June 1986, Volume 28 Issue 6


          Research Articles
Anatomy and Morphology of Pinnatiramosus, a New Plant from the Middle Silurian (Wenlockian) of China
Author: Geng Bao-yin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(6)
    A new genus and species Pinnatiramosus qianensis is described from the Xiushan Formation of Middle Silurian (Wenlockian)in the north of Guizhou, China. This plant consists of a prostrate axis and erect pinnate branching system. Conductin gbundle is comprised of tubular cells with scalariform or alternate simple pits. Pinnatiramosus gen. nov. Diagnosis: Plant cylindrical, differentiated into erect branches and prostrate axes; erect branches much branched, consisting of regular or irregular pinnate lateral branches; laterals opposite or alternate, with basal parts constricted and acute or blunt apices. Conducting bundle comprised of longitudinally aligned tubes with secondary thickening. Reproductive structures nor seen. Derivation of name: Pinnatus (Latin)=pinnate and ramosus (Latin)=ramose, referred to the external morphology of the plant. Pinnatiramosus qianensis sp. nov. Diagnosis: Characters described as the genus. Prostrate axes at least 400 mm in length and 3每6 mm in diameter, produced erect longer branches and downward shorter branches; erect branches up to 200 mm long and vary from 1.0 to 2.5mm in diameter, branched at least six orders, with lateral branches unequally developed, long laterals scattered among short ones; lateral branches oppositely or alternately arranged on main axis, 1每3 mm: apart; ultimate bran- ches 0.4每0.8 mm in diameter, with acute or blunt apex; borne at angles of 40每70˚ with main axis. Conducting bundle ca. 1/4 of the axis diameter, composed of tubular elements with secondary thickening; tubes range from 15每54米m in diameter, with blunt end wall; secondary wall averages 4.86 米m in thickness, ranging 2.5每6.6 米m, with scalariform and alternate pits. Derivation of name: Qian is the abbreviation for Guizhou province from where the plants are found. In this paper, is made the comparison of this new plant with fossil and living algae as well as early vascular plants on the basis of its external morphology and internal structure According to the comparison, Pinnatiramosus belongs to one of specialized plants with tracheophyte- like conducting tissue. Some interesting opinions are here provided as follows: (i) Silurian is, an important age of plant evolution. During this period certainly coexist not only various algae and undoubted vascular plants but also a group of interesting plants that were just immigrating from aquatic to terrestrial environments. (ii) The transmigration of algae from water to land occurred along several different evolutionary lines. Accompanying changes of these algae on morphology and anatomy were adapted to terrestrial environments. (iii) Pinnatiramosus represents a group of new plants with remarkably nontracheophyte morphology but tracheophyte- like anatomy. (iv) The tracheid-like tubes, macerated out of Silurian rocks, derived more probably from non-vascular plants such as Pinnatiramosus, Prototaxitesor Nematothallus than from vascular plants.
Abstract (Browse 2514)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Study on the Flora of the Tiantangzhai Mountains of the Dabie Mountains, Anhui Province
Author: Shen Xian-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(6)
    It is now known that there are 1108 species (including varieties) of vascular plants, in the Tiantangzhai Mountainous region, which belong to 565 genera and 152 families. The Dabieshan Mountains first took shape in the Sinian Period. The origin of the flora of the Dabie Mountains is very ancient, and the flora originated principally from the Tertiary ancient tropical flora. There are many ancient families and genera as well as many relic species. There are all told 81 monotypic and oligotypic genera which are genetically ancient or primitive in the Tiantangzhai Mountainous Region The flora of the Dabieshan Mountains comprises a portion of the flora of East China. In this paper, author has drawn a clear line of demarcation between East China and Central China, from Yichang to Xiangfan in Hubei Province; and a dividing line between East China and North China, through the Tongbaishan Mountains from the Southern foot of the Funiushan Mountains to Huai river.
