February 1955, Volume 4 Issue 2

 

          Research Articles
The Formation of the Rice Panicles under Different Developmental Conditions
Author: S.H. Tang and J.S. Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1955 4(2)
      
    In the present work the materials used consisting of three varieties of rice (Oryza sativa), namely: early variety,--"Nan-Teh-Hau" from Kiangsi (江西, 南昌), mid-season variety,--"Shih-Taw'' from Kiangsu (江苏,昆山) and late variety,--"Law-Lai-Zin,'' from Kiangsu (江苏,松江) Vernalized (30℃, 12 days) and non-vernalized but soaked seeds were planted simultaneously under illuminations of short day-length (10 hours) and natural day-length. For the examinations of the shoot apex the materials were collected at the intervals of 2-7 days. The shoot apices were studied by dissecting the fresh material under binocular or by making paraffin sections in the usual way. The differentiational stages of the panicles at each collecting date were present as numerical readings, which coincide with the numbers of the developmental stages of the panicles as indicated in the authors' previous paper. The results may be summarized as follows. So far as the early variety, is concerned either under short day-length or natural day-length, the effect of vernalization appeared relatively significant, accelerating the differentiation of the panicle primordia and the ear emergence by 4 and 2 days respectively. The photo-response was found negligible in comparison with that of vernalization. The time required for tile differentiation from the shoot apex to the stage of ear emergence seemed to be almost the same in all of four combinations. As regards the mid-season variety, either vernalized or nm-vernalized but cultivated under short day-length, the processes of apex differentiation and ear emergence were conspicueonsly accelerated, and their earliness were round 27 days. The vernalization effect was negligible in comparison with that of short day-length. The duration from differentiation to ear emergence was almost the same in all of the combinations. With respect' to late variety, either vernalized or non-vernalized but cultivated under short day-length, the acceleration of the differentiation stage as well as the ear emergence appeared very significant, their earliness was around 47 and 52 days respectively, The vernalization effect was also negligible in comparison with the effect of short day-length. The duration from differentiation to ear emergence in short day-length was also shortened slightly. It is evident from the above results that the mid-season variety (Skih-Taw) and the late variety (Law-hai-zin) require a relatively longerp hoto-stage in Shanghai region. That these two varieties flowered and mature Pnd late in this re, on is due to the limitation of those factors which influence the development of the photostage. Moreover, there is a close relation between the differentiation of shoot apex and the completion of the photo-stage. The present study shows very clearly that the shoot apex is differentiated acceleratively under those conditions which are favorable for the accomplishment of the photo-stage.
Abstract (Browse 2009)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Porphyra III. Sexual Reproduction of Porphyra
Author: C. K. Tseng and T. J. Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1955 4(2)
      
    1. The carpogonium of Porphyra tenera Kjellm., when mature, sends out on one or both sides a filamentous projection on which the spermatia adhere. After fertilization, the projection gradually draws back into the carpogonium proper, showing that it is merely a temporary structure for effecting fertilization, and should not be identified with the true trichogyne of the Florideae, which is, in fact, a cell by itself with its own nucleus and withers after fertilization. As it is possible that the true trichogyne of the Florideae may be evolved from such a structure, it is suggested that the structure be called "prototrichogyne." In Porphyra dentata Kjellm. and P. suborbiculata Kjellm., prototrichogyne has not been found, although the protoplast of the carpogorfium apparently has the tendency to protrude outward but probably has been prevented from doing so by the thickness and toughness of the gelatinous membrane. Consequently, it is assumed that the tendency to form prototrichogyne is present in all Porphyra but owing to difference in the thickness of and toughness the gelatinous membrane, there are different grades of protrusion, from those which are scarcely noticeable to those which are very much elongated. 2. The spermatium of Porphyra tenera Kjellm., after adhering to the prototrichogyne, puts forth a very delicate process containing a thin strand of cytoplasm, which penetrates through the gelatinous membrane and through which the contents of the spepmatium pass into the female protoplast. The process is therefora similar to that repeatedly described by various European phycologists for P. umbilicalis (L.) Kuetz. In P. dentata Kjellm., similar spermatial processes have also been observed. It is assumed, there{ore, that this phenomenum is not unique to a few species, but is universal in all the species of Porphyra. Kunieda has described a totally different method of fertilization in which the spermatium is engulfed totally by the prototrichogyne. We have observed apparently similar phenomenum in P. tenera Kjellm. but after careful observation and experimentation, we have concluded that what seems to be an engulfed spennatium is actually the tip of the elongated prototrichogyne, broken away by folding or similar operation. 3. We have not observed the actual fusion of the sexual nuclei in the carpogonium, but we have seen, in many cases, the presence of spermatial nucleus inside the female protoplast, and in a few cases, the male nucleus almost comes in contact with the egg nucleus. In the prophase of the first cell division of the carpogonium, 5 pairs of chromonemata, two long and three short, in synapsis have been observed. In the prophase of the last cell division of the spermatial mother cells, 5 chromosomes have been seen; it is therofore concluded that fusion of the male and female nuclei must have taken place within the carpogonium. 4. Having observed 5 pairs of synaptic chromonemata in the prophase of the first cell division of the fertilized carpogonium, as well as 5 chromosomes in late prophase of the second and the third cell divesion of the carpogonium, we are led to the conclusion that meiosis has been effected in the first division of the carpogoninm and that the carpospores thus produced are haploid. Recently, Drew has raised the question whether the so-called carpospores of Porphyra are really products of sexual reproduction, and that for the time being it is better to avoid the using of the term "carpospore". From our studies, there should not be any more doubt that these spores are actually carpospores although they are, like those of Nemalion, haploid in nature.
Abstract (Browse 3552)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Requirement of Wheat for Some Essential Elements at Different Stages of Development
Author: Y. W. Tang, T. S. Ni, C. C. King, H. S. Lei, K. L. Sy, C. W. Cheng and C. L. Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1955 4(2)
      
