May 1988, Volume 30 Issue 5

 

          Research Articles
Isolation and Identification of Flavonoid Glycosides from the leaf of Apocynum hendersonii Hook. f
Author: Hu Bi-huang, Tian Zhen and Lou Zhi-cen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(5)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1977)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Not opterygium torbesii Boiss
Author: Xin Li-juan and Ling Luo-qing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(5)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1871)  |  Full Text PDF       
L-Alanine Stimulates Differentiation of Barley Pollen Callus
Author: Wang Lin-ji, Yuan Miao-bao and Xu A-bing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(5)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1690)  |  Full Text PDF       
Modern Pollen Rain of Mixed Conifer Forest in Changbai Mt., Northeast China
Author: Sun Xiang-jun and Wu Yu-shu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(5)
      
    In order to study pollen rain six funnel-like pollen traps were set up on tree trunks 1.3 m above the ground in a firspruce forest in. Changbai Mt. at 1,150 m a.s.1, for a time interval from June 1985 to August 1986. Pollen influx values were calculated by volumetricat and exotic pollen methods (see Table 1). Pollen representation of each major tree type, e. g. Pinus, Abies, Picea, Betula, Larix and some decideous broad-leaved trees, was deduced front a comparison between the percentage of the tree type in pollen spectrum and that in forest. The pollen spectrum obtained from pollen trap was compared with that extracted from surface; ample taken from the same vegetation zone; the differences and their possible causes are also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1817)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Element Contents of Platycladus orientalis plantation in Beijing
Author: Chen Ling-zhi, Miao You-gui, Kong Fan-zhi, Chen Qing-lang, Hu Yi-hui and Bao Xiao-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(5)
      
    Carbon is the most abundant element in the organs of the edificator-31 years old Platy- cladus orientalis. High content of Ca occurred in the edificator, there are plenty of N. K. Mg as well with relatively low content of P and high content of Fe. The concentration of elements is greater in leaves than int woody tissues of tree and shrub. The element accumulation in the aboveground part was higher than those in the under ground part of the tree layer, 51 percent of C was accumulated in trunks. The largest percentage of other elements was accumulated by leaves. On the contrary, in tile tree layer the element accumulation in the under ground part was larger than those in the aboveground part of the shrub layer except N accumulation. The element accumulation in the plantation reached 17,000 kg/ha for C, 400 kg/ha for Ca, 104 kg/ha for N, 87 kg/ha for K, 30 kg/ha for Mg, 11每16 kg/ha for Al, P and Fe, 2.5 kg/ha for Na, 1 kg/ha for Mn, Cu and Zn. The retention of C in the plantation was the highest among the elements. The retention in the Tree layer decreased from Ca to N. K. The retention of N in shrub layer is greater than that of Ca. The element retentions in the plantation were 2700 kg/ha, a for C, 70 kg/ ha.a for Ca. 15每20 kg/ha.a for N, K, 2-5 kg/ha, for P, Fe, Al, and Mg, 1 kg/ha.a for the others. The nutrient pool in soil showed C>Ca>N>Fe>Mg>K>P>Na >Al, Mn>Cu>Zn in order. In the same soil condition, the element enrichment factors by various plants were quite different. Usually the enrichment factors of the shrub were greater than those of the tree. The following sequence of the requirment of nutrients by plantation was shown: C> Ca>N >K>Mg >Fe>P>AI>Na>Mn >Cu> Zn.
Abstract (Browse 1874)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Chemical Constituents of Salvia prionitis
Author: Yang Bo-jin, Huang Xiu-lan, Huang Yong, Wang Xiao-ming, Lin Long-ze, But Pui-hay and Zhuang Guo-feng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(5)
      
    Tanshinone j-A (j), tanshinone i (k), cryptotanshinone (l), 汕-sitosterol and 4,5- seco-5,10-friedo-abieta-3,5(10), 6,8,13-pentaene-ll.12-dione (i) which was called saprorthoquinone as a natural product directly isolated from the plant, were isolated from the root of Salvia prionitis Hance for the first time. (i) showed a strong cytotoxicity against P388 leukemia cell in vitro.
Abstract (Browse 1961)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relationship between Glycine Oxidation and Nitrate Reduction in Tobacco Leaves
Author: Yu Jian-wei and Li Ming-qi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(5)
      
    The relationship between glycine oxidation and nitrate reduction was studied using tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf disks and reconstituted system of isolated mitochondria and NR (Nitrate reductase). It was found that glycine, either vacuum-infiltrated in to leaf disks or added to the reconstituted system, could increase the rate of nitrate reduction. The stimulating effect of glycine on nitrate reduction was greatly influenced by preillumination treatment of tobacco leaves, and also by the activity of respiratory chain. The rate of glycinedependent O2 consumption by mitochondria was lowered when KNO3 and NR were added to the system. It was also found that the activity of glycine decarboxylase increased with increase in nitrate concentrations in the sandculture medium. It was concluded that oxidative decarboxylation of glycine in mitochondria of leaf cells of C3 plants could provide NADH for nitrate reduction in cytoplasm in the light, and nitrate reduction and glycine oxidation were influenced by each other.
Abstract (Browse 1946)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Changes of Protein Content and Synthetic Activity in Squash Pollen During Germination
Author: Que Qiu-deng and Tang Xi-hua(Tang Si-hua)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(5)
      