Abstract (Browse 2105)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Priliminary Study on the Cathaya Mixed Forest in Jinfushan Sichuan
Author: Guan Zhong-tian and Chen Yao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(6)
    The famous ※living fossil§〞Cathaya argyrophylla was distributed at high norther nlatitudes during the Tertiary time, but now exists only loccally in a very restricted range in the south region of China. The Cathaya forest of Jinfushan is in fair preservation and has more abundance than others, where we made investigation in 1978. This paper deals with an approach to the environmental Condition, forestry nature, com- munity charactor and dynamics of Cathaya forest in Jinfushan. Being highly intolerant, Cathaya requires drier and exposed sites on the mountain ridge and rocky cliff, but is cannot compete successfully with broad leaved trees under moister sites. From sampling at a number of points within community, the relative frequency, relative density and relative dominance of each tree species were determined, the results show the importance values: Cathaya argyrophylla 120.55; Fagus lucida 80.54; Cyclobalanopsis glauca 37.74; Acanthopanax evodiaefolius 37.01; Ilex franchetiana 24.16. Base on the measurements of community similarity coefficient the Cathaya mixed forest is more similar to evergreen broad leaved forest in surrounding neighbors than Cathaya mixed forests in the other areas, through analysis of the population dynamics the regeneration of seedlings of Cathaya are very few at understory condition, in the cause of time, the Cathaya mixed forest will gradually change to forest dominated by some more tolerant broad leaved trees. Finally, some problems of relic character of Cathaya ar.e discussed as follow: 1. two refuges; 2. the relic nature of dominant species; 3. the similarity of each other in habitat; 4. the hereditary character less adapted with present environment; 5. the low breeding potential and endangered state. Because of south relic species will eventually perish through competition between species, therefore, it is necessary to do a better job in the protection. As same time, in order to change this weakened natural condition the positive action is needed to promote growth of regenerative seedlings as wall as strength management of young trees and scientific research of breeding.
Abstract (Browse 2054)  |  Full Text PDF       
Oliveriflavone, a New Biflavonoid from Cephalotaxus oliveri Mast.
Author: Ma Zhong-wu, He Guan-tu and Yin Wan-fen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(6)
    Cephalotaxus oliveri Mast. which is native to China (Hunan, Hupei, Sichuan, Yunnan and Guangdong, etc.) belongs to family Cephalotaxaceae. Recently, a series of research work on alkaloids from Cephalotaxus genus has been reported because of their anticancer activities. However, other major active components-biflavones are neglected. In order to discuss the relationship of gymnosperm and study the active components we isolated three biflavones from the le- aves of Cephalotaxus oliveri Mast. Two of them co-3, co-4, are known compounds ie amentoflavone-4',4"',7,7"-tetramethyl ether and sciadopitysin, and the third one co-2, is a new compound named oliveriflavone. It's structure was elucidated as amentoflavone-4',4'",7,7"-ether by UV, IR, 1HNMR, MS and chemical reactions.
Abstract (Browse 2101)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Chemical Constituents of the Essential Oil from the Flowers, Leaves and Peels of Citrus aurantium
Author: Lin Zheng-kui, Hua Ying-fang and Gu Yu-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(6)
    Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl., is a better species of sour oranges. There are essential oils in the flowers, the peels, the leaves and the branches of C. aurantium. The flower oil can be used in the preparation of perfumes of high quality. The peel oil is used mainly for the flavor-endowing of soft drinks, alcoholic drinks, bread, confectionaries and cakes. In order to control the quality of the essential oils and to improve them, we have systema- tically studied the chemical constituents of the flowers, the leaves and the peals of C. aurantium with our preparation. 12 main components were separated by silica gel column chromatography. The following 33 chemical components were identified by IR, GC-MS and GC retention index: 汐-thujene, 汐-pinene, camphene, 汕-pinene, myrcene, limonene, 汕-ocimene, trans-linalooloxide (furanoid), cis-linalooloxide (furanoid), linalool, 1,4-p-methadien-7-ol, trans-pinocarveol, camphor, terpinen-4-ol 汐-terpineol, nerol, citral-b, geraniol, linalylacetate, citrala, trans-linalooloxide (pyranoid), methyl anthranilate, terpinyl acetate, cis-linalooloxide (pyranoid), neryl acetate. geranyl acetate, nonanal, 汕-caryophyllene, 汐-humulene, 污-muurolene, 汕-nerolidol, farnesol, 汐- nerolidol. GC retention index of 33 compounds were measured. A fast method for routine determination is presented.