    1. The carpogonium of Porphyra tenera Kjellm., when mature, sends out on one or both sides a filamentous projection on which the spermatia adhere. After fertilization, the projection gradually draws back into the carpogonium proper, showing that it is merely a temporary structure for effecting fertilization, and should not be identified with the true trichogyne of the Florideae, which is, in fact, a cell by itself with its own nucleus and withers after fertilization. As it is possible that the true trichogyne of the Florideae may be evolved from such a structure, it is suggested that the structure be called "prototrichogyne." In Porphyra dentata Kjellm. and P. suborbiculata Kjellm., prototrichogyne has not been found, although the protoplast of the carpogorfium apparently has the tendency to protrude outward but probably has been prevented from doing so by the thickness and toughness of the gelatinous membrane. Consequently, it is assumed that the tendency to form prototrichogyne is present in all Porphyra but owing to difference in the thickness of and toughness the gelatinous membrane, there are different grades of protrusion, from those which are scarcely noticeable to those which are very much elongated. 2. The spermatium of Porphyra tenera Kjellm., after adhering to the prototrichogyne, puts forth a very delicate process containing a thin strand of cytoplasm, which penetrates through the gelatinous membrane and through which the contents of the spepmatium pass into the female protoplast. The process is therefora similar to that repeatedly described by various European phycologists for P. umbilicalis (L.) Kuetz. In P. dentata Kjellm., similar spermatial processes have also been observed. It is assumed, there{ore, that this phenomenum is not unique to a few species, but is universal in all the species of Porphyra. Kunieda has described a totally different method of fertilization in which the spermatium is engulfed totally by the prototrichogyne. We have observed apparently similar phenomenum in P. tenera Kjellm. but after careful observation and experimentation, we have concluded that what seems to be an engulfed spennatium is actually the tip of the elongated prototrichogyne, broken away by folding or similar operation. 3. We have not observed the actual fusion of the sexual nuclei in the carpogonium, but we have seen, in many cases, the presence of spermatial nucleus inside the female protoplast, and in a few cases, the male nucleus almost comes in contact with the egg nucleus. In the prophase of the first cell division of the carpogonium, 5 pairs of chromonemata, two long and three short, in synapsis have been observed. In the prophase of the last cell division of the spermatial mother cells, 5 chromosomes have been seen; it is therofore concluded that fusion of the male and female nuclei must have taken place within the carpogonium. 4. Having observed 5 pairs of synaptic chromonemata in the prophase of the first cell division of the fertilized carpogonium, as well as 5 chromosomes in late prophase of the second and the third cell divesion of the carpogonium, we are led to the conclusion that meiosis has been effected in the first division of the carpogoninm and that the carpospores thus produced are haploid. Recently, Drew has raised the question whether the so-called carpospores of Porphyra are really products of sexual reproduction, and that for the time being it is better to avoid the using of the term "carpospore". From our studies, there should not be any more doubt that these spores are actually carpospores although they are, like those of Nemalion, haploid in nature.
Abstract (Browse 2195)  |  Full Text PDF       
К вопросу об изучении растительных формаций В Окрестностях сарту хэйлунцэянской провинции
Author: Чху Тин -чэн
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1955 4(2)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 2250)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on the Growth of the Fleshy Root of Radish
Author: S. H. Lee, C. H. Sheo and J. Y. Chow
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1955 4(2)
      
