January 1987, Volume 29 Issue 1


          Research Articles
Explant Tissue Culture and Plantlet Regeneration of Sweet Potato
Author: Xin Shu-ymg and Zhang Zu-zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(1)
Abstract (Browse 1813)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Investigations of the Regeneration of 14 Seed Plants After Girdling
Author: Lu Peng-zhe, Cui Ke-ming and Li Zheng-li Lee Cheng-lee
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(1)
Abstract (Browse 1864)  |  Full Text PDF       
Algal Fossils from Late Precambrian Banded Manganese Formation (BMF), Xiangtan, Hunan Province of China
Author: Xu Zhao-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(1)
    Three species and three genera of algal fossils in the Banded Manganese Formation (BMF) from Nantuo Formation, Xiangtan, Hunan Province, China, which is 720每830 My in age are described and named. All of the microfossils are interpreted as being the remains of bluegreen algae, and of these, one species Eoentophysalis xiangtanensis is new. The assemblage differs from most other Precambrian biotas so far described, it is dominated by coccoid algae, especially E. xiangtanensis. Analysis of the assemblage suggests that it was deposited in the subtidal and lower intertidal area, and that E. xiangtanensis is closely relative to the deposition of BMF. Possible biological origin of late Precambrian BMF, Xiangtan, is emphasized in this paper. The following are noteworthy: 1) E. xiangtanensis needed inorganic matter as its growing factors and the manganese (Mn++) in solution could be absorbed immediately and accumulated when it was alive; 2) Unmovable carboxyl group inside and outside of cells could accept the soluble manganes; 3) soluble manganese in water could be combined with the free oxygen yielded by photosynthesis and from photolytic disassociation of H2O; and 4) cell endoplasm could be replaced by manganese around it during the diagenesis after it was died.
Abstract (Browse 1800)  |  Full Text PDF       
The stability Analysis and Energy flow Through Leymus chinensis population
Author: Zu Yuan-gang and Zhu Ting-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(1)
    This study is concerned with measuring intensity of gross solar radiation, reflected radiation, transmitted radiation and rate of net photsynthesis, dark respiration and transpiration by fixed position and fixed quantity. Finally, the measurement results were converted into the energy contents. The results show that the process of the energy flow through Leymus chinensis population is a bioenergetic process that solar radiation is absorbed, fixed, transformed, dissipated and accumulated by Leymus chinensis population. In the process of the energy flow, the energy in put is 5199 kcal/m2﹞d; the energy consumption is 5132.31 kcal/m2﹞d and the energy accumulation only is 66.69 kcal/m2﹞d. Thus it can be seen that most of the energy are lost in the process of the energy flow. As a result of the stability analysis, the equilibrium state in the process of tile energy flow is asymptotic stability. This result shows that the stability mechanism of the equilibrium state is the negative feedback mechanism. It means that the Leymur chinensis population has an ability of self-regulation that can resist perturbation and maintain its equilibrium state, so as to keep normal energy flow through the Leymus chinensis population.
Abstract (Browse 1841)  |  Full Text PDF       
On Fossil Pollen Morinoipollenites and Jianghanpollis
Author: Zhou Shan-fu and Xu Shu-juan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(1)
    Morinoipollenites and Jianghanpollis had been established by Wang Daning and Zhao Yingning in the Jianghan Basin, Hubei, China in 1979. These fossils were mainly distributed in Jiangsu and Jianghan Basin. Their geological range is generally limited in Senonian- Danian of Late Cretaceous. But few species of Jianghanpollis were found in the Tertiary. Their shape and structure are unique. So the discovery of these two genera is of great significance on biostratigraphy in eastern China.
Abstract (Browse 2224)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Pyrus Communis
Author: Liu Ji-kai and Zuo Chun-Xu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(1)
    An aqueous extract of the twigs of Pyrus communis L. var. sativa (DC) DC. showed inhibitory effect against S-180. Compounds were isolated from the twigs of P. communis and eight of them were identified as nonacosane (i), lupeol (k), 汕-sitosterol (l), betulin (m), betulinic acid (n), daucosterol (o), hydroquinone (p) and arbutin (q) by MS, NMR, IR, UV and some chemical techniques. It was showed that the compounds k, l, m, n, p and q possessed some bacteriostatic activities on Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigclla flexneri and Staphylococus aureus. Primary pharmacology tests showed that p had inhibitory effect against S-180 (47.5%).
Abstract (Browse 2368)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Structure of Triptodihydroxy Acid Methyl Ester and wilfortrine
Author: Deng Fu-xiao Cao Jian-hung, Xia Zhi-lin, Lin Sui and Wang Xiao-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(1)
    This paper deals with a new triterpene named triptodihydroxy acid methyl ester, polpunonic acid and wilfortrine were isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. The structure of triptodihydroxy acid methyl ester was identified to be methyl 3汕, 30-dihydroxyolean-A12-ene 29 oate. The structure of wilfortrine was elucidated on the basis of MS, IR, UV and NMR spectroscopic analysis. It was shown to be an immunosuppressive and against cells derived from human of leukemia.
