April 1987, Volume 29 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
Environment Analysis of the Common Fossil Diatoms from the Sediments of the China Sea
Author: Jiang Hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(4)
      
    In this paper, surface diatom samples Of 131 have been analysed by using HC1 and H2O2, for the abysmal samples and the samples from the continental shelfs. Distinguished were i91 species, of which 10 common species are in detail discussed on their distributed ranges and the various numbers with changes of environmental factors such as depth, temperature and salinity etc.. The results show that the depth has a marked effect on the distribution of benthic species, but plays a less important role in the planktonic species; temperature and salinity exert a tremendous influence on both kinds of species: Climatic changes of Quaternary glacial and, interglacial periods resulted in many times of transgression and regression in the coast region of China. The research on paleogeography, paleoclimate, sea level fluctuation and division of Quaternary sediments is an important content of the diatom analysis based on changes of the components of the diatoms from the column section. Diatoms from the Quaternary core in the mouth of Minjiang River, Fujian have been studied and 4 diatom assemblages have been distinguished repressenting 4 periods of paleogeographic phases of continent-sea and continental transition-shallow sea-intertide zone, of which the first period may be dated as the late Late Pleistocene and other periods as the early, the middle and the late Holocene respectively. The diatoms from the reworked sediments often have broken valves and dirty surface. Be- cause the ecological environment that diatoms from the reworked sediments require does not tally with that of today, these diatoms should be producer of lower sea level in the late Pleistocene.
Abstract (Browse 1968)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on Manganese Content in Soils and Leaves of Rubber Trees in Rubber Plantation Areas of China
Author: Wang Guo-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(4)
      
    The present paper deals with the status of manganese (Mn) in rubber trees on 110 rubber plantation at 46 counties in the rubber tree growing regions of China. The content of Mn in rubber tree leaves ranges from 31 to 2167 ppm, averaging 390 ppm which is higher than that in the leaves of normal rubber trees (150C300 ppm). Thus it can be concluded that the present status of Mn in China's rubber trees is higher. Nevertheless, the content of Mn of soil of rubber plantations in China varies significantly according to different soil types, fertilization and management. The difference between the highest and the lowest contents of total Mn could be as high as 140 times and an even greater difference of 200C1240-fold between the highest and the lowest contents of replaceable and reducible Mn has been observed. The storage of reducible Mn is generally insufficient in the soil. Therefore, the symptom of leaf yellowing due to deficiency of Mn has developed in rubber trees in certain parts of rubber tree growing regions in China. The essential oure for leaf yellowing of rubber trees is to raise Mn content in the tree by proper application of fertilizer. The procedures, dosage and timing of the fertilizer for leaf yellowing treatments are suggested.
Abstract (Browse 2053)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Active Constituents of Root of Euphorbia ebracteolata Hayata Euphorbiaceae
Author: Zhang Han-qing, Ding Yun-mei, Chen Gui-ying, Dong Yun-fa and Zhu Yuan-long
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(4)
      
    Seven crystalline constituents were obtained from acidic alcoholic extract of root of Euphorbia ebracteolata. They were identified as octacosanoic acid, daucosterol, -sitosterol, bis (5-formyl-furfuryl)-ether (), a triterpenic acid, 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxyl-3-methyl-acetoph-enone () and 2--glucoside of () respectively. Three of them (, and ) revealed inhibitory effect against tuberculous bacillus..In this paper, the authors reported identification of compound which was found in this plant first time. Its extract has a remarkable effect for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Abstract (Browse 2188)  |  Full Text PDF       
Three New Glycosides from Halenia clliptica
Author: Sun Hong-fa, Hu Be-lin, Ding Jing-ye and Fan Shu-fen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(4)
      
