May 1987, Volume 29 Issue 5

 

          Research Articles
A Study on the Airborne and allergic Pollen in Shenyang
Author: Yu Qin and Zhang Jin-tan(Chang King-tang)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(5)
      
    A total of 1100 slides containing 45780 airborne pollen grains belonging to 24 families and 37 genera or species were made intermittently for 5 years from 1965 to 1985 Among them there are 9 dominant species with more than 1000 pollen grains in each species. There are 2 peaks of airborne pollens in the atmosphere of Shenyang, one is in Spring (April and May), the other is in Summer and Autumn (July and August). By means of intermittent collection and observation in the past 20 years, it is found that the airborne species and amount of pollen grains are variable, indistinctive, except that Ambrosia L. is significantly. Usually, they vary with the Changes of temperature, national policy for ornamental planting and social hobby. Pollen grains are closely related with allergic diseases. Fluid extracts of 17 species of pollens have been used for skin test and therapy. The fluid extract of Artemisia L. pollen gave the highest rate of positive reaction for skin test, that of the summer-autumn pollens rated the second and that of the spring pollens is the lowest one. Some good results have been obtained by using the fluid extracts of pollens for treatment of allergic diseases.
Abstract (Browse 1934)  |  Full Text PDF       
Correlation Analysis between Productivity of Chinese Pine Pinus tabulaeformis (Carr.) Plantations and Ecological Factors in Shaanxi Province
Author: Xiao Yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(5)
      
    This paper centers on the relationships between productivity of Chinese pine stands and ecological factors. The effects of geographictopographic factors, climatic factors, stand factors, soil factors, and combination of these factors are analysed. The whole 84 step-by-step and multiple regression equations are obtained. There are 6 best equations selected for future use. The standard regression coefficients of environmental factors in each equation are calculated. According to their effects on the production of tree components the important sequence is put in order. At last, the practical utilization of study on the relationships between productivity and ecological factors is explored.
Abstract (Browse 1791)  |  Full Text PDF       
New Resource Plants of Natural Camphor and Linalool
Author: Tao Guang-fu, Lu Ai-hua, Jiang Zu-de, Chen Heng-bin,Zhang Xiao-hong, Sun Han-dong, Ding Jing-Kai, Ding Li-Sheng, Wu Yu and Yi Yuan-fen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(5)
      
    In order to exploit and utilize the essential oils from the genus of Cinnarnomum in Hubei Province. The plants have been investigated and collected in 21 mountainous counties selected since 1982. 15 kinds of Cinnamomum oils have been qualitatively and quantitatively analysised by means of capillary GC/MS/DS. Two parts of this paper are divided: Part I reports the investigation on taxonomy, geogarphic distribution, ecological environment and chemical constituents of the essential oil of Cinnamomum bodinieri Levl. var. hupehanum G. F. Tao (comb. nov.). The essential oil with the yield of 1.7 ml/100g from fresh leaves of this plant was prepared by steam distillation. Of 36 compounds examined, 18 ones which made up 98.01% of the total oil, were identified. The major component is d-camphor (up to 88.46%). As the result obtained, C. bodinieri var. hupehanum is another important resource of natural camphor in China. Part Il also reports the studies on essential of both C. camphora (L.) Sieb. var. linaloolifera Fujita and C. parthenoxylon (Jack)Nees. The similar yield of both was 3.1 ml/100g more than 30 and 50 compounds examined separately, 11 ones of each species were identified. These compounds identified made up 94.18% and 89.96% of both the total oil respectively. The major component in both the oils is linalool (89.59% and 81.4t% respectively).
Abstract (Browse 1939)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on The Chemical Constituents from the Essential Oil of Cinnamomum tenuipilis Kosterm
Author: Yu Xue-jian and Cheng Bi-qiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(5)
      
