March 1988, Volume 30 Issue 3


          Research Articles
Corm Formation of Saffron Crocus In Vitro
Author: Gui Yao-lin, Xu Ting-yu, Gu Shu-tong, Liu Shu-qiong, Sun Guo-dong and Zhang Qi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(3)
Abstract (Browse 1982)  |  Full Text PDF       
On Occurring of Sporangia of Protolepidodendron Krejci and Its Significance
Author: Feng Shao-nan and Ma Jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(3)
    This paper deals with the characteristics and occurring state of the sporangia of Protolepidodendron and its significance. The authors discovered that the sporangia with a short sporangiophore spread out from the axis of the fertile branch. There is a distance from the base of sporophyllary leaves to the setting point of the sporangiophore. Some sporangia divideinto suspended and symmetrical sporangia at the tip of the sporangiophore. But the most of sporangia do not divide. According to the characteristics of the sporangia of Protolepidodendron Krejci, which can be distinguished from genera Barrandeina (Krejci) Stur and Longos-tachys Zhu, Hu et Feng. Protolepidodendron lixianense sp. nov. is also described in this paper.
Abstract (Browse 1936)  |  Full Text PDF       
On Analysis of Quant itative Geology for Quaternary Sporopollen in the Northern China Plain
Author: Tong Guo-bang, Yu Shu-feng, Zhang Jun-pai, Han Shu-hua and Li Yin-luo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(3)
    The paper recommends the application of the hierarchical cluster, order cluster analysis and order correspondence analysis in dividing quaternary sporo-pollen zones, and the use of continuity coefficient (K) in defining classification number of the order cluster, the use of the ratio of factor load (D) in extending the result of the correspondence analysis to the classification of order samples. The application of above mentioned coefficients can help to assess better rationality in dividing sporopollen zones and provide evidence for the determination of the quaternary lower boundary, the evolution features of the paleovegetation and the paleoclimate. The sporo-pollen data of 36.2 samples in seven boreholes from the Northern China Plain (between 113每118˚E and 35每40˚N) were computed in this paper, and as a result, five sporopollen zones and six sporo-pollen subzones were defined. These zones and subzones, establishedon the basis of quantitative analysis, are closely related to the paleomagnetic polar and showno difference from the strata division by geological comprehensive interpretation, the ratio ofmisinterpretation is generally less than 5%. The age for each sporo-polten zones is as follows: sporo-pollen zone 1 ought to be Holocene Epoch, which is less than 1每1.2℅ 10⁴ years B. P. (Determined by the 14C method); Zonej ought to be Late Pleistocene, its boundary is located near Blake event in the paleomagneticpolar column; Zone Ill, Middle Pleistocene, B/M, about 73℅ 10⁴ years B. P.; Zone IV, EarlyPleistocene, M/G, about 248℅10⁴ years B. P.; and Zone V, Pliocene, which is located under Gauss epoch in the paleomagnetic Polar column.
Abstract (Browse 2048)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on some Symptoms of the Declining and Mortal Pinus massoniana Lamb. Forest on Nanshan Mountain in Chongqing
Author: Liu Hou-tain, Zhang Wei-ping, Shen Ying-wa, Du Xiao-ming, Zou Xiao-yan, Liu Ruo-an, Ma Liang-qingo Du Shi-cai, Lan Kang-hou, Lou Ren, Lou Jia-ju and Tang Qin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(3)
    In 1982, some trees in a 1800 ha forest of masson pine on Nanshan Mountain. Chongqing,were found to be dying, since then, half of the trees have died off and the whole forest isin danger. On damaged trees, the needle became spotted blotch, dieback and even yellow at all, its internal tissue had been destroyed and early defoliated; the root system was undeveloped,and had few rootlets; the branch decreased and died; the growth of stem in height and diameter were weakened. It is showed that the plant has been growing unhealthily. It was alsoknown by the stem analysis that shows the phenomenon of growth weakening since 1967. The result of preliminary study suggests that the declining and dying of masson pineforest in Nanshan Mountain maybe related to environmental pollution.
