oxytropis genus.
Abstract (Browse 2037)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes m Ethylene Production in Relation to l-Aminocyclopropane-l-Carboxylic Acid and Its Malonyl Conjugate in Waterlogged Wheat Plants
Author: Dong Jian-guo, Yu Shu-wen and Li Zhen-guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(4)
      
    When wheat seedlings were subjected to waterlogging, 1-aminocyelopropane-l-carboxylic acid (ACC), an ethylene precursor, accumulated in large quantity in roots. In shoots, ACC and ethylene production also increased, but declined with the prolonged periods of waterlogging. However, ACC content in roots maintained in high level during the whole period of waterlogging. Drainage caused a drastic drop in both ACC content and ethylene production in waterlogged plants to control level. 1-(malonylamino) cyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid (MACC) level in roots subjected to waterlogging showed little changes. However, MACC content in shoots kept increasing during the 9-days period of waterlogging. At later period of waterlogging (longer than 5 days) when ACC and ethylene production bad dropped, the. level of MACC continued to increase. Draining stopped this increasing, but did not reduced its level. When exogenous ACC was introduced into the leaves via transpiration stream, the ability of leaves of waterlogged plant to convert ACC to MACC was much higher than control. The data presented showed that at the later stage of waterlogging, the conversien of a great quantity of ACC to MACC in waterlogged wheat plants is the cause of the reduction of ethylene production and ACC content. It was suggested that the formation of MACC is another way of regulation in ethylene biosynthesis. Among leaves of different ages, the enhancement of ethylene, ACC and MACC content was more pronounced in older leaves than in younger laves during the waterlogging period. The physiological significance of adaptation to waterlogging stress was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1996)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Distribution of Stomata and Photosynthetic Pathway in Leaves
Author: Lin Zhi-fang, Li Shuang-shun and Lin Gui-zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(4)
      
    The stoma freguency and distribution on both epidermis of leaves of 65 species of C3 plants, 49 species of C4 plants and 16 species of CAM plants were studied by impres- sion method with colorless nail oil. The results indicated that distribution of stoma on both epidermis of leaves was in relation to the photosynthetic pathway and living type. The stoma ratio of upper/lower of C3 plants was 0.45 (sun herb) and 0.07 (shade herb), no stoma was found on upper epidermis of leaves of ferns, shrubs and trees. Plants with C4 photosynthetic pathway, except a few species, showed a higher stoma ratio of upper/lower 0.64 (Cyperaceae), 0.82 (dicot) and 0.94 (Oramineae). Much less stoma frequency was found in CAM plants than in C3 and C4 plant, but the stoma ratio of upper/lower was equal. In C3 crop plants, the species with shorter growth period and higher yield, such as sunflower, peanut and some leafy vegetables had higher stoma ratio of upper/lower. It is supposed that the stoma ratio of upper/lower might be used as an helpful index for identifing the C4 plants in monocot grass. It was also considered that the photosynthetic rate of amphistomatous leaves of C3 plants with same living type was related to the stoma ratio of upper/lower.
Abstract (Browse 7141)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relationship Between Flowering Induction and the Level of Adenosine Triphosphate in Pharbitis nil
Author: Jin Shi-ping, Jin Shu-mei, Lian Hong-kun and Ren Xi-chou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(4)
      
    A study has been made on the changes of ATP and protein content in cotyledons and apices of Pharbitis nil after flowering induction. Protein content of the cotyledons which have just got through the induction is 68% higher than that of the control, but the difference trends to disappear there after. The. difference of protein content between the induced and uninduced apices is not so obvious in the first three days after induction, but quite evident on the fourth day (30% higher in the induced apices) suggesting that there is some relationship between protein metabolism and flowering induction both in the cotyledons and in the apices. Just after the seedlings have been induced, ATP content of the cotyledons is getting much (134%) higher than that of the control and the tendency is retained towards the fourth day after induction. Generally ATP content in apices is one order of magnitude higher than that in cotyledons. Although ATP content in the apices is only slightly higher than that of the control soon after induction, it gains quite a lot in the second day until the fifth day the end of our experiment. In the third day after induction ATP level in the apices reaehs to the maximum (20.6℅10-2 米mol/g, apices) which is 37% higher than that of the control. The results show that flowering induction is bound to be followed by increase of proteins and ATP both in apices and in cotyledoms. It also. shows both formation of the stimulus in induced cotyledons and evocation in the apices might be all concerned in expression of some genes and synthesis of new RNA and protein. According to the maximum peak of ATP in the apices and cotyledons appeared in 3rd to 4th day after induction, it seems that the inductive effect both in the cotyledons and apices might continue for some time under the following uninduced condition.
Abstract (Browse 1857)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparison of Low Temperature Responses of Chilling-Sensitive and Chilling-Tolerant Rice Mitochondrial Membrane
Author: Yang Fu-yu, Chen Wen-wen and Xing Jing-ru
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(4)
      