    This paper reports chemical constituents of the essential oil from the leaves of Cinnamomum tenuipilis Kosterm. By applying PGC, GC/MS/DS, IR and other methods, 12 components have been identified. These components are: 3-hexen-l-ol, ocimene, L-linalool, geraniol, -copaene, -caryophyllene, t--farnesene, -humulene, -cadinene, (Z)--farnesene, diphenylamine, farneol etc. The total content of the above 12 compounds is 99.94 percent of the essential oil. L- linalool amounts to 97.51%.
Abstract (Browse 1874)  |  Full Text PDF       
Reduction of Cytokinin Binding-protein in a Nitrate Reductase Deficient Mutant Cell Line of Datura inoxia
Author: Zhang De-yi, Ye Xu-feng, Wang Li-rong, Yu Ling-feng and Lu Jia-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(5)
      
    Suspension culture cells initiated from haploid Datura inoxia seedlings were transferred on a paper and were treated with UV. The nitrate reductase (NR) deficient mutants were isolated by selection for chlorate resistance. The NR activity could not be recovered, even though the mutants were transferred into the medium without selective pressure for three years. Isoelectrofocusing gel showed that the gene of NR was not destroyed by the treatment of UV. The mutant cells were defective in the cytokinin binding protein. The cytokinin binding-protein was isolated from wheat seedlings with the aid of 6BA immobilized on the epoxy-sepharose colunm. An addition of binding-protein, together with 6BA, to the medium for synthesis of RNA in vitro brough about an activation of RNA-polymerase. In wild type cells the NR activity was accelerated by the addition of cytokinin to the culture medium. In contrast, cytokinin was of no effect on the synthesis of NR in mutant cells. It is, therefore, suggested that the effect of cytokinin on the RNA synthesis and NR formation was regulated by the content of cytokinin binding-protein in Datura inoxia mutant cells.
Abstract (Browse 1905)  |  Full Text PDF       
Low Temperature Injury and Peroxidation of Membrans Lipids in Rice Seedlings
Author: Zheng Shao-xi and Wang Yi-rou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(5)
      
    The changes of SOD activity, MDA content and tissue electrical resistance in rice seedlings were determined during the course of the treatment at low temperature (2). The decrease in SOD activity and the increase in MDA content were observed following the prolongation of the time at low temperature. There was a negative relation between SOD activity and MDA content. The tissue electrical resistance had a rise at first day, and then with a sharp fall, showing the occurrence of serious injury. As four kinds of free-radical acavengers were used to pretreat rice seedlings before cold treatment, the MDA content decreased unanimously, but increased with SOD inhibitor pretreatment to rice seedlings. According to these results, it is suggested that the free radicals did participate in the course of low temperature injury and showed that the peroxidation of membrane-lipids played an improtant part in low temperature injury.
Abstract (Browse 1809)  |  Full Text PDF       
Conversions of Imported 14C-Glucose and Sucrose Synthesis in Bai-lan Melon Fruits
Author: Liang Hou-guo and Lu Tai-he
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(5)
      
