January 1988, Volume 30 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
Effects of Decreasing Leaf Water Potential on Photosynthesis of Litchi chinensis
Author: Sun Gu-Chou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(1)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1941)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Study on Microbody ot Cells in Leaves mad Root-Tips of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni
Author: Chen Mu-chuan, Hong Wei-lian and Wan De-yao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(1)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 2031)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Studies on Relationships Between Proline Accumulation and Photosynthesis, Respiration and Chlorophyll Content of Some Plant Species in the Middle Part of the Desert Zone in China
Author: Lin Jia-qiong, Li Zhi-jian, Pu Jia-chun, Liu Xin-min and Zheng Si-di
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(1)
      
    The proline content of mesophytes, less-succulent xerophytes and succulent xerophytes were 0.42, 1.73 and 7.22 mgㄞg﹞dw﹞h respectively. The latter is 17 and 4 times both of the formers. The proline content of xerophytes-both succulent and less-succulent, under non-irrigation condition was higher than that under irrigation condition. The photosynthetic rates of less-succulent and succulent xerophytes were 16.74 and 14.04 CO2 mgㄞg﹞dw﹞h respectively, without clear difference between them. The photosynthetic rate of mesophyte (37.57 CO2 mgㄞg﹞dw﹞h) was more than 2 times that of two types of xerophytes. The respiratory rate of less-succulent xerophytes, succulent xerophytes and mesophytes were 6.27, 4.73 and 7.60 CO2 mgㄞg﹞dw﹞h respectively. The ratios of photosynthetic rate to respiratory rate in less-succulent xerophytes, succulent xerophytes and mesophytes were 2.50, 3.09 and 4.59 CO2 mgㄞg﹞dw﹞h respectively. This fact indicated that the carbon assimilatory process of mesophyte was evidently higher than the respiratory process for all the two types of plants. There was no obvious difference between the total contents of chlorophyll in the three types of plants.
Abstract (Browse 2300)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pollen AnalysiS and Paleoenvironment Study of Late Pleistocene in Daganba, Guizhou Province
Author: Han Hui-you and Yu Jin-biao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(1)
      
    In this paper, the division of the two pollen zones is discussed based on the results of pollen and spores analysis and 14C dating in the Daganba area, Zhijin County, central Guizhou Province. Zone i represents a forest of mixed evergreen-deciduous broad-leaved trees closed subtropic mountain and dominated by Fagus, Quercus, Cyclobalanopsis, Carpinus and Castanea (Castanopsis, Lithocarpus) together with Pinus, Tsuga and Abies till 23000 yr B.P. It stands for the Dali interstadial climate, cool and moist. Zone j vegetation adopted dry climate. During the time from 23000 yr B. P. to the fullglacial period the forest cowered and the fern extended. The pioneer trees such as Pinus, Betula began to grow towards the end of the dry phase. The genus Fagus is of great importance in studing ecology and geography of the flora. The retirement and growth of Fagus forest reveals the paleoenvironment changes.
Abstract (Browse 1944)  |  Full Text PDF       
Sesquiterpene Lactones from Carpesium abrotanoides
Author: Dong Yun-fa and Ding Yun mei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(1)
      
    Carabrone, telekin, ll(13)-dihydrotelekin and isoivaxillin have been isolated from the whole herb of Carpesium abrotanoides. The structure of ll(13)-dihydrotelekin and isoivaxillin were elucidated and established by spectroscopic means. They are two new natural products.
Abstract (Browse 1933)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of the Spores from Ganoderma lucidum Leyss et Fr, Karst
Author: Hou Cui-ying, Sun Yi-ting, Yang Lin and Xue Hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(1)
      
    Two and ten compounds were isplated from the water portion and the ethereal soluble lipophilic fraction of Ganoderma lucidum respectively. On the basis of their chemical properties and co-TLC and IR spectral analysis, the two compounds from the water portion were identified as choline (i) and betains (j), ten compounds from thereal soluble fraction as tetra- cosanoic acid, stearic acid, palmitic acid, ergosta-7, 22-diene-3汕-ol, nonadecanoic acid, benenic acid, tetracosane, hentriacontane, ergosterol and 汕-sitosterol. In addition, there are two compounds not be purified as contaminated by a small amount of ergosta-7, 22-diene-3汕-ol.
Abstract (Browse 1940)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Isolation and Identification of Jatrorrhizine from Cell Cultures of Berberis julianae Schneid
Author: Hou Song-sheng, Li Xin-min, Wu Yu-lan, Shong Ting-lan, Chen Lu and Li Hong-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(1)
      
