June 1987, Volume 29 Issue 6


          Research Articles
Studies on Chemical Constituents of the Essential Oil of Artemisia mongolica Fisch
Author: Shi Zhi-xian, Zhang Jin-xia, Gu Wen-hua and Yuan Xi-zhao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(6)
Abstract (Browse 1801)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Studies on Water Relations and Xeromorphic Structures of Some Plant Species in the Middle Part of the Desert Zone in China
Author: Liu Jia-qiong, Pu Jin-chun and Lin Xin-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(6)
    The mean value of leaf water potential (LWP) of the mesophytes, the less-succulent xerophytes and the succulent xerephytes was 每13.5, 每18.09 and 每26.09 bars respectively. The bound water content (BWC), and the ratio of bound water content to free water content (B/E ratio) for the succulent xerophytes (174.0% and 4.8) were higher than those for the mesophytes (52.5% and 0.37) and the less-succulent xerophytes (76.8% and 1.0). The transpiration rate of the mesophytes, less-succulent xerophytes and succulent xerophytes was 1146.5, 866.3 and 422.8 mg/g. fw. h respectively. The water holding capacity (WHC) of the succulent xerophytes was the strongest among those of the three types, while that of the mesophytes was the weakest. The xerophytes, both the succulent and the less-succulent, have the following xeromorphic structures: thick cuticle, sundan stomata, dense epidermal hairs, well-developed palisade tissue and degenerated spongy tissue, the high ratio of palisade tissue to spongy tissue, and equilateral leaves. Besides, succulent xerophytes possess other xeromorphic structures: thick leaves, well-developed water storing tissue, high ratio of water tissue to leaf thickness, and the succulent leaves. The mesophytes exhibit the following mesophilous structures, thin cuticle, levelling or arching up stomata, low ratio of palisade tissue to spongy tissue, and back-belly leaves.
Abstract (Browse 2547)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characteristics of the Later Hoocene Epoch Sporo-pollen Assemblage and Their Significance in Dabusu Lake, Qianan County, Jilin Province
Author: Wang Shu-ying and Wang Yu-zhuo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(6)
    According to the sporo-pollen analysis of the ten localities in Dabusu lake, it could be divided into two sporo-pollen assemblage zones from bottom to top: the lower series (1每2 bed) of Equisetum, lsoites sporo-pollen zone and upper series (3每6 bed) of Ranunculaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Aritemisia sporo-pollen zone. This paper deals also with the course that in the middle later period of the later Holocene Epoch the obvious change of paleogeographic environment is no less than twice in the area surounding Dabusu lake. As for the vegetation, the wet grassy marshland of temperate zone in which the pteridophyta Predominated turned towards meadow -steppe in which herbs predominated. While the wet climate turned towards arid climate and the fresh water lake turned towards salt lake.
Abstract (Browse 1965)  |  Full Text PDF       
Miocene Flora from Markam County and Fossil Record of Betulaceae
Author: Tao Jun-rong and Du Nai-qiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(6)
    Collected from the Lawula Formation of Markam County, Xizang (Tibet), there are fossil plants, of fourteen species: a pteridophyte (Equiieturn sp.), a gymnosperm (Abies) and angi- osperms (Betula, Carpinus, Alnus, Corylus, Ulrnus, Sorbus, Cornus). The analysis of fossil pollens shows that Pinus, Abies, Quercus, Alnus, Juglans, Tilia, Lonicera, Chenopodium, Polygonurn, Arternisia, Polypodiaceae Loxogrammaceae, Dipteris, Selaginella, Microlepia, Leiotriletes also existed in the same stratum. The elements of the Lawula flora are mainly deciduous wood plants forming broad-leaved deciduous forests in warm-temperate regions or in subtropic mountainous regions at about 2100每2900 m above sea leavel, but the bearing bed is 3700 m. The fossils indicate that this region must have uplifted by about 1000 m since the Neogene. The uplift is less than that in Namling area of central Xizang. Judging from fossil records of the Late Cretaceous and the Tertiary, it may be speculated that the genus Betula appears relatively early in the geological time, and was prosperous in the Neogene. Based on the distribution of these plants and their ecological requirements, the region was then warm and near a lake. Betula mankongensis Tao sp. nov. Description: Leaves ovate-elliptic, about 4 cm long (preserved part) and 2.4 cm wide, acuminate at the apex, cuneate, slightly asymmetrical at the base, biserrate with teeth broad-cuneate. Petioles stout, 0.9 cm long. Venation pinnate, craspedodromous, midvein slightly curv- ed; secondary veins alternate, 9-paired, diverging from the midvein at an angle of about 45每50˚, bending near the end of teeth; tertiary veins at a right angle to the secondary ones, slightly flexed in the middle and anastomosing each other.