    Three new glycosides have been obtained from the herb Halenia elliptica D. Don (Genti- anaceae) which is used for treatment of liver diseases in Qinghai-Tibetan folk. Their structu- res have been identified as 1-O-[-D-xylopyranosyl-(16)--D-glucopyranosyl]-2,3,5,7-terameth-oxyxanthone() or as l-O-primeverosyl-2,3,5,7-tetramethoxyxanthone),1-O-[-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-6)--D-glucopyranosyl]-2,3,5-trimethoxyxanthone (, or as 1-O-primeverosyl-2,3,5-trimeth- oxyxanthone), and 1-O-[-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-6)--D-glucopyranosyl]-2,3,4,5-tetramethoxyxan- thone (, or as 1-O-primeverosyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethoxyxanthone) respectively, by means of che- mical and spectral methods. and are another two new antihepatitisic constituents of this species, and their biological activity of antihepatitis has been displayed by the pharmacological research. They were named haleniaside () and demethoxyhaleniaside ().
Abstract (Browse 1949)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Clausena dunniana Lvl Rutaceae , A New Resource of Isoanethole
Author: Zhu Liang-feng, Zeng Huan-tian, Li Yu-jing, Mai Lang-tian, Li Zi-you, Chen Wen-xiang and Lu Bi-yao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(4)
      
    The plant Clausena dunniana Levl. With leaves of anethole fragrance is growing in limestone area of north Guangdong, The essential oils in leaves of anethole fragrance were extracted by steam distillation with a yield of 0.7%. The oils contained isoanethole (methyl chavcol) 93.10% and may be used in the synthesis of anethole and for medicinal purpose. Isoanethole and other 15 chemical constituents were identified by GC,GC/MS/DS, IR and NMR.
Abstract (Browse 2048)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Structures of Coetsin a and B
Author: Wang Xian-rong, Wang Zhao-quan, Wang Hong-ping, Hu Hui-ping and Wang De-qun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(4)
      
    Coetsin A and B, two new diterpenoids have been isolated from the leaves of Rabdosia coetsa (Buch-Han ex D. Don) Hara. Their structures were established as (1) and (2) by spectroscopic and chemical data respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1939)  |  Full Text PDF       
Separation and Purification of Monogalactosyl and Digalactosyl Diglycerides by Thin-Layer Chromatography
Author: Bao Feng, Xu Yong-rui, Zhao Qin-xiu and Liu Zu-tang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(4)
      
    Six kinds of glycolipid of monogalactosyl and digalactosyl diglyceride were separated and purified from the wheat and the natural latex of chilling-tolerant and chilling-sensitive variety by two kind solvent systems and twice one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Besides, the compositions of fatty acid of hydrophobic side chain of six kinds of glycolipid were compared. The indices of unsaturation of fatty acid of hydrophobic side chains in the glycolipids of wheat flour, in the glycolipids of natural latex of chilling-tolerant, variety and in the digalactosyl diglycerides, are much bigger than those, respectively, in the glycolipids of natural latexes, in the glycolipids of chilling-sensitive variety and in the monogalactosyl diglycerides.
Abstract (Browse 2241)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effects of Boric Acid and Gibberellic Acid on the Growth of Fiber of Phragmites cormmuhis Trin
Author: Guo Ji-fang, Ye Zheng-hua and Zhu ying-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(4)
      
    Water-cultured young plants of Phragmites communis Trin. were used in this experiment. They were treated with boric acid and gibberellic acid, separately or in combination, by method of foliage spraying. The results are summarized as follows: 1. In comparation with the controls, the length of the fibre cells was remarkably increased following the treatment with boric acid at concentrations ranging from 1 to 200 mol/l. The optimum concentration of boric acid was found to be 100 mol/l. Gibberellic acid alone at the concentration of 50 mol/l also enhanced the length of the fibre cells. However, the best result was obtained in the group treated with a combination of boric acid and gibmberellic acid at a ratio of 200:50 mol/l. A maximum increasement of fibre length and a greater ratio of length to width were observed in this experimental group. 2. Microscopic study indicates that the increase in both the number of the fibre cells and ,the thickness of the fibre layer are apparent in histological preparation. 3. In addition, The authors have also found that the incorporation of H3-glucose into the fibre cell wall was greatly enhanced by such combination treatment. 4. In conclusion, it has been demonstrated clearly that the boric acid and the gibberellic acid, when used in combination, produces an augmentative effect on both the growth and the development of the fibre cells of Phragmites communis Trin.
Abstract (Browse 2066)  |  Full Text PDF       
Light Regulatilon of the Synthesis of Ribulose 1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase and Fructose 1, 6-Bisphosphatase
Author: Wu Guang-yao, Zhong Xiao-bo and Wu Xiang-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(4)
      