    Berberis julianae contains berberine, jatrorrhizine and others, which are useful antibacterial drug in China. However, the growth of B. julianae is too slow, Authors tried to produce berberine from cell cultures of B. julianae, but obtained jatrorrhizine instead. The amount of jatrorrhizine in the cell cultures is much more than that in original plant. Callus derives from the leaf of B. julianae was grown at 25㊣2 ⊥ on B5 medium containing 2,4-D(1 mg/L), KT (0.1 mg/L), agar (0.8%), sucrose (2%) and st,bcultured at intervals of 4每6 weeks. And then callus was transferred into liquid medium and agitated by gyrotory shaker at the speed of 120 rpm. After culturing in the liquid medium for 20 days cells were collected through filtering. Fresh cells were extracted with dilutive H2SO4 solution. H2SO4 extracts were acidified with HCI. After adding NaC1 to the HC1 extracts the orange crystals were obtained and recrystallized from ethanol. The orange crystal was identified with jatrorrhizine by HPLC, UV, IR, MS and NMR.
Abstract (Browse 1954)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Main Chemical Components of the Absolute oil from Syringa reticulata (BL.) Hara var. mandshurica (Maxim.) Hara
Author: Zao De-xiu, Wang Hua-ting, Wu Cheng-shun, Sun Shou-wei, Ma Ya-ping, Wa Guang-lu and Jin Xian-nu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(1)
Abstract (Browse 1863)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Rharmnus longipes Merr et Chun
Author: Su Jing-chi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(1)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 2015)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Amino Acid Protein and Fatty Acid Composition of Suaed heteroptera
Author: Liang Yin-chu, Huang Ju-fu and Luo Ai-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(1)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1979)  |  Full Text PDF       
Photosynthetic Functions of Rice Improved by 2,3-eroxypropionate
Author: Zhang Qi-de, Zhang Shi-ping and Zhang Qi-feng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(1)
      
    The photosynthetic functions of rice were obviously improved by pretreatment with 150 ppm 2,3-epoxypropionate. The activity of Photosystem j (PSj) and the efficiency of primary conversion of light energy of PSj detected either with intact leaves or chloroplasts were enhanced by pretreatment of 2,3-cpoxypropionate. Electron transport rate of PSj, Photosystem i (PSi) and the whole chain in chloroplasts were higher than those in untreated ones. It was also confirmed that the capacity of excitation energy distribution between PSj and PSI which was regulated by Mg2+ or phosphorylation of chloroplast membrane proteins in pretreated rice was larger than that in the control. From these results it can be predicted that 2,3-epoxypropionate will have some prospect for practical application to rice production.
Abstract (Browse 1814)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Circular Dichroism (CD) and Electron Paramaguetic Resonance(EPR) Spe-ctroscopy of the Partially Oxidized FeMo Protein from Azotobacter vinelandii Nitrogenase
Author: Huang Ju-fu, M. C. Mckenna and P. J. Stephens
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(1)
      
    After nitrogenase FeMo protein from A. vinelandii was incubated with a large excess (5每6 equivalents) of indigo carmine for 30每60 min., all of P-clusters in the partially oxidized FeMo protein were oxidized, but all of FeMoCo in the protein were still in the reductive state. The oxidized P-clusters in the protein were able to be completely reduced by Na2S2O4(DT) and the reduction was accelerated by methyl viologen (MV). And all of FeMoCo in the protein were firstly oxidized by some oxidants such as methylene blue. The numbers of the redox equivalent of P-cluster and FeMoCo have been obtained by the CD reductive titration of and EPR/ ABS time course on the oxidation of the partially oxidizeA FeMo protein, respectivelly.
Abstract (Browse 1924)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Changes of Pigments, Phenolics Contents and Activities of Polyphenol Oxidase and Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase in Pericarp of Postharvest Litchi Fruit
Author: Lin Zhi-fang, Li Shuang-shun, Chang Dong-lin, Lin Gui-zhu, Li Yue-biao, Liu Shu-xian and Chen Mian-da
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(1)
      