Abstract (Browse 2199)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Natural Flavoux Components of Psidium gunajava L. Fruit
Author: Zheng Yao-qing, Sun Yi-liang, Wu Zhu-ping and Lin Mi-xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(6)
    In the study Amberlite XAD-4 resin was employed as an adsorbent, which adsorbed the natural flavour sent forth from Psidium guajava L. fruit. The eluant of the adsorbate was concentrated by using a K-D concentrator. The concentrate was analyzed by dual capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and temperature programed retention index on dual columns. A total of 25 substances were identified, which amounted to 98% of the total area of .the peaks. Four acetals were reported for the first time as guava components, i.e., l,l-dietho- xymethane, l,l-diethoxyethane, 1,1-diethoxyhexane and acetaldehyde ethyl cis-3-hexenyl acetal. Evaluation at an odour port during GC showed that the sharp characteristic aroma sent forth from guava fruitis attributed to l,l-diethoxymethane and l,l-diethoxyethane principally. It was discussed that the method of combining the dual column GC-MS with the dual column retention index could increase the reliability of the identification results.
Abstract (Browse 2009)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Minor Chemical Components of the Absolute Oil from the Flower of Jasminum sambac L. Wu Cheng-(L.) Aiton
Author: Wu Cheng-shun, Zhao De-xiou, Sun Shou-wei, Ma Ya-ping, Wang Qin-quan and Lu Sheng-chun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(6)
    The concrete extracted from the flowers of Jasminum sambac is a precious perfume. The absolute has been analysed by CC-MS with two capillary columns of non-polar (OV-101) and polar (PEG-20 M) stationary phase respectively. The Kovats indices of the peaks on OV-101 were determined also. The results were highlighted on minor components and are shown in Tables 1 and 2. Several important components are: 2,6-dimethyl heptanal; methyl n-methyl anthranilate; bergmotene; torreyol; cis-3-hexenyl butyrate; cislinalool oxide; 2H-pyran-3-ol, 6-ethenyl tetrahydro-2,2,6-trimethyl and a few sesquiterpenes. Together with those previously determined, 50 components of the absolute have been identified, their contents have been determined also. These results offer quite detailed information to the compounding and technology in perfumery.
Abstract (Browse 2229)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on the Triglyceride Composition of Seed Oils from Several Species of Plants 0f Genus Camellia
Author: Liao Xue-kun, Chen Wen-xiang, Guo Hui-ran and Wang Hui-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(6)
    The triglyceride composition of seed oils of six species of the Camellia was separated and analysed by highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed the plants contain 11每12 kinds of triglyceride predominantly as OOO and POO, but the content of each kind of triglyceride for each species is different.
Abstract (Browse 2190)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Low Temperature on Photosynthesis in Flag Leaves of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Author: He Jie, Liu Hong-xian, Wang Yi-rou and Guo Jun-yan Kou Chun-yen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(6)
    After low temperature (16⊥) treatment, the net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content and FBPase activity tended to decrease and ratio of chlorophyll a/b, stomatal resistance, sucrose and starch content tended to increase in rice flag leaves at heading stage. However, the Pi content and water potential did not show pronounced change. The flag leaf chloroplasts contained large starch grains after three days at low temperature. The recovery of net photosynthetic rate in the flag leaves which had recieved stress at 16⊥ for three days and transferred to normal nature condition was gradually increased. It almost came up to the value of control after five days. However, the decrease in stomatal resistance was rapid. It was almost lowered to the value of control after one day. Under normal nature comdition for five days, the chlorophyll content and FBPase activity reached near to the value of control. Meanwhile, the ratio of chlorophyll a/b, the sucrose and starch content almost declined to the value of control. The large starch grain in flag leaf chloroplast also disappeared. According to the experimental results, we discussed the relationship between the above-mentioned various changes and net photosynthetic rate We suggested that the effect of low temperature on photosynthesis might be one of factors in yield-reduction of rice.
Abstract (Browse 2160)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship Between Ethylene Release, Membrane Permeability and Activity of Polyphenol Oxidase Changes of Duck (Pears Pyrus bretschnideri Rehder) During Low Temperature Storage
Author: Tian Mei-sheng, Sheng Chi-chao and Li Yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(6)
    Duck pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehder) tends to develop browning core after 55 to 60 days storage at low temperature (0⊥). Following physiological changes of the duck pear during storage at different temperature were investigated: (1) As compared with 20⊥, ethylene release is obviously decreased and its peak is retarded for 15 days at 0⊥. Levels of internal ethylene are variant at different individuals harvested at same time. Concentrations of internal ethylene are in accord with ethylene release. The higher internal ethylene is, the easier the pear core becomes brown. (2) At 0⊥, activity of polyphenol oxidase in the core increases with ethylene release enhancement. After ethylene peak passes, its activity is lower than before. (3) The electric conductivity of cores is higher at 0⊥ than at 20⊥. During post climacteric period, the electric conductivity increases irreversibly, then browning core occurs. From above results, it is concluded that interactions between two factors induce the browrang core of the duck pears at low temperature. One is chilling injury caused by low temperature, another is ethylene function. They stimulate the activity of polyphenol oxidase and enhance the membrane permeability.
