February 1987, Volume 29 Issue 2


          Research Articles
Embryogenesis of American Ginseng in Vitro
Author: Gui Yao-lin Guo Zhong-shen, Xu Ting-yu, Gu Shu-rong, Sun Guo-doug and Zhang Qi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(2)
Abstract (Browse 1860)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Species of Lepidodendroid Fructification -Achlamydocacpon sinensis
Author: Tian Bao-lin and Guo Ying-ting
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(2)
    A new species of lepidodendroid fructification, Achlamydocarpon sinensis, is described from the coal-balls of the Late Permian of Wangjiazhai, Shuicheng, Guizhou, China. It differs from other species of Achlamydocarpon mainly in the sporangial wall, in which no surface layer of columnar cells is found, instead of isodiameter cells and longitudinal cells. In our opinion, the evolutionary tendency of Achlamydocarpon is as follows: (1) size of sporangia ranges from large to small; (2) walls of sporangium vary from 2 to 4 layers, and then 3, again to 2; (3) the surface layer of sporangium evolves from columnar layer to isodiameter layer and the alternative layer of isodiameter and longitudinal cells. In addition, the habitat of Achlamydocarpon is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2081)  |  Full Text PDF       
Early Cretaceous Plant Assemblage in Fuxin Coal-Basin of Liaoning Province and its Significance
Author: Shang Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(2)
    This article deals with some plant fossils in Fuxin coal-basin of Liaoning province. Their .characteristics are as follows: 1. The Fuxin flora Coniferopsida is the most important group in Fuxin flora. Its main elements includes: Elatides harrisii, E. bommeri, E. asiatica, Torreya haizhouensis, Sequoia minuba, Athrotaxiues cf. berriyi, Podocarpus fuxinensis, ※Pseudolarix§ sinensis, Cephalotaxopsis sp., Pityocladus sp., Pityostrobus sp., Elatocladus submanchurica, Schisolepis helongjiangebsis, etc. The next one is Ginkgopsida. In filices, Dicksoniaceae including mainly Acanthopteris gothani, A. onychiodes, Dicksonia concinna, Coniopteris saportana, etc. is also predominant. There are some other fami- lies in it such as, Schizaeaceae, Osmundaceae and Polypodiaceae. Cycadopsida constitute certain portion of the flora, such as Nilssonia sinensis, N. schaurnburgensis, Nilssoniopteris ovalis, N. prynada, N. cf. beyrichii, Otozamites longuifolius, Pterophyllum fuxinensis, etc. The plant fossils of Fuxin flora belong to early-middle assemblage of Ruffordia-Onychiopsis Flora. According to plant fossils, Fuxin flora may belong to Lower Cretaceous. 2. The Shuiquan formation assemblage Coniferopsida, Ginkgopsida, Cycadopsida, and Filicea exist in Shuiquan assemblage. Shuiquan assemblage is different from Fuxin flora and has the similar characters with Shanshong flora. Their common elements are Chiaohoella mirbilia, Cladophlebis lobulata, Eoymnocarpium sinensis, Ctenis lyrata, C. cf. burejensis, Chilinia ctenioides, Elatocladus submanchurica, Torreya? chowi, and Rhipidocladus. The Shuiquan formation corresponds roughly to the Moshilazhi formation in Jiaohe basin of eastern .Jilin Province and belongs to the early-middle Early Cretaceous. As angiosperms have not been found, the geological age of the Shuiquan formation is probably a little older than that of the Moshilazhi formation. The vertical distribution of the plant assemblage has been discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2338)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study on the Relationship Between the Pollen Percentages in Forest Surface Samples and Surrounding Vegetation on west Mountain of Kunming, Yuunan
Author: Wu Yu-shu and Sun Xiang-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(2)
    Pollen analysis of five moss patches collected from the forest floor on West Mountain of Kunming (N 24˚57', E 102˚37') provided informations about the quantitative relations between pollen content and coverage of principal plant taxa. Vegetational data with coverage are estimated from each sampling site within the range of 30 m. Trees were calculated in percentage of the total arboreal, herbs and ferns are respectively computed as percentages of the latter two sorts. A preliminary R-value was estimated. According to the difference of R-values, the pollen types could be divided into two groups: 1. R> 1, means overreprsented the type containing Pinus, Alnus, Cyclobalanopsis, Artemisia, and ferns; 2, R <1, means under-represented the type containing Keteleeria and Michelia. But the differences in the values for RPinus, RAlnus etc. in five samples reflected the significant differences in pollen productivity or pollen dispersal efficiency of Pinus, Alnus, etc. Therefore, the ratio of R-value was equal. Five genera have been calculated. The relative R-values for five tree species were: Ra:Rb:Rc:Rd:Re=l:21:5:25:30 (a. Keteteeria; b. Cyclobalanopsis; c. Castanopsis; d. Pinus and e. Alnus). These computations are only a rough estimate because the samples are too few.