Abstract (Browse 1898)  |  Full Text PDF       
New Resource Plants of Trans-Methyl Iso-eugenoI from Endemic Species to China
Author: Tao Guang-fu, Liu Fang-qi, Lin Qiang, Lu Ai-hua Chen Heng-bin, Zhang Xiao-hong, Ding Jing-kai, Sun Han-dong, Yi Yuan-fen and Wu Yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(3)
    Both Cinnamomum septentrionale Hand. -Mazz. and Cinnamomum platyphyllum (Diels)Allen are endemic to China. The plant materials were collected from West Hubei In May-June, 1983. Both the essential oils, extracted from fresh leaves by steam distillation, were analysed in detail by means of capillary GC/MS/DS on Finnigan-4510 type. The result indicates that the major component of both essential oils s trans-methyl isoeugenol with the amount of 85.71% and 94.04% for C. septentrionale and C. platyphyllum respectively. The two species which are very rich in West Hubei are new important plant resources for transmethyl isoengenol.
Abstract (Browse 1859)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Diterpenoids from Jatropha curcas L.
Author: Chen Meng-jing, Hou Lin-li and Zhang Guo-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(3)
    Three diterpenoids have been isolated from the roots of Jatropha curcas L. They are identified as tetracyclic aromatic diterpenoids jatropholone A, jatropholone B and new diterpenoidnamed jatrophol. The structure of the new diterpenoid was elucidated as 16-hydroxyjatropholone by spectral analysis (UV, IR, MS, 1HNMR, 13CNMR). A coumarino-lignan jatrophin,a coumarin tomentin, 汕-D-glycoside-汕-sitosterol, taraxerol and 汕-sitosterol have been isolatedalso.
Abstract (Browse 2814)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Chemical Constituents of Comastoma pulmonarium (Turcz.) Toyohuni
Author: Fan Shu-fen, Hu Be-ling, Ding Jin-ye and Sun Hong-fa
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(3)
    Eight compounds were isolated from Comastoma pulmonarium (Gentianaceae). Theirstructures are identified as1,8-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyxanthone(i),1,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimetho-xyxanthone(j), 1-hydroxy-3,7,8-trimethoxyxanthone(k),8-hydroxy-l,3,5-trimethoxyxanthone(l), 1,3,8-trihydroxy-7-methoxyxanthone(m), 1-O-汕-D-glucopyranosyl-3,8-dihydroxy-7-methxy-xanthone(n), oleanolic acid(o) and swertisin(p) by means of chemical methods andUV, IR, NMR and MS respectively. The compound n is a new natural product. It wasnamed as comastomaside.
Abstract (Browse 1877)  |  Full Text PDF       
Two 污-Methyl Biosides from Dregea volubilis (L.) Benth
Author: Chiu Ming-hua, Li Qi-xun, Nie Rui-lin and Zhou Jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(3)
    From the hydrolysate of the crude glycosides from the roots, of Dregea volubilis(L.) Benth in Dehong, Yunnan, two 汐-methyl biosides i and j (yields: 0.016%and 0.0097%, respectively) were isolated by silica gel column chromatography. Theirchemical structures were established by interpretation of MS, IR,1H,13C-NMR, andgas chromatographic analysis of their degradation products, and comparison of thephysical properties of i, j and their acetates which were reported in literatures asfollows: 汐-methyl-pachybioside for i, and 汐-methyl-[3-O-methyl-6-deoxy-D-allose(1↙4)-D-olivoside] for j. j named 汐-methyl-dredehongbioside, is reported for the first time. j, 汐-methyl-dredehongbioside, colorless needles (from MeOH), bitter, mp. 184每186⊥,[汐]D22 +74.5˚~(c= 0.52, MeOH). Anal. Cald(%) for C14H26O8:C52.17, H8.07;Found; C52.23,H8.22. Irvmaxkbr: 3370, 1443, 1419, 1375, 1268, 1218, 1168,1127,1060cm-1. MS(m/e,%): 322(M+,3),291(M+-OCH3,15), 273(M+-OCH3-H2O,12), 258,246,232, 222, 159, 145, 141, 128, 95, 87, 85, 74 (base peak, 100), 59. 1H NMR汛(CDCl3): 4.73(1H, dd, J= 4.0 Hz, J= 1.5Hz, C-1-H), 4.55(1H, d, J= 8.0Hz,C-1∩-H), 3.79(1H, dd, J=3.0Hz, J= 3.0Hz, C-3∩-H), 3.00(1H, dd, J= 9.0Hz,J= 9.0Hz, C-4-H), 2.22(1H, m, C-2-Ha), 1.60(1H, m, C-2-He), 1.33(3H, d,J= 6.0Hz,C-5-CH,), 1.31(3H,d,,J= 6.5Hz, C-5∩-CH), 3.68(3H,s,,C-3∩-OCH),3.31(3H,s,C-1-OCH). 