April 1988, Volume 30 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
Early Cretaceous Palynofloras from Tarim Basin, Xinjiang
Author: Jiang De-xin, He Zhuo-sheng and Dong Kai-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(4)
      
    One hundred and eight species of fossil spores and pollen referred to 55 genera found from the Lower Cretaceous Kapushaliang (Kizilsu) Group in the Tarim Basin of Xinjiang have been studied in this paper. The Kapushaliang Group may be divided into the Yageliemu Formation, the Shushanhe Formation and Baxigai Formation in ascending order. The Yageliemu palynoflora is characterized by the predominance of gymnospermous pollen, the relative abundance of pteridophytic spores and the absence of angiospermous pollen. Coniferae is dominant, while Lygodiaceae and Schizaeaceae are important in the flora. The most common species of palynomorphs are Todisporites minor, Cicatricosisporites dorogensis, C. australiensis, Lygodiumsporites subsimplex, Schizaeoisporites cretacius, S. zizyphinus, S. certus. Cibotiumspora paradoxa, Cyathidites australis, C. minor, Biretisporites potoniael, Cycadopites minimus, Pseudowalchia hiangulina, Parvisaccites radiatus, Podocarpidites multesimus, P. canadensis, Alisporites bilateralis, Cedripites cretaceus, C. canadenris, Abietineaepollenites microalatus, Clarsopollis classoides, C annulatus, C. xinjiangensis (sp. nov.), Ephedripites multicostatus, E. tarimensis (sp. nov.), etc . The palynoflora is comparable with those of the lower part of the Lower Xinminbu Formation in northwestern China and the lower part of the Lower Mannville Formation in western Canada, which is considered corresponding from Berriasian to Valanginian in age. The Shushanhe palynoflora is also characterized by dominance of gymnosperms and subdominance of pteridophyta. Some primitive angiospermons pollen grains are found in the upper part of the formation. In addition to the most common species of the above mentioned palynoflora, the important species in the present palynoflora comprise Cicatricosisporites potomacensis, C. orbiculatus, C. subrotundus, Concavissimisporites punctatus, C. verrucosus, C. globosus, lmpardecispora apiverrucata, Trilobosporites crassus, T. trioreticulosus, Pilosisporites verus, P. trichopapillosus, Klukisporites pseudoreticulatus, Verrucosisporites obscurilaesuratur, Converrucosisporites saskatchewanensis, Foraminisporis wonthaggiensis, Cingulatisporites valdensis, C. ruginosus, Jiaohepollis verus, Pityosporites constrictus, etc. More than 40 in dicative species of Early Cretaceous occur in the assemblage. The palynoflora compares clcsely with those of the middle part of the Lower Xinminbu Formation and the Quartz Sand Member of the Lower Mannville Formatton. It is suggested that the Shushanhe Formation should belong to Hauterivian of Barremian in age. The Baxigai palynoflora is basically similar to the Shushanhe palynoflora. But the palynoflora shows an obvious increase in abundance of lygodiaceous spores and angiospermous pollen accompanied by a great reduction of Classopollis and Ephedripltes. Most of the Early Cretaceous species occurring in the above mentioned palynofloras are present. In addition, some Cretaceous species recorded from Aptian and Albian Stages in Europe, North America and Australia, such as Trilobosporites tribotrys, T. trioreticulosus, Coptospora paradoxa, Camarozonosporites insignis, Crybelosporites punctatus, etc., appear in the assemblage. In comparison with the microfloras of the upper part of the Lower Xinminbu Formation, the Upper Mannville Formation and the lower part of the Lower Colorado Group, the Baxigai Forma- tion should be referred to Aptian to Albian in age. Judging from the palynofloras, the early Cretaceous palaeoclimate in the basin should belong to the arid or semi-arid type of the subtropic zone. However, from Barremtan through Albian the climatic conditions might appear relatively wet.
Abstract (Browse 2397)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Relation between Vegetation and Environment in Southern Song Nen Plain
Author: Li Jian-dong and Zheng Hui-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(4)
      