    The activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase, E. C. 4. 1. 1. 395, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase, E. C. 3. 1. 3. 11) and sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase, E. C. 3. 1. 3. 37) was assayed in the etiolated cotyledons of Brassica juncea after red light or far- red light stimulation. There seemed to be a light-sensitive phase in the course of germination as indicated by the response of leaves to light. During this phase red light stimulated the synthesis of RuBPCase and FBPase, but not SBPase. This effect of red light could be reversed by farred light. Therefore, the initiation of the synthesis of the two enzymes was mediated by phytochrome. The amount of enzyme synthesized was not concerned with the number of light quanta. Phytochrome is only involved in the initiation of the synthesis of certain enzymes, but whether the synthesis will proceed continuosely ro not depends on many other factors, e. g. the availability of substrate and energy.
Abstract (Browse 1861)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on Mechanism of Expansion of Cell Wall of Cucumber Cotyledon
Author: Gan Su-sheng, Shen Zeng-you, Zhang Zhi-liang and Yan Ji-qiong (Yen Chi-chiong)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(4)
      
    This paper reports that Fe2+ has non-competitive inhibition on the PODs of the cytoplasm, SECW (salt Extractable cell wall) and RCW (residual cell wall) from the excised and aerated cotyledons of the cucumber which have been incubated with the 1/15 mol/l phosphate Na+-K+ buffer containing 10 ppm 6BA, pH 6.0, for 36 hours in dark. The exogenous 'Fe2+ promoted the expansion of the excised and aerated cotyledons of the cucumber, and simultaneously decreased the Hyp/Pro and the Idt/Tyr of RCW, what is more, the higher the Fe2+ concentration, the higher the percentage of promotion, and the less both the Hyp/Pro and the Idt/Tyr. Conversely, the exogenous POD of RCW as tested with Fe2+ enormously inhibited this expansion and increased the Idt/Tyr of RCW, but the PODs of the cytoplasm and SECW haven't such obvious effect as the POD of RCW. It suggests that the POD of RCW not only can convert the Pro of extension to Hyp, and cross-link with the polysaccharides of ceil wall via the Hyp-o-Ara, but also catalyze coupling of two tyrosine units to form Idt (isodityrosine) which is an inter-polypeptide cross-link. So the extensibility of cell walls is decreased and the growth of plant cell is limitted.
Abstract (Browse 1985)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Discovery of Vessels in Phyllitis
Author: Gu An-gen and Liu Yi-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(4)
      
    The authors find that there are vessels in the roots of Phyllids japonica Komarov distributed in the broadleaves forest of Changbai Mountain in the northeast of China. The conclusions are as follows: 1. There are. obvious vascular cambium and secondary, vascular tissue in the roots of P. japonica. The vessels exist in the secondary xylem. 2. The vessel is pitted. Its end walls are usually oblique, and horizontal one occasionlly occurs. All the vessels have simple perforations. There is alternate pitting on the walls, and often acuminate toward the end of the vessels. Its bordered pit is flat. The innerpart of the pit is lenticular, reaching horizontally the pit border boundary. Finally, there are clear spiral thickenings on the wall.
Abstract (Browse 1989)  |  Full Text PDF       
Induction of Endosperm Calluses and Regeneration of Endosperm Plantlets of Asparagus officinalis
Author: Liu Shu-qiong, Gui Yao-lin, Gu Shu-rong and Xu Ting-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(4)
      