Abstract (Browse 1942)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Chemical Constituents of Qing Dai
Author: Li Qing-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(1)
    Qing Dai, a traditional chinese medicine, is the fermentative product of the aerial part of Isatis indigotica Fort. Besides the two major constituents indigotin (i) and indirubin (j), four chemical constituents including a pigmental compound were isolated. By spectral analysis (IR, UV, MS, 1H and 13C NMR) and chemical cleavage the struture of this compound was eluci- dated as 6-indoxyl indolo (2, lb) quinazolone-12 (qingdainone, m). m was synthezised and its structure was comfirmed by condensation of tryptanthrin with indoxyl. The other compounds were identified as n-nonacosane, isatin (k) and tryptanthrin (l).
Abstract (Browse 2340)  |  Full Text PDF       
Photomorphogenesis of Plant Roots in Vitro
Author: Tong Zhe, Lian Han-ing, Duan Jing-xia and Tsui Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(1)
    Photomorphogenetic phenomena of excised roots of various plants cultured aseptically in White medium were studied. Continuous white fluorescent light (3000 lx) could generally inhibit extension growth of the primary roots and lateral roots, depress emergence of lateral roots and raise of fresh weight of roots. If greening of the roots could be induced by light, however, the light would increase the fresh weight and formation of lateral roots. Addition of 75 mg/l inositol significantly improved root development. Continuous irradiation stimulated greening of excised roots from some plants (e. g. cucumber, bird rape, India mustard and maize) depending on their hereditary potency. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids accumulated slowly. After 1 day or 5 days under the light, chlorophyll or carotenoids could be detected separately. Total amount of plastid pigments per unit of fresh weight in roots was much lower than in leaves. More sucrose applied could pro- mote synthesis of chlorophyll and growth of roots. Chloroplasts appeared in small parenchyma cells located in the stele. They did not come frorn proplastid, but were transformed from a kind of leueoplast-amyloplast. Electron microscopic photographes indicated that starch grains diminished gradually while lamella structure appeared first within enveloped and then filled inner-space of plastid. Many thylakoids stacked to form irregular-shaped gram. These chloroplasts seemed to be different from those in mesophyll. Special inhibitor of carotenoid biosynthesis (norflurazon) prevented chlorophyll synthesis with high efficiency while another photosynthetic inhibitor (motoxuron) increased chlorophyll accumulation in isolated roots.
Abstract (Browse 1922)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of ABA on Senescence and Cellulase Activity of Detached Rice Leaves
Author: Fang Jian-xiong, Zhang Ying-huang and Guan Ying-qian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(1)
    The relationship of cellulase to detached leaf senescence of rice seedlings was investigated by examining the effect of ABA and 6-BA on changes in the level of cellulase of leaf segments during senescence. It was shown that the rise in cellulase activity increased with declining chlorophyll content, which was used as the senescence indicator during the senescence of detached rice leaves caused by ABA. The action of ABA took place only after a 48h lag period. ABA enhanced the cellulase secretion and increased the permeability of plasma membrane. A high level of cellulase activity in cell wall closely related to membrane permeability changes. The action of cellulase in the cell wall may cause depolymerization of 汕-1, 4-glucan in situ, thus speeding senescence. The 6-BA reverses completely or partly the increase in cellulase activity and tile permeability caused by ABA during the first two day, }) ut it antagonized hardly any of the ABA effect from the third day on, suggesting the onset of an irreversible stage in the senescence of detached rice leaves.
Abstract (Browse 2189)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship between Changes in Endogenous Phytohormones and Respiration during Ripe ning and Senescence Period of Cantaloupes (Cucumis mclo var. reticulates)
Author: Zhang Wei and Yang Zheng-tan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(1)
    Respiratory rate and ethylene evolution and the levels of endogenous growth regulating substances were determined before and after harvest during the period of senescence of cantaloupes. It was endogenous ABA which appeared first and accumulated during the maturation period, once it reached a certain threshold level the automatic catalysis of ethylene production was triggered. Like apricot fruits, the ABA-like substances accumulated generously in fruit flesh during maturation and the growth promoting substances disappeared rapidly. This seems internal physiological cause of the cantaloupes corruption.