    Song Nen plain is located at the northeast of China The south of the plain is characterized by temperate semimoist continental climate. Summer is hot and rainy, but winter is cold and snowless. In the region, the meadow steppe developes and has become a zonal vegetation type. During the 1982每1984 sampling of 286 sites was done, recording abundance coverage, sociability (according to Braun Blanquet) of vascular plant species, along with the soil characteristics. The correlation of vegetation and environment has been used to analyse ecological response of the plant species of plant communiies to enviromental conditions. The distribution and growth rate of plant species are largely determined by salt content, alkalization, and water content in the soil Tile organic matter, nitrogen, and pH in the soil are secondary factors influencing the distribution of plant. It has been found that there is usually a similarity of the ecologic, al response of many species to single or a group of above mentioned factors. According to these similarities, life form and combination index, the main plants in the research area can be divided into ecological group of species. These ecological groups of species are essential for understanding the ecological basis of plant communities and their relation to environment. Therefore the correlation of ecological group of species plant community and environment could be used as a basis for classifying site types, It can divide site types in the research area. The results show that the ecological groups of species not only reveal the relationship between vegetation and environment but also can be used as a basis for classification of site types and lead to practical consideration of the management of steppe in the southern Song Nen Plain.
Abstract (Browse 1943)  |  Full Text PDF       
On the Xanthone Glycosides and Flavonoid Glucoside from Swertia franchetiana H. Smith
Author: Ding Jing-ye, Fan Shu-fen, Hu Be-lin and Sun Hong-fa
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(4)
      
    Three xanthone glycosides, a flavonoid glucoside and a triterpen acid have been isolated from Swertia franchetiana H. Smith (Gentianaceae). One of them is a new xanthone glyco- side and its stucture is established as 1-O-[汕-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-6)-汕-D-glucopyranosyl] 3, 5-dimethoxyxanthone (s), Others are identified as swertianolin, swertisin, mangiferin and oleanolic acid by chemical and spectral means, respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1955)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Isolation and Structures of Kaji-lchigoside Fl and Rosamultin
Author: Liang Guang-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(4)
      
    Two epimers of triterpenoid saponins, kajiichigoside F1 (R-8) and rosamultin (R-9) were isolated from the fruits of Rosa roxburghii Tratt. R-8 was obtained as white needle crystal with mp 205每207⊥ and [a]D18 + 10.5˚ (C = 0.0953, absolute ethanol); R-9 was white crystal with mp 214每216⊥ and [a]D18 + 9.5 (C=0.1050, absolute ethanol). The structures of the two compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis ,(UV, IR, 1H-, 13C-NMR, MS) and chemical methods.
Abstract (Browse 2147)  |  Full Text PDF       
Saponins of the Rhizome of Panax japonicus C. A. Meyer var. major (Burk.)Wu et Feng Collected in Qinling Mountain (Shaanxi)
Author: Wang Da-qi, Fan Juan, Wang Xi-bin, Feng Bao-shu, Yang Chong-ren, Zhou Jun, Ning Yong-cheng and Tao Jia-xun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(4)
      