    Radish, Raphanus sativus L., is one of the major root crops in China. Under the condition of the Yangtze delta, it is usually planted in early autumn, forming a large fleshy root in winter, and developing seed-stalk or flower-stem nextspring. In order to compare the growth habit of different types of radish, three varieties representing different shapes of such roots were used in our experiment, viz., Chi-Cheo-Hung, a spherical red variety of medium size with a "neck"; Kao-Pe, an oblong white variety; and Che-Dai-Chang, a large white variety cylindrical in shape. No matter what varieties they are, the radish plants produce lateral roots predominantly in the seedling stage. This is followed by the growth of radical leaves. Later both the radical leaves and the fleshy roots enlarge subsequently. The edible fleshy roots, as a rule, grow most rapidly when the growth of radical leaves approaches cessation. The varieties with a longer growth period for radical leaves usually give birth to fleshy roots larger than those produced from the varieties with a shorter growth period. In case the growth of radical leaves is retarded by unfavorable environmental conditons or cultural practices, the fleshy roots would be slender in shape and smaller in size. In the course of the vegetative period, the ratio of the fresh weight of radical leaves to that of fleshy roots is variable. In the seedling stage, the fresh weight of the radical leaves is much larger than that of the fleshy roots, while in the nature stage however, the condition is contrary. The change in dry matter content in the fleshy roots was found to be almost of the same tendency in all the three varieties herein studied. In the very early stage of growth, about one month after sprouting, the percentage of dry matter increased rapidly up to 9 per cent as in variety Che-Cheo-Hung. After that, however, it decreased fast for a time, and remained at 5 per cent level throughout the growth period of the fleshy roots. The cause of this variation may be connected with the change in cell size and cell construction in one way or another. The edible part of radish is a storage organ being developed through secondary growth in the hypocotyl and the taproot, which may replace each other in structure {unction. Anatomically, the fleshy root consists mainly of the parenchymatous tissues of the secondary phloem and secondary xylem. The limited development of lignified vascular elements and the differentiation of abundant thin-ailed parenchyma from the cambial derivatives are the main cause of the succulence of such edible root. The growth of the fleshy roots in the early stage is' mainly due to cell division, and that in the later stage to the enlargement of cells and the intercellular spaces which makes the shape character of a variety more pronounced. The diameter of the cells in xylem parenchyma was found to be larger in Che-Dai-Chang, miler in Kao-Pe, and smallest in Chi-Cheo4-Iung which consists of a higher percentage of dry matter content and is thus more favourable to be used as a salad. The shape and length--both total length and the underground partion of a fleshy root--may also vary with the depth of planting, to plant more than half an inch deep is not desirable in radish cultivation.
Abstract (Browse 3609)  |  Full Text PDF       
Experiment on Intergeneric Embryo Grafting
Author: Lin Ta-chu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1955 4(2)
      
    An experiment on intergenric embryo grafting among tomato, eggplant and hot and sweet pepper has come out successfully by means of micrografting technique under aseptic conditions. The grafts grew well after being transplanted in the field. Both the number and the size of the fruits produced therefore were found no inferior to those of the control plants. Details of the experiment are given in the text. Art ideal of plant embryo grafting which is derived from knowledge of plant tissue culture and animal tissue grafting is realized and practically.
Abstract (Browse 1867)  |  Full Text PDF       
Developmental Morphology of the Rice Panicle
Author: S. H.Tang and J. S. Liu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1955 4(2)
      
    The present report is the first one of a series work on the morphogenesis of rice (Oryza sativa). It deals with the developmental morphology of the panicle, from the beginning of the differentiation of the shoot apex up to the flowering stage. In the course of the differentiation, the formation of the panicle primordial from the shoot apex appeared most rapidly, at this turning point, no conspicuous elongation of the shoot apex was observed as the case with wheat, the flowers of a spikelet differentiated acropetally. The flower parts were differentiated according to the following sequence: facet and glume, lemma and palea, anthers, lodicules and pistiet. The order of differentiation of the parts of the pistil is ovary, styles and stigmas.
Abstract (Browse 2074)  |  Full Text PDF       
Предварительное Сообщение оявлении лере движения ядер череэ отверстия оболочки растительной клетки
Author: У Су-сюань
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1955 4(2)
Abstract (Browse 2818)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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