    After low temperature (4⊥ 48 h) treatment oxidative phosphorylation efficiency (ADP/O) and respiratory control ratio (RCR) of mitochondria isolated from chilling- sensitive rice (Qiu Guang, Zao Jin) shoots were lowered and ultrastructure of mitochon- dria in the rice shoots were obviously changed, but no similar changes were observed in the mitochondria from chilling-tolerant rice (Jin Geng 44, Jin Geng 60) shoots after chilling treatment. A ※break§ at 18⊥ had been observed in the Arrhenius plot for succinic oxidase activity by seedling mitochondria of chilling-sensitive rice, while that of mitochondria from chilling-telerant rice shoots exhibited a continuous linear unuction with temperatures between 5每30⊥.
Abstract (Browse 1903)  |  Full Text PDF       
Biochemical Characteristics of Pollen Wall Glycoproteins Separated on Ricin-Sepharose 4B in Cucurbita pepo
Author: Li Xiong-biao, Yang Zhong-han and Cao Zong-xun (Tsao, T. H.)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(4)
      
    By affinity chromatography on ricin-Septarose 4B. pollen wall glycoproteins of Cucurbita pepo were isolated from pollen wall proteins which were prepared by extracting the pollen with isotonic Tris-HC1 buffer. Gas chromatographic analyses showed that the carbohydrate fraction of the pollen wall glycoproteins contained 0.7% rhamnose, 8.1% fucose, 5.1% arabinose, 5.1% xylose, 36.5% galactose, 36.2% glucose, and two unknown components. Isoelectric focusing PAGE showed that the pollen wall glycoproteins contained 6 components, with their respective pI at 3.8, 4.8, 5.4, 6.2, 6.7 and 7.6, and that the relative content of each of them was 40.6%, 15.6% 8.3%, 14.4%, 7,9%, and 13.2%, respectively. The amino acid composition of the 6 glycoproteins was determined with amino acid analyzer. Serine, glutamic acid and glycine were some of the predominent amino acids. These three, amino acids constitute more than 49% of the total amino acids.
Abstract (Browse 1947)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Fertilization and Embryogenesis of Red Vinespinach (Basella rubra L.)
Author: Xu Han-qing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(4)
      
    This paper presents detailed report on the process of fertilization and the develop- ment of embryo and endosperm of Basella rubra L. The results obtained are summarized as follows: About 4每6 hours after anthesis a great deal pollen grains germinated on the stig- ma; 6每11 hours, the pollen tube passed through the style; 11每16 hours, the pollen tube reached the ovary cavity. About 16每18 hours, one sperm nucleus entered into the egg and the other one entered into the secondary nucleus. In most cases, after 16每24 hours the double fertilization had completed. After 2每8 days, two-celled proembryo was first shown. Finally, the proembryo gave rise to multicellular globular embryo proper. The development of the embryo of Basella rubra L. conforms to the Asterad type. Whether the Asterad type had a high frequency needs further to be studied. Although the fertilization of the sperm nucleus with the secondary nucleus began later, the fusion of two sexual nuclei and the development of the endosperm proceeded often quickly. After 20 hours, the free nuclei period began, and after 2每4 days the free nuclei of endosperm were rapidly formed. The endosperm of Basella rubra L. is a nuclear type. And at the time When the seed had ripened the endosperm tissues were all absorbed by the developing embryo. The author observed that there are different distributions of the vegetative nucleus and two sperms in the pollen tube, and that two sperms entered a egg or secondary nucleus. The changes of the starch accumulated and distributed et al. in the floral organs are also studied and discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2138)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Development of Embryo and Endosperm of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn
Author: Yan Su-zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(4)
      