Abstract (Browse 2646)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Esterase Isozymes in the New Lines of Progeny of the F1 Hybrid Rice
Author: Zhang Wei-jiang and Tang Xiu-zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(6)
    The new lines Nanhua 5, Nanhua 11, Shanyou 39, and Shanyou 59, are high-yield lines derived from the F1 hybrid rice, Nanyou 2 and Shanyou 2 by means of tissue culture and selec- tion. Five isozymes, esterase, peroxidase, ATP-ase, malate dehydrogenase and glulamate dehydrogenase from the new lines, the F1 hybrid rices and their parents, were analyzed by starch and polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis. There are no difference in zymogrames of ATPase, malate dehydrogenase, glulamate dehydrogenase, between the F1 hybrid and its parents. But the F1 hybrid rice contains complemental bands of anodal esterase EA2, EA3 and cathodal esterase EC1, EC2, EC3, EC4, The esterase zymogram of seeds of Nanhua 5, Nanhua 11 and Shanyou 39, Shanyou 59 could be observed in the progeny of the F2 hybrid rice. The results indicated that the new lines would be possibly derived from the progeny of the F1 hybrid by means of tissue culture and selection.
Abstract (Browse 2053)  |  Full Text PDF       
Zearalenone-Like Substance in Winter Plants and Its Relation to Vernalization
Author: Meng Fan-jing, Que Yue-mei and Zhang Shu-qiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(6)
    It was found that there is a zearalenone-like substance in the growing points of vernalized wheat seedlings and carrot plants. The content of this substance synchronously increased with the depth of vernalization. It was separated by thin layer chromatography. Its UV spectrum was similar to that of zearalenone. It is believed that this substance may be one of the important endogenous substances which control the vernalization of winter plants.
Abstract (Browse 2031)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effects of the Calmodulin lnhibitors on the Phytochrome Controlled Rotation of Mougeotia Chloroplast
Author: Sun Da-ye and Yu Min-juan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(6)
    Calmodulin inhibitors CFZ and TEP inhibited phytochrome controlled rotation of mougeotie chloroplast within the concentration range from 10-7 to 10-6 mol/l. The chloroplast rotation restored when the treated Mougeotia threads were transfered to fresh culture medium. Adding extraneous 1 m mol/1 ATP, the inhibition effect of calmodulin inhibitors was greatly reduced. It is supposed that calmodulin probably involved in the mechanism of Mougeotia chloroplast rotation. The effecting site of calmodulin on the inhibition mechanism as well as the significance of this research to the phytochrome primary reaction was also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2125)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparison of Membrane Pluidity of Seedling Mitochondria of Chilling Sensitive and Chilling Tolerant Rice
Author: Yang Fu-yu, Xing Jing-ru Chen Wen-wen and Wang Shu-ya
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(6)
    The membrane fluidity of seedling mitochondria of chilling-sensitive rice and that of chilling-tolerant rice were compared by using spin labeled stearic acid: 5, 12 16-NS and fluorescent probe DPH. From the ESR spectra using 5-NS as a spin labeled probe it clearly showed that the calculated order parameter (S) of seedling mitochondria of chilling-sensitive rice Qiu Guang was obviously higher than that of chilling-resistant rice Ji Geng 44. Similar results were obtained when seedling'mitochondria of another species of chilling sensitive Zao Jin were compared with those of chilling tolerant rice Ji Geng 60. Moreover, the difference of order parameters between Ji Geng 44 and Ji Geng 60 was quite small, but both of them are obviously lower than those of chilling-sensitive rice Qiu Guang or Zao Jin. The results using spin labeled probe 12-NS, 16-NS clearly showed that the relative correlation times (而c) of seedling mitochondria of chilling-sensitive rice Qiu Guang or Zao Jin was markedly higher than that of the chilling tolerant rice Ji Geng 44 or Ji Geng 60. A comparison of membrane fluidity of seedling mitochondria of chilling-sensitive and chilling-resistant rice using fluorescent probe DPH was also carried out. Similar results were obtained and showed that the fluidity of mitochondrial membrane of chilling resistant rice seedling was obviously higher than that of the chilling-sensitive ones. Thus, it seemed that the fluidity of mitochondrial membrane might be used as a biophysical test for screening chilling tolerance of rice at seedling stage.