    The conversions of incorporated 14C-glucose in fruit flesh and in seeds were investigated at different stages of fruit development. In addition, the biochemical mechanism of sucrose synthesis in fruits of Bai-Lan melon were also studied. The results were summarized as follows: In fruit flesh and in seeds at young fruit stage, more than half of the incorporated 14C was found in the dilute acid hydrolyzable and non-hydrolyzable fractions, both of which represent the structural elements. While in the fruits approaching maturity (42 days old), a relatively small amount of 14C associated with the structural elements was found. The contributions of 14C of fractions hydrolyzed and non-hydrolyzed by dilute acid to the total radioactivity were reduced to 18% and 32%, respectively, in fruit flesh and in seeds. The results of identification of soluable sugar by using paper chromatography indicated that, the 14C was only associated with fructose after infiltrating the young fruit slices with 14C-glucose, but the 14C was predominately incorporated into sucrose at later stage of fruit development. The above results of 14C labeling experiments suggest that the pattern of metabolism is changed with fruit development. The greater part of metabolites is used in synthesis of structural elements which is necessary for growth and related processes at early stage of fruit developrnent. However, as the fruit reaches full size. the demand for carbon used in structural tissue is reduced. At this time, the direction of the enzymatic reactions changed in favor of sucrose synthesis. The activity of sucrose synthesis in young fruits was rather low when various substrates were supplied. It was possible that the enzymes related to sucrose synthesis were absent in young fruits of Bai-Lan melon. The activity of sucrose synthesis in fruits at later stage of development increased by about 5-fold of that at early stage. The higher activity of sucrose synthesis was observed when UDPG+F-6-P were supplied as substrates. It is shown that the sucrose in Bai- Lan melon fruits may be mainly synthesized by sucrose phosphate synthetase catalyzing the reaction between UDPG and F-6-P to yield sucrose-P. The biochemical mechanism of sucrose synthesis in Bai-Lan melon fruits is briefly discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1846)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Sesquiterpene Alkaloids of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.
Author: Deng Fu-xiao, Cao Jian-hong, Xia Zhi-liu, Lin Sui and Wang Xiao-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(5)
      
    This paper reports two sesquiterpene alkaloids isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. Their structures are assigned as and , respectively, by MS, UV, IR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR spectroscopic analysis. Alkaloid is a new alkaloid named wilfornine. These al- kaloids were shown to be immunosuppressives.
Abstract (Browse 1838)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Soluble Protein Components in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Shoots During Vernalization and its Relation to Morphogenesis
Author: Li Xiu-zhen, Hao Nai-bin and Tan Ke-hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(5)
      
    Winter wheat Nong Da 139 and spring wheat Zhong 8022 were used for this experiment. The effect of low temperature treatment at different periods on protein content and composition of the seedling shoots as well as subsequent development was studied. The main results are as follows: 1. More than 40 days of vernalizing treatment were required for a rapid and uniform earing by winter wheat Nong Da 139. After 14C21 days vernalization, the winter wheat is possible to ear in summer, but in an irregular manner. The results indicate that during the whole vernalization process, the effect of low temperature on earing development varies with the duration of treatment. At the earlier stage, it is likely that the Iow temperature induces a change in physiological process, and in the later stage, it only accelerates the development. It is there- fore, suggested that there are two distinct processes existing during vernalization. The transformation from the former to the latter state appears to occur at the middle period of vernalization process. 2. The protein metabolic inhibitors, such as ethionine and p-fluorophenylalanine, interfere with the vernalizing process of winter wheat also at its middle period. 3. With low temperature treatment for different periods, the soluble protein content and composition are found to be changed in winter wheat shoots. At the middle-stage of vernalization (after 14 days low temperature treatment), not only is the content of protein increased twice as compared with the control, but new proteins (on electrophorestic gel) are also produced. On the contrary, there was no difference in protein bands for spring wheat. Spring wheat not to be treated by low temperature, has already possessed the proteins that appeared in vernalized winter wheat shoots. These results demonstrated that the days of 14C21 are the critical time for the vernalization of the winter wheat. The new proteins synthesized at this stage might be the factor of the determination whether or not the plants will transform from vegetative stage into reproductive phase.
Abstract (Browse 1751)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytologic Observations on the Double Fertilization in Maize
Author: Shen Jia-keng, Li Hui-rong, Li Yu-fen, Yin Hua and Lian Yong-quan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(5)
      