Abstract (Browse 1961)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Constituents of Aristolochia versicolar S. M. Hwang
Author: He Lin-xing, Zhang Jiu and Xue Hui-zhong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(2)
    Twenty-four constituents were isolated from the root of Aristolochia versicolar S. M. Hwang (collected from Guangxi province, China). Ten of them (two novel sesquiterpene lacrones and eight known compounds) were reported recently. This paper deals with the other eight compounds. From the petroleum ether extraction a sesquiterpene lactone, C15H20O2, mp. 94每95⊥ [汐]D36 每49˚ (C=1.8, EtOH), confirmed to be isoaristolactone, was obtained from plants for the first time. On the basis of spectral analysis (UV, IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, MS) and chemical reactions its structure was determined as B2. From the petroleum enter unsoluble sec- tion 6-methoxyaristolic acid methyl ester (D1), aristolic acid (D3), 6-methoxyaristolic acid (ari- stolinic acid) (D4f), 6-methoxyaristolochic acid methyl ester (D4y), aristolochic acid A(D5), 汕-sitosterol-D-glucoside (D10) and allantoin (C2) were isolated and identified. Dx, Ds, and Ds show ed antifertility activity in mice.
Abstract (Browse 2055)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Main Chemical Components of Essential Oil from Ledum palustre L. var angustum N. Busch
Author: Zhao De-xiu, Wang Hua-ting, Wu Cheng-shun, Sun Shou-wei and Ma Ya-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(2)
    The plant of Ledum palustre L. var. angustum N. Busch is distributed in northeast China, it is used as a folk medicine. The essential oil was extracted by steam distilation from its leave. Twenty seven components have been idendified by GC-MS and other methods, such as: myrtenal, cuminal, 老-cymene, 汕-thujene etc. Their contents in the oil have been determined also.
Abstract (Browse 2340)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Identification of the Constituents of Volatiles of Flowers of Chloranthus spieatus (Tunb.) Makino
Author: Wang Tian-song, Huang Ai-jin, Sun Yi-liang, Wu Zhu-ping and Liu Mi-xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(2)
    The headspace volatiles of the flowers of Chloranthus spicatus (Tunb.) Makino were trapped by a modified circulation adsorption method and were analyzed by GC/MS techniques after desorption by solvent. The componends were identified by mass spectral and temperature-programmed retention index data on dual glass capillary columns (OV-101 and PEG-20 M). 32 compounds have been identified from the volatiles, including 11 monoterpenes, 11 sesquiterpenes, and 7 oxygen-containing compounds.The major consitituents are cis-methyl jasmonatecis-汕-ocimene, and 汕-pinene.
Abstract (Browse 1950)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Molecular Weights of Esterase and Peroxidase Isozymes of Maize
Author: Luo Mei-zhong, Han Ya-shan and Dai Jing-rui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(2)
    The molecular weights of esterase and peroxidase isozymes of maize seedlings were directly determined by improved polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. The different isozyme bands developed in polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis (uniform gel) were identified in polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis by means of isozyme variants. The molecular weights of esterase isozymes E1, E2, E3F, E3S, a, b, c, named according to isozyme patterns in uniform gel, are <20000, 35200, 33000, 38500, 29900, 28500, 34000 doltons respectively. The molecular weights of peroxidase isozymes PX4F and PX4S are 131000 and 149000 doltons respectively. According to the band location in uniform gel and in gradient gel, some biochemical properties of the isozyme bands and relationships between the isozyme bands were analyzed. The possible errors in the determination of smaller molecular weight isozymes are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2211)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Intramitochondrial Localization of Superoxide Dismutase from Hypocotyl of Etiolated Soybean Seedlings
Author: Luo Guang-hua Wang Ai-guo, Shao Cong-ben and Guo Jun-yan Kuo Chun-yen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(2)
    In the KCN inhibition experiment, it was found that superoxide dismutase from the hypo- cotyl of etiolated soybean seedlings which is composed of 88% Mn-SOD and 12% Cu-Zn-SOD. Latent activity of SOD was evidently liberated after the mitochondria were treated by supersonication. Most of SOD activity was present in supernatant fraction after the supersonicated mitochondria were centrifuged at 150000 g for 60 min. The method of separation and praparation of sub-mitochondrial fraction is described in this paper, and the results indicate that the 80% of mitochondrial SOD present in mitochondrial matrix fraction and a small amount SOD (16%) present in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. The results indicate that distribution and localization of intramitochondrial SOD from higher plant tissues are similar to that from animal tissues.