13C NMR data were seen in Table 1. l, tri-acetyl-汐-methyl-dredehongbioside, colorless granular (from MeOH),mp. 135--137⊥, [a]D22+ 88.2˚(c= 0.50, MeOH). MS(m/e, %): 488 (M+, 2), 388(M+-HOAc,2), 357(M+-OCH3-HOAc,33), 288, 187, 127, 116, 85, 74, 59, 43(basepeak, 100). 1H NMR,汛(CDCl3): 5.25(1H, ddd,.J= 11.0Hz, J=9.0Hz,.J= 5.5Hz,C-3-H), 4.86(1H, d, J= 8.0Hz, C-1∩-H), 4.69 (1H, dd, J= 4.0Hz, J= 1.5Hz,C-1-H), 4.58(1H,m,C-2∩-H),3.94(1H, dd, J= 3.0Hz,J= 3.0Hz,C-3∩-H),3.64(1H,m,C-5-H), 3.22(1H,dd, J= 9.5Hz, J= 8.5Hz, C-4-H), 2.30(1H, m, C-2-Ha),1.67(1H,m,C-2-He), 1.31(3H, d, .J= 6.5Hz, C-5-CH3), 1.17(3H, d, J= 6.0Hz,C-5-CH3), 3.47(3H, s, C-3∩-OCH3), 3.30(3H,s, C-1-OCH3), 2.10(6H, s, C-2∩, C- 4∩ -OCH3), 2.03(3H,s,C-3-OCH3).
Abstract (Browse 1997)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Photoperiodic Induction on the Protein Synthesis of Cotyledons and the Morphology of Apical Meristem of Pharbitis nil Plant
Author: Hao Nai-bin, Zhang Yu-zhu, Ge Qiao-ying, Tan Ke-hui and Zhu Hui-ge
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(3)
    After photoperiodic induction of Pharbits nil seedlings with two expanded cotyledons byshort day, the changes of protein in cotyledons or in shoot apex were investigated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique and electron, microscopy respectively Electron microscopicobservation shows that a kind of spherical electron-dense bodies appears in vacuoles of the apical meristem. Change of protein patterns also observed in the cotyledons. The number of basicprotein bands increased from eight in the untreated control to ten in the induced cotyledons, andthe number of, buffer-soluble protein bands increased from ten in the untreated control totwelve in the induced cotyledons. Authors suggest that the appearence of new protein bandsand electron-dense bodies is probably related to gene expression in the induction process ofphotoperiod of Pharbitis.
Abstract (Browse 1962)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Presence of Contractile Proteins in Pollens ami Their Role in Cytoplasmic Streaming
Author: Ma Yong-ze and Yan Long-fei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(3)
    Authors demonstrate the presence of actin and myosin in pollens from Luffa cylindricaand Zea mays in this report. The molecular weight of the heavy chain of pollen myosinis about 165000 daltons as analyzed by 4每30% SDS gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The ATPase activity of pollen myosin is identical with the characteristics of rabbit ske-letal muscle myosin. In 0.5 mol/l KCl, the K+-EDTA activity is the highest and Mg2+ activitythe lowest. The Ca2+ activity is higher than Mg2+ activity and lower than K+-EDTA activity.Pollen actin from Zea mays was prepared by preparative SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis Its molecular weight is 43,000 daltons which is the same as rabbit skeletal muscle actin. The effect of drugs on cytoplasmic streaming of pollen tubes were observed under opticalmicroscope Cytochalasin B (CB), chloropromazine (CPZ) and chlorotetracycline (CTC)inhibit cytoplasmic streaming obviously. But colchicine has no effect on the cytoplasmic streamrog. It is suggested that the motive force of cytoplasmic streaming may be the interaction ofmyosin and actin in the pollen tubes.
Abstract (Browse 1904)  |  Full Text PDF       
Permeability of Various Photorespiratory Metobolites to Peroxisomal Membrane and Effect of Percoll on the Integrity of Peroxisomes
Author: Liang Zheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(3)
    Permeability of various metabolites in photorespiratory carbon metabolism pathway is ex-amined by O2 electrode and spectrophotometry. The results show that O2, glycolate, glyoxyla-te, serine, asparate and 汐-ketoglutarate are permeable to the peroxisomal membrane for matrixenzymes activity, and the peroxisomal membrane seems to be an entry barrier to glutamate andNADH. The integrity of peroxisoma membrane is disrupted rapidly by Percoll existing pero-xisome suspension. The activity of hydroxypyruvate reductase and malate dehydrogenase is alsodecreased by Percoll.