    1.The double fertilization is the type of the premitotic syngamy. 2. In 21 to 24 hours after pollination, most of the female nuclei fuse with the male nuclei. When the female nucleus fuses with the male nucleus, there are two situations in the appearance of the male nucleolus: one is that while the chromatin of the sperm nucleus relaxes gradually, a male nucleolus appears; the other is that after the chromatin of the sperm nucleus relaxes gradually, the male nucleus just appears in about 2 to 4 hours. 3. Generally, the fusion of the female nucleolus with the male nucleolus takes place before the division of the nygote. The nygote enters the stage of division when it has a jarge nucieojus; the zygote, in which the female nucleoius does not fuse with the male nucleolus, also can enter the stage of division. In 30 to 33 hours after pollination, the first division of the zygote occurs. The resting period of the zygote is about 9 hours 4. In the primary endosperm nucleus, the female nucleolus does not fuse with the male nucleolus. 24 to 26 hours after pollination, the primary endosperm nucleus begins the first division. The resting period of the primary endosperm nucleus is 2 to 4 hours. 5. Under the condition of artificial pollination, the fertilization of the fruit ears of maize proceeds sequencely, i.e. from the upper of the fruit ears to the lower the fertilization is fulfilled gradually.
Abstract (Browse 2030)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Anatomy of Secondary Phloem and Periderm of Four Host Tree Species of Laccifer lacca
Author: Zhang Zhen-jue and Gao Xin-zeng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(5)
      
    The anatomy of secondary phloem and periderm of four host species of Laccifer lacca (Kerr) Targ., Dalbergia obtusifolia Prain, D. balansae Prain, Ca]anus cajan (L.) Mill sp. and Acacia glauca (L.) Moench is described. Their secondary phloem consists of sieve tube members, companion ceils, parenchyma cells and fibres. In addition Ca]anus cajan and Acacia glauca have some sclereids in the secondary phloem. In Acacia glauca the sieve tube members have oblique end walls with compound sieve plates and lack conspicuous P-protein. In the other species the sieve tubes have horizontal end walls with simple sieve plates, and contain P-protein. According to the analysis of survey result: 1. A thin phellem or only an epidermis of 2C3 years old branches can be considered as one of the insect's condition for selecting branches; 2. The sieve tubes seem to be relatively long-lived in the four species. This probably represents another condition for selection by the insects; 3. In three of the four hosts, the sieve tubes and companion ceils belong to a highly specialized type.
Abstract (Browse 2226)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Structural and Utrastructural Study of Nostoc commune
Author: Wang Xun-lng, Wang Jin and Liu Si-qing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(5)
      
    Nostoc commune which belongs to blue-green algae has been observed with microscope, scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The following special structures are found: 1. The structure in thallus is spongiform with an uneven surface. 2. The filaments made up of torulose cells are tortuous with different length, some are piled up, some are branchy, and the others arrange in a circle. 3. The cell wall of torulose cell is five-layered. The outermost layer is ripply and inlays with neighbour cells. 4. Torulose cells are typical prokaryote. The thylakoids disperse in the peripheral plasma. The nucleoplasm exists in the center of the cell. There are structured granules, polyhedral and polyphosphate bodies interspersing in cytoplasm. Ribosomes and phycobilins are found on the surface of thylakoid. 5. The heterocyst is surrounded by a thicking sheath. This is an additional envelope outside the cell wall and can be called cell envelope. In the cell envelope exist a transparent layer and a dense electron layer with hemispherical nodule in which there is an channel interlinking up with neighbour cell. 6. The reproductive manner of N. commune is of horizontal split, and the direction of split is different.
Abstract (Browse 2504)  |  Full Text PDF       
Induction of G-bands in Root Tip Chromosomes of the Maize
Author: Zhan Tie-sheng, Shi Li-ming and T. C. Hsu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(5)
      
    Authors tried to induce G-bands of chromosomes of root-tips in maize (Zey mays L.. everty Sturt) with a variety of technological modifications. The following techniques were found to be more satisfactory: primary root-tips were treated with an aqueous actinomycin D(AMD) solution (70 g/ml) at room temperature; air dry slides of chromosomes in maize made the chromosomes spread well and plasma off; and then the preparations of the chromosomes were treated with modified methods of Seabright[7] and Utakoji[8] and the technique of aceto-orcin stain. The G-bands of chromosomes of corn were induced with the three methods above. They were shown in Plate 1, 2, 3 and 4 which are similar to the G-bands of chromosomes in human and mammal, and these bands are more consistent in each chromosomes.
Abstract (Browse 1863)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Development of Green Onion (Allium Fistulosum L. )Embryo and Endosperm
Author: Xi Xiang-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(5)
      