    The endosperm callus has been induced from the young endosperm of Asparagus officinalis L. on the MS supplemented with auxin. The induction frequency of callus amounts to 65.9%C83.1%. When the callus was transferred to the medium supplemented with lower concentration of NAA 0.1 ppm or containing BA 1 ppm and NAA 0.5 ppm, the differentiation of shoots, roots and a few embryoids began to occur. A few calluses and embryoids can develop into plantlets. The chromosome number in the cells from the same root tip and shoot apex of endosperm plantlet is very unstable. They can be euploids (n=10, 2n=20, 3n=30, 4n=40). or aneupl0ids (n=6, 7, 17, 25, 53).
Abstract (Browse 2120)  |  Full Text PDF       
Established Haploid and Diploid Embryonic Somaclones of Allooctoploid Triticale
Author: Zheng Qi-cheng, Zhu Yao-lan and Chen Wen-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(4)
      
    Growing tip of allooctoploid Triticale h739 plants and its pollen plants at the glume differentiation stage were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2,4-D. The callus began to be formed after 20 days. The induction frequency was up to 98.3%. By transferring subcultured calli to regeneration medium plantlet regeneration frequency was 95.2%. Five so- maclones HC-2, HC-3, HC-4, HC-5 and HC-0 have been selected; their plantlet regeneration frequency remained high through long-tern subculture, being more than 90% by 892 days. Most cells in HC-2 and HC-3 were haploidy (2n=28). Histological and scanning electron micros copy studies showed that callus of HC-3 was composed of embryoids at different developmental stages.
Abstract (Browse 1910)  |  Full Text PDF       
Embryogenic Callus Formation and Plantlet Regeneration of Piragmites communis
Author: Wu Guo-liang, Ye He-chun, Li Guo-feng and Zhang Quan-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(4)
      
    The present paper reports the embryogenic callus formation and plantlet regeneration of Phragmites communis. The results have been obtained as follows: The efficiency of callus induction was much higher, if reed seeds were used as explants. No dedifferentiation was observed by using leaf sheath and leaf blade as explants. The optim, um concentration of sucrose was 4% in medium. VB group and inositol had beneficial effects on callus growth. But yeast extract inhibited callus induction and callus growth markedly. For this inhibited reaction, the higher concentration, the more obviously the callus growth was inhibited. Higher levels of 2,4-D had unfavourable effects on callus growth in callus subculture. The concentration of 2,4-D in dedifferentiation medium had relation to embryogenic callus formation. Embryogenic callus had higher frequency of differentiation for long-term subculture. On the other hand, nonembryogenic callus most often lost their morphogenetic competence. Authors found that the surface structure of the two types of calluses was different by means of observation by scanning electron microscope. The peroxidase and the esterase isoenzyme pat- terns, as well as the soluble protein of both types of calluses were different too.
Abstract (Browse 1932)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Measurment on some Ecological Factors of the Epiphyllous Liverworts in Mt. Wuo yi
Author: Wu Pan-cheng, Li Deng-ke and Gao Cai-hun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(4)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1772)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Formation of Flower Bud and Prerequisite of Flowering in Vitro in Gentiana manshurica Kitag
Author: Zhou Yun-luo, Qian Ying-qian (Y. C. Chien), Mu Shih-kin and Cai Qi-gui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(4)
      
    Large amounts of plantlets of Gentiana manshurica Kitag. from germinated seeds in vitro can be obtained by micropropagation. Flower buds differentiate on shoot tip and leaf axil when ptantlets are transferred into MS medium supplemented with 0.4 mg/l zeatin, 0.2 mg/l NAA, 0.4 mg/l kinetin and 2 mg/l succinic acid-2, 2-dimethyl hydrazide under the cultural conditions of 282, 1,300 lx and 8 hours per day. The anthesis of blue-purple flower can prolong to 4 weeks. The development of pollen and ovule is normal and is similar to that of Gentiaceae described in the monograph"Systematic embryology of the angiosperms", by Davis (1966). Flowers in vitro are utilized expectantly for breeding or for commerical use directly.
Abstract (Browse 1873)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regeneration from Protoplasts of Peucedanum Terebinthaceum (Fisch.) Fisch. ex Turcz
Author: Li Zhong-yi and Chen Hui-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(4)
      