    From the rhizome of Panax japonicus C. A. Meyer var major (Burk.) Wu et Feng, collected in Qinling Mountain (Shaanxi), seven saponins were isolated. By means of 13C NMR, FAB-MS and comparison with authentic samples, six of them were identified with chikusetsusaponin m (=ginsenoside Ro), la, oleanolic acid 28-O-汕-D-glucoside, ginsenoside Re, Rg2 and notoginsenoside R2. Another saponin was proved to be chikusetsusaponin la methylester, and its structure was elucidated to be oleanolic acid (3-O-汕-D-glucorunopyranosyl-methylate)-28-O-汕-D-glucopyranoside. A comparison of sapoinin constituents of this variety collected in Qinling Mountain (Shaanxi) and Hengduan Mountains (Yunnan) was provided. As a common characteristic of both rhizome, it has been proved that the saponins of oleanane type were main constituents and the saponins of dammarane type were minor constituents. But some differences also has been found in both materials (Tab. 1). From the relationship between the biosynthesis pathway of triterpenoids and plant phytogenetics, this is a phenomenon of chemical polymorphism in a variety, which followed in the train of geographical distribution, ledto appearance of a che- mical evolution in the process of evolution and of spread of this variety.
Abstract (Browse 2188)  |  Full Text PDF       
An Investigation on Relation Between Polysaccharide and Protein in Panax ginseng Pectin
Author: Liang Zhong-yan and Zhang Yi-shen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(4)
      
    Two proteoglycans (PA, PB) have been isolated from hot water extract of fresh ginseng roots Through Sepharose 4B gel chromotography it has been determined that both PA and PB are homogeneous fractions but contain proteins. By means of analysis of amino acid, G. C., 汕-elimination reaction, partial hydrolysis, enzyme hydrolysis, gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing electrophoresis it has been determined that both PA and PB are pro- teoglycans and the carbohydratepeptide linkaged by O-glycosidic bond of sugar to threonine Moreover, there is another protein in PB rich in alkaline amino acid (59.9%) combined with the galacturonic acid in polysaccharide by electrostatic force. The protein is dissociated from polysaccharide under the electric-field force in gel electrophoresis. PI of this protein is 9.1.
Abstract (Browse 1939)  |  Full Text PDF       
Heat Injury and Heat Acclimation in Wheat Plants
Author: Zou Qi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(4)
      
    Injurious electrolyte leakage (IL) from wheat leaves after 30 minutes heat stress increased along with the increase of temperature. The relationship between IL and injurious temperature was closely fitted with an exponential curve. But when the temperature exceeded a critical point, the curve suddenly turned steep and the temperature coefficient (Q10) increased to tens or even hundreds of times what was before. The critical temperature was largely equal to or slightly higher than the killing temperature. After adequate heat acclimation, both the killing temperature and the temperature at which the electrolyte leakage came to 50% (IT50) were apparently increased. After the temperature decreased to normal range, the acclimation effects were disappeared in a few days.
Abstract (Browse 1814)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Changes of Oxidation and Peroxidation in Postharvest Litchi Fruit
Author: Lin Zhi-fang, Li Shuang-shun, Zhang Dong-lin, Liu Shu-xina, Li Yue-biao, Lin Gui-zhu and Chen Mian-da
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(4)
      
    The decrease of ascorbic acid content was observed in tile pericarp and juice of litchi fruit after picking from 0 to 7 days. Change of glutathione content in juice was similar to the change of ascorbic acid, but it increased in the pericarp within first 3 days after pieking, and then decreased. During the period of experiment, malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation, increased significantly, it was 3 times in the 7th day after picking as compared with the initial content. The activity of superoxide dismutase decreased as malondialdehyde accumulated. A rapid increase of peroxidase activity in pericarp after picking would be associted with the senescence of litchi fruit. These results suggest that the senescence of litchi fruit might be damaged by active oxygen. The increase of peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content may be useful as a detector of fruit senescing.
Abstract (Browse 1907)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Plant Growth-Regulating Activities of Cytisine
Author: Zhao Zhong-ren, Zheng Qiao-lan, Li Guang-ren, Shi Yan-nian and Chen Ru-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(4)
      