Abstract (Browse 1869)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of the Activities of Some Enzymes in Deterioration of Peanut Seeds
Author: Chen Guang-yi and Fu Jia-rui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(2)
    The vigour of peanut seeds conditioned with 20% PEG at 10每15⊥ for 8 hours was raised. The activity of catalase in 8 hours was higher than that in control. But the amounts of peroxides were lower than that in control. The activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in seeds treated with PEG were higher than that in control after germination for 3 days. The vigour index of seeds and fresh and dry weight of the 21 days seedling were increased. Mitochondria of cotyledons of peanut seeds at germination for 3 days were detached. Activities of acid phosphatase and DNase of mitochondria fraction were declined with the effect of PEG. But supernatant fraction did not change. Conductivity of peanut seeds treated with PEG was declined Therefore, structure of membrane was renovated with the effect of PEG.
Abstract (Browse 1892)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effects of Cation and ATP on Swelling and Contraction of Mung Bean Mitochondria
Author: Zou Yu-ping, Liang Zheng, Zhao Yuan and Tang Pei-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(2)
    The effects of monovalent cation K+, Na+ and divalent cation Mg2+, Ca2+ (all of these are in choloride) and ATP on the swelling and contraction of isolated mung bean mitochondria have been described. These cations and ATP show different effects in different test medium K+, Na+ initiated a rapid and instantaneous swelling of mung bean mitochondria in hypotonic medium. The degree of swelling decreased with the increase of concentration of KC1 or NaCl. ATP and Mg2+ can initiate a contraction of the swelling mitochondria in hypotonic medium but there was no effect on the swelling mitochondria in isotonic or hypertonic medium (0.125 mol/l or 0.6 mol/l KCl or NaCI). The degree of swelling in KCl is more than that one in NaCI at the same concentration. Mg2+, Ca2+ at physiological concentration (2 mmol/l MgCl2 1 mmol/l CaCl2) initiated a slower and a greater degree swelling of mung bean mitochondria in hypotonic medium. 5 mmol/l ATP initiated a part of contraction of the swelling mitochondria. 1 mmol/l Ca++ initiated a very small swelling of mung bean mitochondria in 0.125 mmol/l KC1 or 0.25 mol/l mannitol. 5 mmol/l ATP greatly promoted the swelling. 10 mmol/l MgCl2 initiated a part of contraction of the swelling. 2 mmol/l MgCl2 initiated an obivious swelling in 0.25 mol/l mannitol. 5 mmol/l ATP promoted the swelling, 10 mmol/l MgCl2 initiated a part of contraction of the swelling mitochondria. 2 mmol/l MgCl2, 0.125 mol/1 KC1, 0.25 mol/1 mannitol all together, which can not initiated any swelling of nmng bean mitochondria but 5 mmol/l ATP greatly promoted the swelling in this condition. The patterns of mung bean mitochondria in different condition have been observed.
Abstract (Browse 2143)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Karyotypes and C-Banding Patterns of Chinese Kale (Brassica alboglabra ) and Cabbage ( B. oleraca var.eapitata)
Author: Wang Xiao-hui and Luo Feng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(2)
    The karyotypes of B. alboglabra and B. oleracea var. capitata were analyzed by an improved technique. The diploids of the two species consist of 4 pairs of metacentric and 5 pairs of submetacentric chromosomes (1 pair of satellites). The karyotype formula is summarized as 2n =18=8m+10sm (2 SAT). But the relative positions of some similar chromosomes are different in the genomes. Four kinds of satellites were observed in B. oleracea var. capitata. C-banding patterns were obtained by BSG C-banding. The C-banding formula is: 2n= 18=CITS pattern = 10C+2CI+ +4CT+ +2CS for B. alboglabra, and 2n= 18=CITS pattern = 8C+2CI +6CT+ + 2CS for B. oleracea var. capitata. The relationship between B. alboglabra and B. oleracea was discussed based on the chromosomal characteristics.