Abstract (Browse 1881)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relationships between Nitrogen Fixation and Several Kinds of Energy Metabolism by Gloeocapsa sp
Author: Wang Cheng-yi and Wang Fa-zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(3)
    Gloeocapsa sp., a species of anicellular blue-green alga, fixes dinitrogen mostly under light. The energy (ATP and reductant) needed for nitrogen fixation may be provided by photoreaction and aerobic catabolism. The nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) in vivo was decreased under the conditions of dark and inhibition of photo-phosphorylation or oxidative phosphorylation in the light. When photosystem j was inhibited by the presence of DCMU, nitrogenase activities in both reactions of acetylene reduction and hydrogen evolution may be muchenhanced probably due to eliminating of the damage caused by the oxygen produced in the photolysis of water. The effects of the oxygen present in the atmosphere of the reaction systemand produced by the cells are different. It is shown that some trace oxygen seems to be required for nitrogen fixation by the energy supply of aerobic actabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. While the fixation of dinitrogen was inhibited by CO or no any reducible substrate was present, 70-100% of the energy accepted by nitrogenase was evolved as hydrogen. The algal cells also showed hydrogen uptake reaction, but no enhancement of nitrogen fixation by the hydrogen uptake was found.
Abstract (Browse 1784)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of pp333 on Stem Elongation and Leaf Anatomy of Peanut Plant
Author: Pan Rui-chi, Wang Ya-li, Luo Yun-xiu, Zhang Ming-guang, Li Zhi-jian and Chen Xi-yin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(3)
    Pot-grown peanut plants (Arachis hypogaea L.) cv. Yue-You No. 551每116 at five-leaf-stage were treated with 0, 266 or 532 ppm growth retardant PP333 aqueous solution as a soildrench and liquid spray to the whole shoot, smeared on the stems or fully developed leaves. Forty days after treatment, growth rate of main stem and transpiratory rate were measured andthe ultrastructures of leaf and chloroplast were also observed under electron microscope. The results obtained are as follows: 1. PP333 resulted in reduction of stem elongation and dryweight of shoot, but there was no influence or even slight enhancement with the dry weight of root, thus, the root: stem ratio was increased. By applicating PP333, transpiratory rate was lessthan that of the control, but the water storage cells in treated leaves were significantly larger. These anatomical and physiological characteristics of treated plant are an advantage in tolerating the drought stress. 2. Compared with the control, PP333 caused the epidermal cellsize smaller and reduced the number of grana lamella and stroma lamella, so development of chloroplast was inhibited. 3. Significant retardation occurred when PP333 was applied to soilas compared with that applied to the shoot. Among shoot applications, the stem is more effective at reducing stem elongation than that to the leaf. Based on the results mentioned above, authors suggest that the most effective method of PP333. application for peanut is soil drench.
Abstract (Browse 2618)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on Ultrastructure, Development and Function of Plastids of Cuscuta australis R.Br
Author: Qin Xiao-xia and Li Yang-shan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(3)
    This paper deals with the distribution, category, ultrastructure and lammelar changes ofplastids in the stem of the dodder at four development stages. The qualitative assay wasmade oil the photosynthetic capacity of each period with spectrofluorimeter. The results are asfollows: The dodder is a semi-parasitic plant because it contains chlorophyll and chloroplasts whichare capable of photosynthesis. Chloroplasts exist only in phloem parenchyma, and containwell developed lammelar system during the development of haustoria. In this plant, the lammelar system has a rather unusual arrangement, similar to that of semi-parasite Viscum albumbut different from that of the typical seed plants. ※Green amyloplasts§ (GA) were observedin cortical parenchyma. The photosynthetic and parasitic ability of the dodder is the strongestin the seedling stage when the best effective control on dodder can be obtained.