    A common litchi cultivar ※Huaizhi§ was used for the experiment to understand the changes of pigment, phenolics content and activities of two enzymes involing in phenolics metabolism in pericarp during storage at room temperature and relative humidity of 73每79%. The maturation of "Huaizhi" fruit was 80% when harvested. The contents of carotenoid, anthocynin and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase were increased, and the content of total phenolics was kept at its initial level in the first 2 days of storage. It indicated that the active synthesis of pigments and phenolics still continued with the progressive ripening. A decline of above parameters and content of flavonoid ware observed during the senescence of fruit. The relative contents of anthocynin, flavonoid, phenolics and activity of phenylalanine ammonialyase were 90%, 59%,71% and 46% in the day of 7 compared with that when harvested, respectively. Less change of anthocynin content was found in browning pericarp. The relation between phenolics, anthocynin and activities of two enzymes during repining and senescence of litchi fruit was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2379)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Anatomical Studies on the Vessel Elements of Eight Genera in Magnoliaceae
Author: Wu Shu-ming and Li Zheng-li(Lee Chenglee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(1)
      
    This paper deals mainly with comparative studies on vessel elements of secondary xylem in Chinese Manglietia, Manglietiastrum, Alcimandra, Parakmeria, Paramichelia, Tsoongiodendron, Aromadendron and Liriodendron. There are some differences between the genera in vessel element length and width. Manglietia species all have scalariform perforation plates, only a few also have simple perforations. The other genera have scalariform perforation plates. only one (Tsoongiodendron odorum Chun) has simple perforations in addition. There are no spiral thickenings in Manglietia except for one species [Manglietia chingii Dandy (M. temuipes Dandy)] . Paramichelia and Liriodendron have no spiral thichenings, but they are present in the other genera. In addition, some other differences in vessel elements between these 8 genera are also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1953)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Infectivity of the Nodule Endophyte of Some Non-Leguminous N2-Fixing Plants
Author: Du Da-zhi, Wang Yi-yan, Wang Chong-lin, Yuan Fu-hu, Li Rong-re Chi Guo-liang, Go De-feng, He Gui-xi and Zhao Fa-you
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(1)
      
    Cross inoculations were made with Frankia spp. from the nodules of non-leguminous plants belonging to different families, genera and species. The results showed that there are no apparent host specificity in these strains. Under general cases, many strains can nodulate plants in different families, genera and species, but there also are some special results. Both infective ability of the same strains on diffierent host and the different strains on the same host are different. Different isolates from the same host plant were found in certain cases to have various degrees of infectivity. If the original host plant was replaced by others, both these Frankia infective ability and nitrogenase activity in new symbiotic system were lower. The strains that are higher N2-fixing activity in the nodules of the original host also possess stronger N2-fixing activity in the nodules of other hosts. Under test condition, there are positive correlation between the number of the nodules of host plants and N2-fixing activity of the root nodules. The morphology of the spores of the strains in the nodules of new host plant also change more or less.
Abstract (Browse 2095)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Plant Regeneration from Mesophyll Protoplasts of Solanum tuberosum L.
Author: Li Geng-guang and Zhang Lan-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(1)
      
    Protoplasts from potato mesophyll of two strains (Solannum tuberosum L. cv. Xiao Yie Zi x Duo Zi Bia and Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Wu Meng 601) were induced to callus in culture medium of protoplasts. The callus derived from mesophyll protoplasts were transferred to MS medium with 2 mg/l ZT+0.1 mg/L IAA. Shoots regenerated from the callus were detected after 70 days of culture.The shoots which had grown to a height of 2每3 cm were transferred to MS medium with 0.05 mg/L NAA. Roots were coming out in a few days.Complete plantlets were achieved. Stern segments with 1每2 leaves were then transferred to a mixture of sterilized soil and grown, and produced tuber.
Abstract (Browse 1909)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Studies on the Pollen-stigma Interaction of Intersectional Hybridization in Populus
Author: Zhu Tong and Li Wen-dian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(1)
      