Abstract (Browse 1783)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Residual Respiration not Inhibited by KCN Plus Hydroxamic Acid in Tobacco Callus Cultures
Author: Liang Hou-guo, Liu Liang-huan, Yang Cheng-de and Li Chang-jiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(1)
    A residual respiration not inhibited by KCN plus hydroxamic acid had been observed in many plant organs and tissues. The relative O2 uptake of it was 20每30% of total respiration in tobacco callus cultures. However, there is no report concerning the nature of the residual respiration and its localization in cell. The object of this study is to elucidate the characteris- tics of this residual respiration and its localization in cell. The experimental results are as follows: 1. The additions of glycolate and glyoxylate cause a marked rise in residual respiration not inhibited by KCN (or NaN3) plus m-CLAM. 2. The O2 uptake induced by glycolate and the residual respiration is inhibited by the addition of 汐-hydroxy ethanesulfonate. 3. The mitochondrial respiration is completely inhibited by KCN plus m-CLAM, but no effect by adding of glycolate. 4. Oxidation reactions of glycolate and glyoxylate in supernatant are observed after mitochondria are removed. Based on the above results, it is suggested that the residual respiration not inhibited by KCN plus m-CLAM in tobacco callus cultures is primarily catalyzed by glycolic acid oxidase localized within microbodies.
Abstract (Browse 2396)  |  Full Text PDF       
Development of Embryo and Fruit in Ipomoea batatas Lam
Author: Li Kun-pei and Zhang Qi-tang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(1)
    This paper deals with the development of the embryo and the formation of the fruit for lpomoea batatas Lam. based on the observation of its flower bud differentiation, megasporogenesis and the development of the female gametophyte, microsporogenesis and the development of the male gametophyte. The pollen grain germinated on the stigma about 10每30 min. after pollination. The pollen tube penetrated the transmitting tissue in the middle of the style between 30每60 min. after pollination. After 2 hours the tip of the pollen tube reached the micropyle. Double fertilization completed after 5 or 12 hours then the zygote and the endosperm nucleus formed. The first mitotic division of the endosperm nucleus takes place about 12 hours after pollination, earlier about 3 hours than the first division of the zygote, the latter gives rise to a terminal cell and a basal cell by a transverse division. The second division is transverse in the terminal cell, forming two cells. The basal cell divides longitudinally into two adjoining cells. The terminal cell becomes the proembryo with four cells, and at the same time, the basal cell becomes the suspensor with four cells after 41每52 hours. The proembryo gradually becomes globular, cordate and torpedo-shaped, respectively about 96每120, 144每156, 168-192 hours after pollination. The cotyledons of the embryo gradually prolongate 10 days after pollination. The embryo almost completes its development within 21每30 days after pollination. he fruit is a capsule. The ovary gradually swells 3每4 days after pollination, then forms fruit, which ripens about 21每30 days after pollination, 2R.=4每8 mm. A fruit contains 1每4 seeds. 7,000 fruits were analysed in 1983, the results are as follows: 64.6% of then with only one seed in a capsule, 31.8% two seeds, 5.48% three seeds and 0.1% four seeds. The seeds are small, 2R. from 3.84 mm to 2.84 mm. The shape and the weight of the seeds are different from each other because of difference in number of seeds within a capsule.
Abstract (Browse 2148)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Embryological Observation on a Parthenocarpy's Zizyphus juluba Mill
Author: Tian Hui-qiao and Ma De-zi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(1)
    This paper deals with the development of embryo sac and the parthenocarpy of Zizyphus jujuba Mill. The results are as follows: In Ningxia round jujuba, there are one to four archesporial cells but ordinarily only one of them can develop to megaspore.mother cell and the others degenerated. The embryo sac belongs to Allium type. Two megaspore nuclei take part in the formation of female gametophyte. The development of fruits doesn't depent on the fertilization. So the Ningxia round jujuba is a stable parthenocarpy. The relation between the development of fruits and the pollination was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2165)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Anatomical Studies on the Vessel Elements of Chinese Magnolia and Michelia
Author: Liu De-yi Wu Shu-ming and Li Zheng-li(Lee Cheng-lee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(1)
    This paper deals mainly with comparative studies on elements of secondary xylem in 39 species of Chinese Magnolia and Michelia. The former plants present longer and slender vessels. Most of them have simple perforation and only a few scalariform perforation plates. In contrast, most of the Michelia species possess scalariform perforation plates and only one with simple perforation. The scalariform perforation plates of Magnolia species, if present, exhibit more bars than that of Michelia With few exceptions, there is no spiral thickening on the vessel wall in Magnolia, whereas in Michelia it is lust the opposite. In addition, some other differences in vessel elements between these two genera are also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2201)  |  Full Text PDF       
Embryological Studies of Paphiopedilum godefroyae Stein
Author: Ren Ling and Wang Fu-xiong Wang Fu-hsiung
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(1)
    P. godefroyae is one of the diandrous species of rather primitive orchids. The cytokinesis of PMCs conforms to simultaneous type. The arrangement of microspores in a tetrad is tetrahedral or isobilateral. The first mitosis in a pollen grain is unequal and results in the formation of two unequal cells. The small one is the generative cell and the large one, the vegetative cell. The wall material between them is callose which is easily detectable under the fluorescence microscope. When the generative cell detaches from the microspore wall and migrates into the cytoplasm of the vegetative cell, the callose wall disappears and a thin PAS-positive wall Was observed around the generative cell. The PAS-positive wall remains untill anthesis. The tapetum is of secretory type and its cells are binucleate. With the degradation of the tapetal cells, they discharge a lot of yellow, amorphous, sticky mass into the pollen sac. The pollens distribute in it to form a sticky pollen mass. The ovule has single integument and one layered nucellus around the magaspore mother cell. The mature embryo sac consists of eight or six cells and conforms to the Allium type. The interval between pollination and fertilization is about 45 days and the normal double fertilization has been observed. The primary endosperm cell undergoes one division only and results in the formation of 2 nucleate endosperm. The dormancy period of zygote lasts 45每50 days. During the development of the embryo, a suspensor consisting of a row of two to four cells is formed. It takes more than six months from the pollination to the maturation of the seed. The embryo in the mature seed is just an ellipsoidal mass of 120每140 cells without differentiation. The endosperm and suspensor are all degenerated in the mature seed.