Abstract (Browse 1852)  |  Full Text PDF       
Scanning Electronmicroscopic Observations on Development and Structure of Pericarp of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn
Author: Tang Pei-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(3)
    Pericarp of Hindu lotus is developed from the ovary wall only. It is differentiated intothe exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp which can be clearly recognized. The vascular bundles,secretory apparatus and aerenchyma are present in the ground tissue. The aeration system is.associated with stomata (St), air passages (Ap)and chamber (Ch). St apparatus with a specific form are located deeply under epidermal cells. Ap is schizogenous. Chisschizolysigenous. The wall of Ch has perforations which lead to surrounding cells. Ap and Ch arein contact with St in both outer and inner epidermis (Ep), so the aeration system covers the wholepericarp. In Ep, there are several kinds of secretory apparatus with different slimes. Lacticifers are articulated, some of them are branched and some not. In xylem, annular and helicaltracheids and vessels, in phloem, sieve tubes, companion cells and their contents can be observed. On the opposite side of the funicular attachment near stigma develops a hump. Thepericarp hump (Ph) is a specific structure in lotus. After studies on its fine structure, developing process and the relation between fruit development and Ph, the author considered thatPb functions probably as a respiratory apparatus of the developing seed.
Abstract (Browse 1910)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Fluorescence Staining-Methyl Salicylate Clearing Technique for Demonstrating Pollen Nuclei
Author: Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(3)
    Recently several DNA-binding fluotochromes have been used for demonstrating pollennuclei. However, the autofluorescence of pollen wall often obscured the fluorescence of nuclei, thus limited the use of this method. Methyl salicylate (MS) as a clearing agent has shownexcellent effect for observing embryo sac in whole-mounted ovules. This aroused me to trya combination of fluorescent staining with MS clearing in orded to make a better demonstration of the pollen nuclei. Mature 2-celled or 3-celled pollen of several angiosperm species stained with Hoechst 33258(H33258) and cleared (via ethanol dehydration) with MS showed clearcut fluorescence oftheir generative or sperm nuclei and vegetative nucleus. MS greatly decreased the wall fluorescence and increased the transparency of the pollen contents, meanwhile maintained the H33258stained fluorescence, consequently made the nuclei brighter under a darkened background. For example, in sunflower pollen a pair of elongated and winding sperm nuclei whichcould not be identified after simple H33258 staining were quite visible after MS clearing, inartificially germinated pollen tubes, the locomotion of nuclei from pollen grain into the tube,the sequence of generative and vegetative nucle travelling along the tube and the division of generative nucleus into two sperm nuclei could be well followed by this method. The present technique may be adoptable for observations on the processes of microsporogenesis and male gametophyte development, and rogenesis in cultured anthers, and also possiblyfor tracing the nuclear events during pollination-fertilization.
Abstract (Browse 2159)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Regeneration after Girdling of Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent
Author: Li Zheng-li (Lee Cheng-lee), Cui Ke-ming and Lu Peng-zhe
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(3)
    The trunk of Broussonetia payrifera (L.) Vent. following an extensive length of completegirdling could regenerate new bark in the entire growing season after bud-sprouting. Severaldays after girdling, most of ray cells near the surface dilated and proliferated outward to formcallus. Then, other immature xylem cells rehabilitated the ability of cell division and tookpart in the formation of callus Later, a cork cambium developed near the surface of thecallus and a cambium near the middle part of the callus. The newly formed cambium cannormally produce phloem outward and xylem inward. However, when the girdled trunk waswrapped up with a transparent plastic shee during the growing period from late May to earlyAugust causing high temperature and humidity inside the wrapping sheet, the surface of peridem often produced loose sloughy cell layers that could regain it*s normal structure after unwrapping the sheet.
Abstract (Browse 1868)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological and Statistical Analysis of Secondary Association in the Genus Phaseolus
Author: John H. Blackson and William Tai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(3)
    Four cultivars of Phaseolus coccineus L., five cultivars of P. vulgaris L. and one collectionof P. vulgaris var. aborigineus (Burk.) Baudet were examined cytologically for the presenceof secondary association of bivalents (bivalent pairing) during metaphase 1 of meiosis in pollen mother cells. Statistical methods were presented for evaluating the deviation of the observed degree of association to that expected at random. The degree of secondary pairing wasfound to be highly significant. Transmission electron microscope techniques were modified to enable the viewing of squashed but intact pollen mother cells which showed that a physicalconnection could occur between bivalents secondarily associated.
Abstract (Browse 1778)  |  Full Text PDF       
BrdU and Hoechst 33258 Induced Silver-Stained Dots on Rye Chromosome Arms
Author: Liu Yu-xin and Zhou Zhi-hang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(3)
    By treating the primary roots with BrdU or Hoechst 33258, silver-stained dots occurrednot only in the NORs, centromeres and telomeres, but also in the arms of rye chromosomes.The mechanism of differential silver-staining of chromosomes was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1751)  |  Full Text PDF       


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