Abstract (Browse 1881)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytotaxonomic Observations on Mecodium paniculiflorum (Presl) Copel and M. osmnndoides (V. D.B.) Ching
Author: Wang Zhong-ren
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(2)
    Mecodium paniculiflorum (Presl) Copel. and M. osmundoides (v. d. B.) Ching from Sichuan Province have been examined cytologically. They have the chromosome numbers n = 26 and n=28 respectively, which are recorded for the first time. Their spores produced after normal meiosis are seemly available. Both the species are sexual diploid. The chromosome number n=26 of M. paniculiflorum shows that it is distinct from M. polyanthos (Sw.) Copel. with the chromosome number n=28. However, M. osmundoides has the same chromosorrie number with M. polyanthos. Therefore, it may be an Asian member of M. polyanthos group. The occurrence of the basic number 26 in the genus Mecodium has given a strong evidence of the close relationship between Mecodium and Hymenophyllum, Meringium. It has been known that in Hymenophyllaceae, they are the only three genera with more than four base numbers. They have shared the base numbers 21 and 28. Now, they have the third common base number 26 (or 13) which is a spicific basic number in the family. In addition, all they have bivalved involucres and other similar characters, so it is reasonable that they are treated as subgenera or section under the same genus Hymenophyllum by C. V. Morton[13] and K. lwatsuki[7,8]. During the sporogenesis of M. paniculiflorum and M. osmundoides, the initial archesporiaI cell in a developing sporangium usually divides successively five times by mitosis resulting 32-spore mother cells, and then meiosis occurs regularly, giving rise to 128 spores finally. In a few cases, 64-SMC or 256-spore sporangia are also produced in M, osmundoides. It is suggested that besides forming 64-spore sporangium, forming 128-spore and 256-spore sporangia should be conscidered as normal sporogenesis lines in sexually-reproducing ferns, especially in Hyme- nophyllaceae and other ancient group of leptosporangiate ferns. The voucher specimens are deposited in the Herbarium of our Institute (PE).
Abstract (Browse 1888)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Relativity Between Chi Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) Embryo Development and Its Flowering, Fruiting
Author: Xu Fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(2)
    The anthers of Chi pear overwinter in sporogenous tissue and form microsporocytes at the early or middle March. The microsporogenesis belongs to the simultaneous type. The mature pollen grain is a two-celled structure. The megasporocyte which belongs to the crassinucellate type is formed among the cells of the third layer at the top of nucellus during the end of March or at the early April. The development of embryo sac conforms to Polygonum type. In the Apirl, the fertilized egg starts its cross-division after the dormancy period and undergoes the following stages, such as the clavate proembryo, the global proembryo, the heart-shaped embryo and torpedo-shaped embryo stage. In the middle of July, the young embryo gets ripe gradually. The embryo development of Chi pear belongs to Chenopodiad type while the endosperm development of Chi pear belongs to Nuclear type. In Chi pear, there are stable relations in its microsporogenesis, megasporogenesis, its male, female gametophytes formation and its flower bud, flower morphological character. There is also a certain interrelation of development be- tween the fruit, the embryo and the endosperm.
Abstract (Browse 2039)  |  Full Text PDF       
Anatomical Studies on Hypocotyl of Circaeaster
Author: Li Zheng-li (Lee Cheng-lee) and Dong Zhong-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(2)
    The stem of Circaeaster agrestis Maxim. is very short but the length of hypocotyl is comparatively long, almost occupying the whole length of the plant. This tender hypocotyl is mainly supported by the thickening of cuticle on the outer wall of the epidermal cell and the primary xylem in the center. Between primary xylem and primary phloem there are 2每3 layers of parenchymatous cells, regularly or irregularly arranged, but no cambial zone can be recognized. The transition region where root and stem meet showed no evidence of twisting, splitting or inversion of the strands in the primary vascular tissues which are common in most of the dicots. The extending cotyledon traces differentiate directly from the parenchymatous cells which locate on the outside of the poles of primary xylem. The first and the second leaf traces are organized in the middle of the primary phloem.