Abstract (Browse 2170)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Cytokinin on the Enhancement of Nitrate Reductase NR Activity in Tobacco Callus Tissues and Wheat Seedlings
Author: Zhang De-yi, Tang Yu-wei, Chen Wei, Yu Ling-feng and Wang yu-qin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(6)
    The effect of cytokinin on the formation of NR activity were studied with tobacco callus tissues and wheat seedlings. Cytokinin could not induce the NR activity alone but could enhance the NR inducibility (Table 1). The enhancement of NR formation was detected in the tissues pretreated with cytokinin for over 12 hours. It showed that there was a precondition in the tissues for the induction of NR (Fig. 3). The precondition could not be improved by cytokinin when cycloheximide (inhibitor of protein synthesis) was added into the medium during cytokinin pretreatment (Table 2). Thus, it was thought that cytokinin might enhance synthesis of a protein which participated in the NR activity induction. In immunological test (Fig. 5) the existence of a nonactive apoenzyme of NR in higher plant tissues was demonstrated. It is, therefore, suggested that there are two major steps in the NR activity formation: (l) the synthesis of a nonactive NR apoenzyme, (2) the activation of this nonactive apoenzyme. The former step might be stimulated by cytokinin and the latter was mediated by nitrate.
Abstract (Browse 2024)  |  Full Text PDF       
Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration of Leaf Explants in Orychophragmus violaccus(L.) O. E.Schulz
Author: Zou Ji-tao and Qian Ying-qian (Y . C. Chien)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(6)
    Explants of Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O. E. Schulz were acquired from young leaves which lower epidermis was stripped, Differentiation of calli in high frequency is in the case of that calli grown on B5 culture medium supplemented with 1 mg/l 2, 4-D should be transferred onto MS culture medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/l NAA. Effect of basic culture medium on the differentiation was discussed. In addition, protoplasts derived from calli of Orychophragmus violaceus were cultured, and small calli consisted of more than hundred cells had been obtained.
Abstract (Browse 2030)  |  Full Text PDF       
Localization of ATPese and Dynamic Change in its Activity within Root Nodules of Legumes
Author: Jing Yu-xiang, Zhang Bao-tian and How Shu-qing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(6)
    The study on localization of ATP-ase in root nodules of Astragalus sinicus and Sesbania cannabina shows that the particles of lead phosphate precipitates resulting from the reaction of ATP hydrolytic enzyme are distributed in cell wall, plasmolemma, cytoplasm and peribacteroid membranes etc. of the host cells. This ATP-ase plays an important role in the transportation and absorption of substances. Owing to the need of photosynthates provided for the nitrogen fixation of root nodules, the active reaction of ATP-ase in bacteroids varies with their developments. The numbers of bacteroids having ATP hydrolytic enzyme in young root nodules are significantly less than those in senescent nodules. Possibly, this active reaction is related with the physiological function of nitrogen fixation of bacteroids at different development stages.
Abstract (Browse 1874)  |  Full Text PDF       
Scanning Electron Microscopic Observation of Symbiotic Relationship of Azolla-Anabaena AzoUae During the Vegetative Growth
Author: Zheng Wei-wen, Lin Yi-han, Lu Pei-ji, Liu Chung-chu and Huang Jin-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(6)
    The occurrence and development of the hair ceils on the shoot tips and in the leaf cavities of A. filiculoides, A. microphylla, A. pinnata and their algae-free cultures were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy with microdissect technique. The patterns of Anabacna moving into the leave cavities from the shoot tips were investigated on three species of Azolla during their vegetative growth. The results showed that the patterns of symbiotic Anabaena infecting the leaf cavities are similarity among three species of Azolla and may be divided to the four phases which are summarized as follows: 1. occurrence of primary branched hair and adhesion of Anabaena; 2. development of primary branched hair and spreding of Anabaena; 3. building of hair bridge and entrance of Anabaena into the cavities; 4. formation of secondary simple hair and transference of Anabaena within the cavity. These observations resulted in a hypothesis that hair induces and leads its partner. It is suggested that the hair cell is likely to be a structure of Azolla for attracting and recognizing its symbiont in addition to transport substance between fern and algae.