    The ultrastructural changes of pollen-stigma interaction were studied under artificial pollination in intersectional crosses of Populus lasiocarpa Oliv. ℅ P. nigra L., P. lasiocarpa Oliv. ℅ P. simonii Cart., P. lasiocarpa Oliv. ℅ P. adenopoda Maxim. and P. lasiocarpa Oliv. X P. lasiocarpa Oliv. The results are as follows. Before pollination, the stigmatic cells of P. lasiocarpa containing large amounts of endo- plasmic reticulum, abund ant dictyosomes and well-developed mitochondria appear physiologi- cally active. Its outer wails are covered by a layer of cuticle with numerous branching channels toward the outer space. When the pollens of P. lasiocarpa and P. nigra are dusted, respectively, to the stigma of P. lasiocarpa, the degeneration of the stigmatic cells are rather slow. The cuticle of the stigma surface just adjacent to the alighting pollen is dissolved, but the cell contents still have large amounts of endoplasmic reticulum and the structure of the membrane system remains distinctly. When the pollens of P. simonii and P. adenopoda are forced, respectively, upon the stigma of P. lasiocarpa, the stigmatic cells degenerate rapidly. In addition to the disruption of the cuticle, heavy callose is deposited on the walls of the stigma cells adjoining the dropping pollens. Numerous vesicles are formed by the rough endoplasmic reticulum, and the electron density is increasing. The structure of the membrane system disappears gradually and becomes indistinct. Osmiophilic globuli occurs in the central vacuole. Plastids accumulate starch grains. The behavior of pollen tubes of P. nigra is similar to that of P. lasiocarpa. The pollen grains germinate rapidly and the pollen tubes penetrate into the stigma after the short-tube patten. Abnormal behavior is rare. A lot of minute exudates appear on the pollen walls. As for P. lasiocarpa ℅ P. simonii and P. lasiocarpa ℅ P. adenopoda, only half of the tubes can penetrate into the stigma after short-tube patten and is associated with callose deposition on the walls. The other half arresting on the stigma surface shortly after germination shows abnormal behavior; such as swelling, creeping, bursting, twisting and distortion with callose deposition on the tip of the pollen tubes. As a result of our experiments, It is concluded that the degeneration speed of the stigmatic cells may be a sign of incompatibility and the crossability in progamic phase may arrange as follows: P. lasiocarpa ℅ P. nigra, P. lasiocarpa ℅ P. simonii, P. lasiocarpa ℅ P. adenopoda. The first one is compatible while the second and the third are incompatible.
Abstract (Browse 2015)  |  Full Text PDF       
Development and Histochemical Observations of Tapetum and Peritapetal Membrane in Anther of Pulsatilla chinensis
Author: Mu Xi-jin, Wang Fu-hsiung and Wang Wen-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(1)
      