Abstract (Browse 2248)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Factors in Cryopreservation of Sugarcane Calluses
Author: Jian Ling-cheng, Sun De-lan and Sun Long-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(2)
    Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrid co. 71/210) calluses were derived from the young leaves and cultured on solid N6 medium containing 2 mg/l 2,4-D. The callus subcultures were used as the experiments of cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen (每196⊥). Some factors effecting the viability and survival of cryopreserved materials were investigated in order to establish a good technological system of germplasm conservation. The present experimental results indicated that the 10th to 15th day callus subcultures showed higher viability and survival after cryopreservation at 每196⊥ (Fig. 1), and so they are suitable materials used as cryopreservation. The effects of cryoprotectants tested on the survival and regeneration of sugarcane calluses after freezing and storage in liquid nitrogen were shown in Fig. 2 and Table 1. The protective role of DMSO used alone is not significant. However, the combination of DMSO with sugars and sugar alcohols markedly improved survival and regeneration of calluses. Especially, the mixture of 10% DMSO and 0.5 mol/1 sorbitol is more effective than that of DMSO with the other sugars: glucose, sucrose, mannitol and maltose etc. But, the addition of polyethylene glycol 6000 to the mixtures of DMSO and sugars did not produce a clear enhancement of protective effectiveness. The effectiveness of the slow-freezing method that the specimens were cooled at the rate of 1⊥/min from 0⊥ to 每40⊥, kept at 每40⊥ for 1每3 hrs, and then put into liquid nitrogen is much better than that obtained by the other way that the samples were not kept at terminal temperature (每40⊥) for a period or that of the rapid-freezing method etc. (Fig. 3 and Table 2). Experiments for comparison of 4 thawing methods were carried out. The results indicated that the effectiveness of thawing with tap water is as good as that in a 40⊥ water bath (Fig. 4). Studying the recovery growth conditions of the calluses after cryopreservation, we found that the illumination is unfavourable for recovery of growth. The percentage of survival is higher and the rate of growth is much faster in culture in dark than under light (Table 3). By use of the combination of various favourable factors mentioned above, the survival percentage of sugarcane calluses after cryopreservation achieved over 90%; and the calluses stored for six months could be normally differentiated into a great deal of new plantlets (Plate I, Figs. 3 and 4).
Abstract (Browse 2226)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cell-Biological Studies on Arunclally Isolated Generative Cells from Angiosperm Pollen
Author: Zhou Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(2)
    Fresh generative cells were isolated from mature pollen grains by means of a squash method in 7 species belonging to 3 families of angiosperms. Nomarski differential interference contrast, fluorescence, and video-enhanced microscopical studies revealed that the isolated generative cells appeared structurally intact and showed clear image of the membrane, the cytoplasm and the nucleus with 1每2 nucleoli, and the absence of a typical cell wall. It was the first time to obtain a scanning electron-microscopical image of a generative cell which became possible only after its isolation. Immunofluorescence of tubulin showed the distribution of long, mainly axial strands of the cortical microtubule. Morphologically, the isolated cells varied considerably from spindle to spherical shape, which were found to be dependent on osmolarity of the medium and treatment with the microtubule stabilizer. Fluorescein diacetate test confirmed the viability of the freshly isolated generative cells. The advantages and prospects of the isolation of generative cells are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2004)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Steroidal Saponins of Dioscorea tokoro Makino Collected from Zhejiang
Author: Tang Shi-rong and Jiang Zhi-dong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(2)
    Six steroidal saponins were isolated from rhizome of Dioscorea tokoro Makino (collected from Zhejiang). By means of acetylation, acid hydrolysis, IR, MS, and 13C-NMR etc., five of them were identical with yononin (A) (yield 0.0069%), dioscin (C) (0.04%), gracillin (D) (0.03%), protodioscin (E) (0.5%), protogracillin (F) (0.2%), respectively. Because of low yield, saponin B was not identified.
Abstract (Browse 2217)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Comparative Study on the Triglycerides Composition in Olive Oil and Tea Oil
Author: Liao Xue-kun and Chen Wen-xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(2)
Abstract (Browse 1858)  |  Full Text PDF       
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