    By using bioassays, some plant growth-regulating activities of cytisine were determined. The results obtained indicated that cytisine inhibited the elongation of wheat coleoptile segments but increased the fresh weight of isolated cucumber cotyledons cultured in the dark (26 ⊥). Cytisine obviously promoted both the root formation and the root growth of isolated cucumber cotyledons cultured in the dark (25 ⊥). Furthermore the IAA oxidase activity in isolated cucumber cotyledons cultured in the dark was markdely stimulated by cytisine. These phenomena showed that cytisine had distinct plant growth-regulating activities.
Abstract (Browse 2058)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Observation of Hydroxyproline-Rich Glycoprotein in Plant Cell Wall Under Tem
Author: Guo Yang, Zhao Jing, Lin Zhong-ping and Cui Cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(4)
      
    This paper describes a method for observing and identifying the cell wall protein- hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) which has been characterized as an extensin. The HRGP prepared from carrot callus was sprayed on a mica sheet by using a simplyzed spraying device, After rotatory shadowing, HRGP was observed under electron microscope and it appeared as a rod-like molecule, Measurement showed that the molecular length of HRGP was about 87 nm.
Abstract (Browse 2052)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Transference of Ri-Plasmid from Agrobacterium rhizogenes to Scopolia lurida Revealed by the Hairy Root Cultivation and the Alkaloids Production
Author: Zhang Yin-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(4)
      
    The steriled plants of Scopolia lurida after being infected by A. rhizogenes were induced to produce hairy roots. They grew well in medium either of hormone free MS agar or of roots suspension culture. As the result, the cultivated hairy root was shown to yield alkaloids such as hyosciamine and scopolamine. Since agropine and mannopine were also detected in the hairy root cultures, the transference of the T-DNA of A. rhizogenes Ri-plasmid into the cell genomic DNA of S. lurida is clearly demonstrated.
Abstract (Browse 2032)  |  Full Text PDF       
Mass Isolation and Culture of Pollen Protoplasts from Three Plant Species
Author: Zhou Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(4)
      
    The exine which contains chemically resistant sporopollenin makes a severe obstacle for obtaining pollen protoplasts A technique was established for protoplast isolation in large number from mature pollen grains in three plant species i. e. Iris tectorum, Zephyranthes grandiflora and Hemerocallis fulva. Dehiscence of exine by the force of pollen hydration and consequentely exposure of intine to the direct action of enzymatic maceration led to successful release of protoplasts from pollen grains The highest isolation rate up to 90% protoplasts was obtained from mature pollen grains of Z. grandiflora. Pollen protoplasts from tetrads to mature pollen, except early uninucleate pollen stage, were prepared in H. fulva Purified pollen protoplasts were obtained by repeated centrifugation and density gradient centrifugation and proved to be viable by fluorochromatic reaction with FDA. When cultured in vitro, the pollen protoplasts of H. fulva underwent regeneration of cell wall, formation of various tube-, nodule-, bead- and dumbbell-shaped structures and sometimes division of the generative nucleus into 2-4 nuclei. Exogenous hormone showed promotive effect on the growth of above mentioned structures.
Abstract (Browse 1885)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cryopreservation of Protoplast-Derived Cell Suspensions of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Author: Tang Ding-tai, Yang Zhi-qi and Yamada Y.
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(4)
      
    The protoplast-derived cell suspensions of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. A 58 MS) were frozen in liquid nitrogen (LN) in the presence of 10每20% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and 10每20% sucrose in combination, the survival reached 40-50% of the control. The retrieved cells were proliferated in Linsmier-Skoog (LS, 1965) medium supplemented with 2℅10-5 mol/ l 2,4-D. Shoots and roots were induced from calli formed from frozen cells in LS medium with l℅l0 mol/l NAA plus 4℅10-6 mol/l kinetin and lxl0-6mol/l 2 IP. The results are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1869)  |  Full Text PDF       
Tapetum Dimorphism and Its Histochemical Study in Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Var. grossum)
Author: Fang Jin and Zhang Shu-zu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(4)
      