    Calll with many embryogenic cell colonies were produced from segments of seedlling of Peucedanum terebinthaceum (Fisch.) Fisch. ex Turcz. which were cultured on the 1/2MS agar medium (with half quantity of macronutrients) containing 1 mg/l 2,4-D. Cell suspension culture with high percentage of embryogenic cell colonies was established from the calli shaking in liquid medium. The cell suspension culture was used for protoplast preparation. Protoplasts were obtained with the enzyme mixture containing 1.5% Onozuka R-10, 0.3% Macerozyme R-10, 0.5% Snailase, 5 mmol/l CeCl2, 1 mmol/l KH2PO4, 0.6 mol/l mannital at pH 5.8 and 25. Cultured in a modified MS liquid medium containing 1 mg/l 2,4-D+ 0.5 mg/l zeatin, the protoplasts emered division after four days, and formed cell colonies of 0.5C1mm after about forty days. When transfered to 1/2 MS liquid medium supplemented with zeatin (0.5 mg/l), the cell colonies differentiated in to embryoids, then developed into plantlets with many green leaves and roots on the 1/2 MS agar medium devoid of phytohormones.
Abstract (Browse 1873)  |  Full Text PDF       
Development of the Embryo and Endosperm in Roxburgh Rose
Author: Li Shu-jiu and Hu Shl-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(4)
      
    1. The development of the embryo of roxburgh rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt. f. normalis Rehd. et Wils.) conforms to the Asterad type with significant variation of forming an oblique wall after the division of the apical cell. A wedge-shaped epiphysis initial is cut off and remained in early stages of proembryo. The mature embryo is typical in dicotyledons and accumunates large amount of protein bodies in its two cotyledons. 2. The endosperm formation is nuclear type. Since the free nuclei become completely separated by the cell wall, the cells in the surface layer of the cellular endosperm may divide periclinally to form a stratified cell zone, as we called secondary endosperm, lining along the boundary of the embryo sac. During the formation of secondary endosperm, the rest endosperm cells degenerate gradually. In mature seed only the secondary endosperm persists and contacts directly with the mature embryo, except at the chalazal end, where it degenerates earlier. 3. The results of this study reveal that degneration of embryo and endoeperm at early stages of embryogeny in some ovules, perhaps caused by the insufficiency of nutrients, may be one of the reasons of seed abortion.
Abstract (Browse 2006)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study of the High-Resolution G-Banding Technique of Plant Chromosomes
Author: Chen Rui-yang, An Zhu-ping, Song Wen-qin, Li Xiu-lan, Su Jian-ying and Zheng Jian-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(4)
      
    In this paper, the authors make a systematic study on the High-Resolution G-banding technique of plant chromosomes. The improved urea method was successfully used for the first time to introduce G-banding in Triticum boeoticum, Zea mays, Vicia faba, Chlorophytum ce.pense, Lilium davidii, and some other plants. The G-bands which distribute in the entire length of the chromosomes are clear and abundant. They display granular state in the prophase and banded state in the metaphase. The G-bands described above are quite similar to those of mammalian chromosomes. The number of G-bands is dependent on the degree of chromosomal contraction. Another feature observed is that one dark band seen in the metaphase could De distinguished to 2.67 subbands in the late prophase. The band showing effects of the urea method have been compared with those of the trypsin method. The result indicates that the bands shown with these two methods are basically identical. But the effect of urea is much more mitigative than that of trypsin. The band showing time of urea is as long as several minutes. So it is easy to be controled and repeated. Therefore, the urea method has a higher applied value in the study of High-Resolution G-bands of plant chromosomes at present.
Abstract (Browse 2045)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Marker For Preselection of Apple Dwarf Type
Author: Zhang Wei-qiang and Tang Xiu-zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(4)
      
    Peroxidase isozyme zymograms of the cortex of the shoot of 1 or 2-year old seedling were obtained by starch gel electrophoresis. In different species, cultivars, and root stocks, the ninth enzyme band (A9 is positively correlated with spurtype and dwarfing propensity of rootstock. The A9 is not influenced by seedling age, calture condition, rootstock and interstock. Therefore, it Could be used as a marker for preselection of apple seedling for spurtype and dwarfing of rootstock. The accuracy of this method is about 86%.
Abstract (Browse 1785)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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