    The development of the embryo and endosperm of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn can be summarized as follows: 1. Embryogenesis of N. nucifera belongs to Solanad type; the 1st mitotic division of the zygote takes place later than that of the primary endosperm nucleus. 2. The development of endosperm basically conforms to the Helobial endosperm. After fertilization, the primary endosperm nucleus divides first transversely. This division results in the formation of two cells. The wall of this division is a little oblique to the longitudinal axis of the embryo sac. In accordance with the character of the endospermic development, it can be divided into, three stages: (1) two-celled endosperm stage, (2) multicellular endosperm stage, and (3) the stage of the endospermic nutrition being absorbed and cells atrophy. The developments of the embryo and endosperm are well correlated. This relation is relatively stable. 3. The cotyledons of the mature embryo are comparatively developed, but the radicle is extremely reduced. 4. As the seed is ripening, a thin membrane remains outside the plumule, which is the remainder of the endosperm. Therefore, the seed of N. nucifera is exalbuminous.
Abstract (Browse 2119)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Character istic of the Structures in the Cortical Cells of Gastrodia clara after Infection of Armillaria mellea
Author: Dong Zhao-bin and Zhang Wei-jing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(4)
      
    Aided by the techniques of thin and ultrathin sectioning and electron microscopy, the characteristic of structures in the cortical cells of Gastrodia elata was further investigated after infection of Armillaria mellea. It was found that the ※hyphal coils§, observed with light microscope, in the cortical cells of G. elata were saccate structures deriv- ed from the cytoplasm of cortical cells and enclosed hyphae. And the cell walls of hyphae were digested in these sacs. Then, these hyphae without cell wall were cut into protoplast fragments in inner-most cortical cells. The results indicated that the cortical cells of G. elata possess digestive function.
Abstract (Browse 1925)  |  Full Text PDF       
Peltate Leaf Development in Brasenta schreberi Gruel
Author: Chen Wei-pei and Zhang Si-mei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(4)
      
    The present investigation is a report with a detailed account of peltate leaf development in Brasenia schreberi. The preliminary indication of leaf initiation is seen in periclinal divisions of the subepidrmal cells on the flank of the shoot apex. By the time a leaf primordium becomes 73 米m high, the apical growth is present, and it has undergone repeated periclinal and anticlinal divisions and introduces aew cells into the body of the primordium. The procambial strand is evident very early in ontogeny. Vacuolation of cells proceeds acropetally along the primordium. At 109 米m longitudinal sections reveal a ventral outgrowth. This ventral growth, termed a lateral zone or Querzone, is initiated by subepidermal cells on the ventral (adaxial) side of primordium. The Querzone is considered to represent the congenital fused laminar margins of the leaf. Transection analysis of a primordium of 160 米m indicates that the Querzone growth is initiated on the midbasal portion of primordium. Below the midbasal portion of primordittm which later forms the petiole of the leaf. The marginal 'growth occurs at a time when the primordinm is approximately 160 米m high. Initiation of marginal growth takes place in 42 米m from the base of a primordium. Marginal growth at first can be seen while the primordium exhibits unilateral. By anticlinal divisions, the marginal initials produce the upper and lower protoderm, which give rise to the upper and lower epidermis respectively, and submarginal initiates divide in anticlinal plane, giving rise to the adaxial and abaxial layers. Subsequent divisions of the adaxial layer are anticlinal only so that it forms a single layer which later develops as the palisade parenchyma. The cells of the abaxial layer, by divisions in all planes, form the tissues of the spongy parenchyma and all of the lateral venation system. At maturity, the mesophyll is much less compact and there are mumerous large intercellular spaces in the spongy region and between the palisade cells. The veins are collateral: There is a reduction in the amount of xylem and the ultimate veinlets terminate as single spiral tracheids. The glandular bairs are mumerous on the lower epidermis and are epidermal in origin, each consisting two basel cells and one termined cell. On the basis of morphological examination we suggest that the peltate leaf of Brasenia schreberi is clearly distinct from the foliage leaf in the development of adaxial meristem and marginal growth. We found the primordimn of Brasenia schreberi as an erect organ and arises.by monopodial growth. In the development of leaf and the form of venation the Brasenia schreberi shows marked resemblance and relationship to the Nelumbo nucifera.
Abstract (Browse 2167)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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