Abstract (Browse 2053)  |  Full Text PDF       
Developmental Changes in the Free Amino Acid Pool of Rice(Oryza sativa L. subsp, japonica) Bmbryos
Author: Zhang Xing-hai and Tang Xi-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(6)
    The level of/various amino acids in rice embryos rose sharply during embryo differentiation (7每9 days after anthesis). Then it increased steadily or tended to become stable at mid-maturation stage (13每18 days after anthesis), thereafter continuing to increase, except that the contents of aspartate and glutamate decreased significantly. The total free amino acid pool expanded rapidly during the differential stage. There after the pool capacity showed only a slightly increase until the end of embryogenesis. Both on embryo cell and dry weight bases, the capacity reached the maximum at the 9th day after anthesis, then decreased at the 13th day, and later remained stable. We deemed that the establishment of the free amino acid pool is one of the events which occur in the process of rice embryo differentiation. By the fulfillment of the differentiation (the 13th dray after anthesis), the pool capacity within the embryo cells remained stable on the whole. The free amino acid pool was dominated by serine, alanine, aspartate and glutamate during the differentiation stage. In the maturation stage, serine, alanine, arginine and lysine were the main components. These predominant; amino acids may play an important role in regulating the availability of the whole amino acid pool.
Abstract (Browse 2087)  |  Full Text PDF       
An approach to the G-Banding Technique in Rye Chromosome
Author: Zhang Zi-li and Yang Xiao-feng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(6)
    The G-banding technique has not yet been broken through in studying plant chromosomes. in this paper, we have described a new banding method in Secale cereale. The rye root tips were treated with actinomycin D (40-100 米g/ml) for two hours and with colchicine (0.01%) for 0.5 hour and then fixed with methanol-acetic acid (3:1). After cell wall degradation by cellulase and pectinase, the chromosome sample were made by a hypotonic and flame-drying method (hypotonic treatment↙preparation of cell suspension↙dropping suspension on slide flame-drying). Following an air-drying period of about a week, the slides were incubated in trypsin-EDTA solution (0.01每0.05%) at 30⊥ for 10每15 sec. and subsequently stained with Giemsa. Lots of deep stained bands along the arms of many prophase and late prophase chromosomes were seen. The position of them was obviously different from that of the C-band and the number of them was approximately in proportion to the longitude of chromosomes. Such bands were not seen in metaphase chromosomes. We thought it preferable to use prophase chromosomes to probe G-banding technique in plant and this paper has proposed a possible way for studying G-banding technique in plant chromosome. We also discuss why metaphase chromosomes of plant do not show G-bands.