    In sweet pepper, the portion of tapetum toward the interior of the anther comprising large cells is derived from cells of connective of anther whereas the remaining tapetum on the outside of the anther comprising comparatively small cells is derived from the parietal layer. Those ceils of the former prosessing large vacuoles and large nuclei are stained weaker than the cells of the latter by methyl green-pyronin and mercuric-bromophenol blue staining. Large spherical grains which contain acid phosphatase appear in the vacuoles in both kinds of tapetum at sporogenesis stage. During meiosis of pollen mother cells, DNA, RNA and protein sysntheses increase in tapetum. The tapetum derived from connective accumulates more DNA than that derived from parietal layer. The activity of acid phosphatase becomes higher in tapetum when it degenerates. The degeneration of two kinds of tapetum is similar. There are no starch grains in tapetum through its whole course of development.
Abstract (Browse 1975)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Observation on the Double Fertilization and Post-Fertilization Development of Ypsilandra thibetica Franch
Author: Zhao Hua and Zheng Xue-jing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(4)
      
    Some investigations on the processes of double fertilization, endosperm development and embryogenesis, together with certain histo-chemical reactions in Ypsilandra thibetica Franch. have been made Their main features are: 1. The entry of pollen tube is porogamy and doable fertilization proceeds normally. It be longs to premitotic type. 2. The first division of the primary endosperm nucleus is followed by cell wall formation giving rise to a larger micropylar and a smaller chalazal chamber. But there is no further wall formation in the later nuclear divisions until the endosperm is nearly mature. Hence, it belongs to the Helobial type of development. Nuclear divisions tend to proceed faster in the micropylar than in the chalazal chamber and lately all freenuclei in both chambers become cellular when the proembryo consists of about four or eight cells. During the proembryogenesis some endosperm cells surrounding the proembryo degenerate gradually. 3. The zygote has a longer period of dormancy and slower rate of development than usual. When the seeds are mature, the embryos in them are not differentiated into organs yet. There are two types of embryo- genesis. Some are of the Caryophyllad type, while in others, the basal cell of the two-celled proembryo divides vertically so that two basal cells stand longitudinally parallel to each other forming the base of the suspensor. 4. The development of starch and accumulated protein grains in the process of double fertilization, embryogenesis and endosperm development were also observed.
Abstract (Browse 1924)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structural and Histochemical Studies of Vegetative Apex in Torreya grandis
Author: Shi Liang, Wang Fu-xiong(Wang Fu-hsiung) and Hu Yu-xi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(4)
      
    This article is dealing with the structure and the histochemical changes in the shoot apex of Torreya grandis in the growing seasons. The results of observation are summerized as follows: The vegetative bud in mature plant can be devided into four periods: the resting period, the period of bud expansion, the period of bud scale formation and the period of development of new terminal bud. In tile whole growing cycle, the vegetative apex always maintains a certain kind of zonation: the apical initials, the subapical group, the peripheral tissue zone and the rib meristem. In various periods of development, the composition of different zones is nom all the same. Meanwhile, the distribution and fluctuation of starch in the apex change from zone to zone, and parallel to the change of structure.
Abstract (Browse 1724)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of the Rate of Ethylene Production and the Levels of ABA in Bartlett Pears during Maturation
Author: Zhang Wei and Yang Zheng-tan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(4)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1817)  |  Full Text PDF       
Photorespiration of C4 Plants
Author: Wang Zhong, Gao Yu-zhu, Cai Heng and Cai Xiao-ning
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(4)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1788)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Lower Devonian Genus from Yunnan, with Notes on the Origgin of Leaf
Author: Hao Shou-gang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(4)
      
    A new genus and species, Eophyllophyton bellum, is described from the Posongchong Formation (Siegenian) of the Lower Devonian in Wenshan cfistrict, Yunnan, China This plant bears lateral branching laminate structures interpreted as leaves, which are believed to derive from lateral axial branching systems In addition similarly organised sporophylls are considered homologous to these leaves. In the possession of these vegetative leaves and sporophylls Eophyllophyton, is significantly more advanced than any other Siegenian taxon.
Abstract (Browse 1821)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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