    Tapetum of Pulsatilla chinensis is of secretory type. Its development proceeds rapidly in following sequence: (1) The stage of initiation-differentiation. At this stage cytological and histochemical features have been described in detail in this paper. (2) The stage of growth- synthesis: This stage appears to be the most important anabolic phase during the development of the tapetum. The salient features are that the tapetal cells become relatively enlarged and form two polyploid nuclei or aberrent polyploid nuclei resulting in synthetizing maximum proteins, fluorescing substances and maximum fluorescent Pro-Ubisch bodies in the tapetal cytoplasm. (3) The stage of secretion-disorganization: After the disintegration of the tapetal wall the enlarged naked cells appear at once. This is an important secretion period in which Pro-Ubisch bodies as well as all other fluorescing substances, carbohydrate or some enzymes are released into anther loculus. The naked cell layer becomes disorgnized until the beginning divition of the pollen grains into two ceils. As to peritapetal membrane of P. chinensis, mainly based on the membrane being on the outer side of the tapetum enclosing both the pollen, tapetal cytoplasm and Ubisch bodies, and the cellular configurations facing the pollen, Authors postulate that peritapetal membrane might be survival of the cytoplasmic membrane of tapetal cells. However, the peritapetal membrane of P. chinensis is similar to that of plasmodial, tapetum reported in certain Compositae and that of secretory tapetum reported in Pinus banksiana. Heslop-Harrison and Gupta et al. had conceded that the tapetal and peritapetal membrane belong to the general class of sporopollenin. On the contrary in P. chinensis the sporopollenin property of peritapetal membrane is only confined to its inner surface. But the thin mem- brane itself with the reticulate sporopollenin attched on its inner side appears negative staining reactions for sporopollenin though it has an ability to resist the acetolysis as well. In P. chinensis the Ubisch body is short necked flask shaped and their size is very similar. Ubisch body is either single or 2每5 in a group, resulting in compound bodies. When the Pro-Ubisch body is still within the tapetal cell it shows positive fluorescent reaction, while it eomletely unstains with Teluidine blue O. So Authors infer that the sporopollenin precur- sors may have permeated through Pro-Ubisch bodies. Finally, How sporopollenin precursor is synthesized in the tapetal cells, transported to pollen locula and polymerized into the sporopollenin on pollen, Ubisch body and peritapetal membrane? Future works along these problems may yield fruitful results.
Abstract (Browse 1988)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Ultrastructural Aspect of Tapetum and Ubisch Bodies in Anemarrhena asphodeloides
Author: Chen Zu-keng, Wang Fu-hsiung and Zhou Fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(1)
      
    From ontogeny of tapetum in Anemarrhena asphodeloides, the ultrastructnral features of tapetal cells are as follows: 1. The profuse rough endoplasmic reticula are often closely associated with lipid bodies and vesicles, and linking each other into compound organelles. This is one of the striking features in Anemarrhena tapetal cell. 2. After meiosis of the micro- spore mother cell, the tapetal cytoplasm contains a large number of vesicles, in which the electron opaque substances are accumulated. Then they fuse to form a large zone of storage material similar to lipid bodies. Before accumulation of opaque material, these vesicles in the tapetal cytoplasm are larger than those in elaioplast (see Plate II, Fig. 2). 3. During stage of pollen maturation the tapetal cytoplasm becomes disorganized and the cells are almost occupied by the elaioplasts at various degree of development. On the basis of the report of Dickinson (1973), the formation of a pollen coatings of Lilium is different from that of Raphanus. The osmiophilic bodies in the former have originated from membrane lamellae or membranous system of plastid, and those in the latter are formed from the plastid vescles. It is intereting to note that the mode of origin of the plastid osmiophilic bodies in Anemarrhena is rather similar to that of Raphanus than to Lilium. About the origin of the pro-Ubisch bodies in tapetal cytoplasm of Anemarrhena studies revealed that a large number of the medium electron dense bodies appear in the tapetal cytoplasm. This is the first sign of the formation of the pro-Ubisch bodies and its character is very similar to spherosome in many respects. From many ultrasections, it can be seen that the ER profile is closely associated with the pro-Ubisch bodies. Thus we can conclude that the proubisch bodies of Anemarrhena are derived from rough endoplasmic reticulum. Although Heslop-Harrison et al. (1969) has considered that the compound Ubisch bodies do not occur in Lilium, there are prominent aggregation of Ubisch bodies in Anemarrhena, same as reported in Oxalis (Cariel, 1967), Silene (Heslop-Harrison, 1963a) and Helleborus (Echlin et al., 1968). After investigation on certain angiosperm in 1972, Gupta and Nanda have reported that the peritapetal membrane belonging to tapetum of secretory type lies against the inner tang- ential wall; in the plasmodial type of tapetum, it is formed on the outer tangential wall. But in some species of Poaceae and Solanaceae, the peritapetal membrane is formed on both sides of the tapetal cells (Banerjee, 1967; Reznickov & Willemse, 1980). In the secretory tapetum of Anemarrhena, the peritapetal membrane, which do not comply with the conclusion of Gupta & Nanta (1972), is formed on outer tangential wall.
Abstract (Browse 2328)  |  Full Text PDF       
Projects of Plant Science Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China in 1987
Author: Qi Shu-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(1)
Abstract (Browse 1840)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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