Abstract (Browse 2315)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Light and Electron Microscopic Study of Anabaena volzii Lemm
Author: Wang Mo-shan and Liang Jia-ji
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(6)
    Anabaena volzii Lemm. is a rare species of Cyanophyta. It possesses characteristics of prokary0tes. Young filaments of A. volzii consist of only vegetative cells. The filament leng- thens by the increase of its cell number owing to amitosis. A mature filament contains vegetative cells, heterocysts and akinetes; the latter two differentiate from the vegetative cells. Vegetative cells and heterocysts are short-cylindric shaped. An akinete in longitudinal sections of appear to be elliptical. Viewed with a transmission electron microscope, an electron-dense cell wall, plasmolemma, thylakoids (photosynthetic lamellae), nucleo-plasmic region and polyhedral bodies can be seen in the vegetative cell. The nucleo-plasmic region, which lacks a nuclear envelope, is surrounded or dissected, but often connected with the thylakoids. There are also some extremely electron-dense (if samples were post-fixed in osmic acid) cyanophycin granules in its cytoplasm. Heterocyst is larger than vegetative cells. Its remarkable features are a thick envelope, an electron-transparent cell wall and a distinctive plug-like body at both ends of the cell respectively. In the plug-like body is seen an irregular narrow channel. Somewhat dilated thylakoids in the heterocyst appear to be more winding and contorted (than those in vegetative cells), making a dedicate pattern. A long ellipticring-shaped membrane structure is formed in a heterocyst ,composed, of an electron-dense rod core surrounded by 14 concentric layers of lamellae. Akinete forms thick cell wall. A nucleo-plasmic region, fine and contorted thylakoids, many cyanophycin granules, and abundant ribosomes are found in akinetes.
Abstract (Browse 2210)  |  Full Text PDF       
Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration from Embryo of Elaeis guineenis Jacq
Author: Cui Yuan-fang, Gong Zheng, Chen Xin-hua, Shao Xing-ti and Zhu Zhi-qing Chu Chih-ching
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(6)
    This paper deals with the preliminary results on callus induction and plant regeration from embryo in vitro of Elaeis guineenis. When mature embryos were cultured on dedifferen- tiation medium they proliferated calli during 30-90 days of culture. Among auxins applied, 2,4-D was more important for callus induction however 2,4-D and NAA combination gave bet- ter result. On the contrary, kinetin inhibited callus formation and growth. These experimental results explain that a higher callus induction frequency depends not only on the constituents of the medium used but also on the genotype of donor plants. After transfering the calli onto kinetin-containing media for a peirad, embryoids, which showed typical configuration of zygotic embryo, could be obtained. The embryoids can further develop into whole plants on a shoot induction medium. Some embryoids have subjected to srveral generations of subculture and still retained the ability to embryoid multification and plant regeneration.
Abstract (Browse 2099)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Use of a Whole Stain-Clearing Technique for Observations on Embryo Sac, Embryo, Endosperm and Embryoid
Author: Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(6)
    A new stain-clearing procedure has been developed for embryological observations on whole mounted specimens. Ovules of Helianthus annus and Nicotiana tabacum as well as ovaries of Oryza sativa were stained with diluted Ehrlich's hematoxylin for a proper short time, followed by steps of washing and dehydration, and finally cleared and mounted in methyl salicylate. When observed by ordinary bright-field microscopy, the embryo sacs before fertilization and the embryos and endosperms after fertilization were clearly visible. The gynogenic embryoids induced in unpollinated rice ovaries in vitro were also finely detectable. The Ehrlich's hematoxylin-methyl salicylate technique has the merits of rapidity in specimen preparation, high contrast and three dimensional view, needlessness of phase- or interference-contrast equipment, and the feasibility for a wide range of materials. The special significance of this technique for in vitro embryological studies is emphasized.
Abstract (Browse 2376)  |  Full Text PDF       
Microtubule Cycle in Root Tip Cells of Allium fistulosum L.
Author: Zhu Cheng, Ge Ying and Zhang Jin-zhong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1986 28(6)
    Using immunofluorescent localization techniques and TEM methods, the organization of microtubule arrays during the cell cycle of root tip cells of Allium fistulosum L. was studied. There are four basic types of microtubule organization, namely, interphase cortical microtubule, pre-prophase band microtubule, spindle microtubule and phragmoplast microtubule, which constitute the typical microtubule cycle in dividing cells of higher plants. The fluorescent figures of microtubules observed under fluorescent microscope were explained and analysed by the ultrastractural informations of microtubules obtained from TEM.
Abstract (Browse 1891)  |  Full Text PDF       
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