Abstract (Browse 2059)  |  Full Text PDF       
Regulation of In Vitro Parthenogenesis and Somatic Proliferation in Sunflower by Several Factors
Author: Yan Hua, Dong Jian, Zhou Chang and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(6)
    Culture of unfertilized ovules in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) could be induced to form parthenogenetic embryoids, endothelial embryoids and integumentary calli. Various factors exerted regulatory influences on the production of these structures. The key factors were exogenous hormone, sucrose concentration and cold-pretreatment. In hormone-free condition, parthenogenesis was promoted without any occurence of somatic embryoids or calli. Addition of exogenous hormone MCPA induced proliferation of sporophytic tissue and meanwhile, reduced the induction frequency of parthenogenesis. Relatively high sucrose level favored the Froduction of parthenogenetic embryoids. Reducing sucrose concentration favored the integumentary calli. The optimal sucrose concentration for endothelial embryoids was intermediate between them. Cold-pretreatment also played an effective role in promoting parthenogenesis and inhibiting integumentary calli. By combining these three factors, we were able to. work out a culture technique which significantly enhanced the inductionfrequency and growth. of parthenogenetic embryoids and completely eliminated somatic embryoids and calli.
Abstract (Browse 2048)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Ontogeny of the Pollinium of Goodyera Procera
Author: Xu Shi-xiong (S. Y. Zee), Xiao Yao-ban(I. H. Siu) and Yang Zhi-de( E. C.Yeung)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(6)
    Using light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, the development of the pollinium of Goodyera procera (Ker-Gawler) Hooker. was investigated. At the early stage, sporogenous cells inside the microsporangium were seen grouping together into small aggregates each containing few cells. After the aggregates have formed the sporogenous cells inside the aggregates (which could now be called massulae) divide to form numerous pollen mother cells. Later, the pollen mother cells undergo meiosis to form tetrads. The pattern of formation of the exine of tetrads varies according to the location of the tetrads inside the micro- sporangium. Those tetrads that are situated near the outer region of the massulae can form: exine with well developed tectum, bacula and foot layer; and the sequence of events leading to the formation of this type of well developed exine is as follows the original wall and the cyto- plasmic channels associated with the wall become surrounded by a thick layer of callose thus isolating the wall from the plasmalemma. Near the plasmalemma a layer of primexine containing callose and cellulose begins to form. Later, the primexine develops into exine and between the exine and plasmalemma a layer of intine is laid down. Similar type of exine with well developed tectum, bacula and foot layer, is also present in tetrads facing the tapetum. But in this case the original wall of the tedtrad is not retained but undergoes dissolution and in its place a new exine formed. The pattern of formation of exine in the region between tetrads is even more different. Here the original wall also undergoes dissolution but instead of forming a proper exine it only forms a thin foot layer with bulges at places. The pattern of formation of the exine in the cells inside the tetrad is even more different. Here the original wall of the cells only undergoes partial dissolution. The loose fibrils of the partially dissolved wall then become mixed with the callose layer surrounding the cell. Inside this wall-fibril/callose mixture thin sheets of exine appear, but these thin sheets of exine do not develop further into tectum or bacula. In Goodyera a quite substantial amount of callose is retained in the regions between massulae and tetrads, and we believe that it is this callose which is holding the massulae and tetrads together to form pollinium.
Abstract (Browse 2360)  |  Full Text PDF       
Selection of Lysine Plus Threonine-Resistant Mutant of Maize
Author: Miao Shu-hua, D. R. Duncan, and J. M. Widholm
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1987 29(6)
    Resistance to certain amino acids or amino acid analogs can lead to overproduce specific 'free amino acids. By selection-Mutagenic treatment-Selection, lysine plus threonine-resistant mutant (RLT) was obtained from tissue culture of maize, W77-R3019V The resistance of RLT was 20 times higher than that of wild type. The levels of all free aspartate family amino acids in RLT were higher than those in wild type. Especially, threonine was 20 times higher. The resistance was inheritable and segregation in progenies, RLT1 and F1, was approximate to 3:1 and 1:1 resistant/sensitive ratio, respectively. The resistance was inherited as a single dominant or semidominant nuclear gene. In RLT2 embryo cultures, the resistance and free threonine levels in resistant callus were 20 and 23 times higher than those in sensitive one, respectively. In the homozygous seeds of RLT2, the levels of free threonine, arginine, lysine, methionine and isoleucine were 11, 8, 5, 5 and 3 times higher than those of wild type.
Abstract (Browse 1889)  |  Full Text PDF       
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