    Embryo development of Zhangqiu green onion conforms to the Asterad type and goes through the following stages: proembryo, globular, ellipsoidal, laterally concave, stick-shaped, and curved and mature. The persistent synergid is present until the late globular stage of embryogenesis. Endosperm development of Zhangqiu green onion follows the nuclear pattern. Endosperm cell formation begins at both the micropylar end and the chalazai end of the embryo sac when the embryo is in the late globular stage. Due to the anticlinal wall formation, a layer of free nuclei becomes a layer of open cells which lack the inner periclinat wall. The open cells undergo cell division periclinally, and a layer of complete cells is cut off outside and a new layer of open cells inside. The subsequent cell divisions give rise to the endosperm cells centripetally until those from the opposite of the embryo sac meet. The first anticlinal walls arise from the cell plates without phragmoplasts between the free nuclei in interphase. The first periclinal walls are formed by normal cytokinesis. When a few layers of endosperm cells are formed at the micropylar end and the chalazal end of the embryo sac, free cells are present in the central vacuole.
Abstract (Browse 1974)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regeneration from Protoplasts of Corn(Zea mays L.)
Author: Cai Qi-gui (Tsai Chi-kuei), Kuo Chung-shen, Qian Ying-qian (Y. C. Chien), Jiong Rong-xi and Zhou Yun-luo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(5)
      
    Maize embryogenic calli induced from pollen were subcultured for one and one half years on N, basic medium supplemented with 2 mg/1 kinetin, 1 mg/l 6-benzyl-aminopurine, 0.3 mg/l 2,4-D, 500 mg/l casein hydrolysate and 250 mg/l glutamine. These embryogenic calli were used for protoplast isolation. Protoplasts were cultured on Z2 medium (Table 1) which is composed of rice protoplast culture basic medium 1 supplemented with 0.2 mg/l kinetin, 0.1 mg/l 6-benzyl-aminopurine, 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D, 200 mg/l casein hydrolysate, 100 mg/l glutamine and 2% coconut milk. The first division of regenerated cell occurred after 4-6 days in culture. After 3 weeks later, small calli could be seen with naked eyes. At this moment, addition of the same Z2 medium with decreased osmoticum twice for the protoplast culture is necessary. Regenerated calli, 2C4 mm in diameter, were transferred in succession on differentiation medium Z3 and Z4 for organogenesis. Embryogenesis and plant regeneration could occur simultaneously on Z4 differentiation medium. It seems that except the cultural conditions genotype and using of embryogenic materials are the two key factors for plant regeneration of maize protoplast and the former may be the critical one.
Abstract (Browse 2349)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Viola yedoensis Mak
Author: Xiao Yong-qing, Bi Jun-ying, Liu Xiao-hong and Tu You-you
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(5)
      
    The lipophilic and alcoholic fractions of V. yedoensis Mak., Six constituents were isolated and identified: palmitic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid, butanedioic acid, violyedoenamide (tetracosanoyl-p-hydroxyphenethylamine) and afzelin (kaempferol-3- O-rhamnopyranoside). They were all isolated for the first time from V. vedoensis Mak., vio- lyedoenamide is a new compound.
Abstract (Browse 1884)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Mei Pian Tree (Cinnamomum burmannii Physiological Type) as a New Resource of Natural d-Borneol
Author: Li Yu-jing, Zhu Liang-feng, Lu Bi-yao, Mei Lang-tian, Li Zhao-lun and Jla Liang-zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(5)
      