Abstract (Browse 2058)  |  Full Text PDF       
Dynamics of Newly Synthesized RNA and Protein Diffusion from Germinating Pollen of Cfivia nobilis Cultured In Vitro
Author: Tang Pei-hua and Zhu ying-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(1)
    Release of newly synthesized RNA (NSRNA) and protein (NSP) from.germinating pollen(GP) of Clivia nobilis was observed and proven by using autoradiograph, labeled with 3H-uridine and 3H-leucine, and treating with inhibitors (Actinimycin D and Cycloheximide). Its dynamics are as follows: 1 h after labeling before the germination of the pollens, a large amount of NSRNA and NSP were synthesized already. 2 hrs later, the NSP transported towards PT. 5 hrs later, it diffused into the growth medium. The NSRNA .concentrated.in vegetative nucleus and generative cells with in the first 90 min. 2 hrs later it diffused to the protoplasm of the pollens, 3 hrs later-concentrated on the tip of PT. 5 hrs laterout of GP. The biological significance of the phenomenon was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1847)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Study of Some Factors Affecting Somatic Embryogenesis in IR Lines of Rice
Author: Ling Ding-hou and S.Y. Yosida
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(1)
    Some factors which affect somatic embryogenesis, maintaining embryogenic callus and plant regeneration in Indica rice were investigated. It was found that 6% sucrose was favorable for inducing embryogenic callus (E-callus) and 3% sucrose was favorable for maintaining both E-callus and plant regeneration. Rice explant (especially young panicle) was very sensitive in this research. The explant (especially young panicle) formed neither E-callus nor non-embryogenic callus (NE-callus). but developed bud directly when the medium was 2,4-D free but with kinetin and NAA added. The explant formed NE-callus with no embryogenesis emerged when only 2,4-D and NAA was added. E-callus emerged from the explants in the medium with NAA free and when 2,4-D and kinetin was added. It was concluded that 2,4-D and kinetin were the basic factors for somatic embryogenesis in Indica rice and that the effect of NAA was not obvious. Rice explant (especially young panicle) was very sensitive to 2,4-D and kinetin. Low concentration of these two hormones (0.2 mg/1) was favorable for the development of the explants. The suitable concentration for 2,4-D and kinetin was 1 mg/l for somatic embryogenesis in Indica rice. Lower concentration of ABA (0.136 mg/l) in the subculture medium was favorable for E-callus maintain in subculture passage. The green meristemoid which coald not develop further to plantlet in regeneration culture was found to be a major obstacle in E-callus regeneration of subculture passage. The solution of this problem will increase to a great extent the plant regeneration of E-callus in Indica rice.
Abstract (Browse 2274)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Constituents of the Essential Oil from the Peel of Citrus bergamia Risso
Author: Huang Yuan-zheng, Wen Ming-zhang, Xiao Shun-chang, Zhao Hui, Ren Wei-jian, Xiao Sheng-mao, Chen Quan-you, Liu Xiao-dong and Guo Tian-chi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(1)
    The chemical components of the essential oil from the peel of Citrus bergamia Risso., which is first introduced successfully by us from abroad, were identified by GC-MS-DS technique, dual column retention index, and dual column authentic sample superimposition. The relative content of components of the essential oil, obtained by different methods, were measured. The experiment results indicated that the chemical components of the essential oil from the peel of Citrus bergamia Risso. are in agreement with values reported in articles abroad.
Abstract (Browse 1900)  |  Full Text PDF       


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