    The leaves of Mei Pian tree (Cinnamomum burmannii physiological type) liave an essence of borneol. The semi-solid sample extracted by steam distillation contains 70.81% d-borneol and other 34 different chemical constituents.
Abstract (Browse 2266)  |  Full Text PDF       
Investigation on the Ultrastructure of the Tapetum in Pinus bungeana
Author: Chen Zu-keng, Wang Fu-xiong Wang Fu-hsiung and Zhou Fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(5)
      
    The development of the tapetum in Pinus bungeana may be divided into five stages for the convenience of description. (1) Stage of the microspore mother cells: The organelles of the tapetal cell, consisting of amyloplasts, Golgi vesicles, lipid bodies, and endoplasmic reticulum are abundant and prominent. (2) Stage of the meiosis h During this period the amount of rough en- doplasmic reticulum (RER), ribosomes, and Golgi vesicles is prominently increasing, in the meanwhile the Golgi vesicles move up and contact with the plasmolemma and then pass over them. On the other hand, the outer tangential wall of the tapetal cell begins to be disintegrated. Then a number of sporopollenin bodies with various shape and size occur outside of the plas- molemma and move gradually into the locule of the microsporangium. In addition, there are a large number of starch grains aggregation in anelectron-dense matrix of the cytoplasm. (3) Stage of the meiosis : The cytoplasm of the tapetal cell has receded, and the plasmolemma has also withdrawn in some degree from the callose wall, even forming the cmbayment-like structure. The pro-Ubisch body can be found in the small embayments, and was usually accompanied with a number of Golgi vesicles, h is interesting to note that the lipid bodies are gradually dec- reasing during meiosis and . On the contrary the pro-Ubisch bodies and sporopollenin bodies are continual!y aggregated outside the plasmolemma. Moreover, the volume of starch grains within the amyloplast also increases. The above fact shows that the synthesis of carbohydrate is still proceeding. At the moment the amount of endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes has reached the peak. (4) Stage of microspore formation: The cytoplasm of the tapetal cells begins to break down and becomes vacuolated, At this stage, the various organelles are disintegrated to different degrees and the degenerative process of RER and mitochondria is rather slow. (5) Stage of bicellular pollen grain: The cytoplasm of tapetal cell breaks down almost entirely, but the RER and mitochondria can be still recognizable. And there is a prominent, acetolysis-resistant peritapetal membrane as well as certain sporopollenin bodies in the outer tangnential wall. During the process of meiosis of microspore mother cell, the function of the tapetal cell in Pinus bungeana may be summarized as follows: (a) The decrease of lipid bodies within cytop- lasm of the tapetal cell is accompanied by the increase of the pro-Ubisch bodies outside the plasmolemma. This phenomenon may be shown that the precursor of pro-Ubisch bodies is close related to the activity of lipid bodies. As has been reported by Carniel (1967), Rowley & Erdtmen (1967) and Echlin & Godwin (1968), the lipid droplets or grey spheroidal bodies are possibly the procursors of the pro-Ubisch bodies. (b) There are a large number of Golgi vesicles in the cytoplasm Of tapetal cell at this stage. It may be explained that the precursors of pro-Ubisch bodies or sporopollenin bodies resulted from the activity of lipid bodies subsequently are trans- ferred to outside the plasmolemma via the Golgi vesicles. Perhaps we could consider that these procursors of the osmiophilic materials are carried away in soluble state, then aggregated in the invaginations of the plasmolemma. (c) At the same time, the ribosomal population rises very sharply and the starch accumulation in the amyloplast reaches the peak of their activity. In view of the above situation, the synthesis of the protein and the deposition of carbohydrates are very active. Thus the amount of the pro-Ubisch and sporopollenin bodies are greatly increased during the dyad and tetrad stages in Pinus bungeana. This is the inevitable outcome of the activity of the tapetal ceils.
Abstract (Browse 2014)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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