    The total protein content of squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) pollen decreased gradually during in vitro germination. It was caused by the release of wall proteins and part of the cytoplasmic proteins. The release of the pollen wall proteins was not dependent on germination, it was a passive diffusion process. However, the cytoplasmic proteins did not release until the pollen germinated, a fraction of them was synthesized de novo during germination. The RNA and protein synthetic activities initiated soon after in vitro pollen germination. The RNA synthesis decreased during germination. As about half the activity was inhibited by 汐-amanitin, mRNA might be the major RNA synthesized de novo. The total protein synthesis increased during germination, almost all of this synthesis was inhibited by cycloheximide, and partially by 汐-amanitin, but it was not affected significantly by actinomycin D. These results indicated that both stored and de novo synthesized mRNA might play a role in the protein synthesis. The content of stored mRNA of squash pollen was about 11-3 pg/grain as measured by UV absorption after its purification from total RNA (2440 pg/grain) by oligo (dT)-cellulose affinity chromatagraphy. Both cycloheximide and 汐-amanitin inhibited pollen tube growth in vitro. Actinomycin D and tunicamycin inhibited pollen germination in the first hour, however, no reduction ,of the tube length was observed later. Cyclohex,nide inhibited the pollen germination and tube elongation in vivo, that fitted well with the in vitro results. According to these results, it was suggested that the de novo syntheses of mRNA and protein were neccessary for the maintenance of pollen tube growth.
Abstract (Browse 2059)  |  Full Text PDF       
Electron Mitcroscopic Investigation of the Cross-Field Pit of Gymnospermous Woods
Author: Zhou Yin(Chow Yin) and Jiang Xiao-mei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(5)
      
    This paper gives a detailed description on the morphological characteristics and variations of cross-field pit on the tracheid side and the ray parenchyma cell side under SEM and TEM. There are usually formed a light color halo around the pit aperture of cross-field on the tracheid lumen side under SEM. The paper reports the ultrastructure and radial pattern of microfibrils or microfibril strands on the tracheid side of the cross-field pit membrane in the wood of Cryptomeria fortunei Hooibrenk ex Otto et Dietr. The pinoid pit membrane of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. shows the radial microfibril strands only at the margin of membrane. Meanwhile, authors have found a very special type of taxodioid pit with extended aperture in Abies nephrolepis (Trautv.) Maxim. as well as in some other species of the genera: Abies, Larix and Picea koraiensis Nakai.
Abstract (Browse 1875)  |  Full Text PDF       
Translocation of Uranin within the Living Ovules of Vanilla
Author: Zhang Zhen-jue and Zheng Guo-ji
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(5)
      
    In the ovules of Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andr.) before fertilization, outer integument surrounded the lower part of ovule. Uranin got into ovule through funiculus, forming, the first center of fluorescence at the chalaza zone of ovule. Then uranin was transported to micropyle end along inner integument, forming the second center of fluorescence at micropyle end of inner integument. Soon, fluorescence appeared in the egg apparatua. After fertilization, the outer integument ovule extended upward, forming micropyle ogerber with inner integument. After getting into ovule through funiculus, uranin spreads to- ward several directions: l. transported to outer integument at the entrance of micropyle; 2. transported downward to chalaza zone along outer integument at the side of funiculus; 3. extended from chalaza zone to the inside and to the outer integument at the side far from funiculus The ovules of Vanilla had no vascular bundles. On transporting in inner integument, however, the cells in inner layer next to the embryo sac appeared to be the major passage. In mature embryo sac, there was cuticle between inner integument and embryo sac at the half of micropyle end. But between embryo sac at the half of chalaza end and nucellus, cuticle was absent. Nutrient could get into embryo sac from chalaza end undoubtedly. As egg apparatus showed the fluorescence after formation of fluorescence center of inner integument at micropylar end, the possibility that nutrient got into embryo sac from micropyle could not be excluded.
Abstract (Browse 1944)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytology and Histology in Somatic Embryogenesis of Indica Rice
Author: Ling Ding-hou, D.S. Brar and F. J. Zapata
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(5)
      
    The somatic embryogenesis was established from mature dehulled seeds. The histological research showed that embryogenic calli were initiated first from absorbed cells of scutellum of mature seed. And then the embryoids derived from the surface of embryogenic callus. Having been the same structure like a zygotic embryo of rice, the embryoids possessed the major parts of scutellum, coleoptile and coleorhiza. In an embryoid, several developmental stages of pro-embryoid, including single embryogenic cells, two, four and multiple cell stage pro-embryeids and some abnormal embryoids were observed. It could be concluded from this experiment that the embryoid from somatic cell culture in Indica rice possessed an original form of a plant in structure like a zygotic did and derived from a single cell.
Abstract (Browse 2090)  |  Full Text PDF       
Paramural Bodies in Callus Beside the Isolation Layer of the Graft Union
Author: Yang Shi-jie and Lou Cheng-hou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(5)
      
    The isolation layer of the graft union is a changeable component. It is formed and thickened during the early stage (Fig. 6) and disrupted, thinned and even disappeared durmg tile later stage of development of the graft (Fig. 1, 2, 14). A number of vesicles, paramarat bodies (Fig. 3, 5, 8, 9, 11, 13, 19), multivesicular bodies (Fig. 4, 15, 16, 18, 20) and concentric membrane bodies (Fig. 7) are observed in callus 'beside the isolation layer during both stages of development based on transmission electron microscopy. The paramural body comprises invagination of plasmalemma containing numerous vesicles and/or tubules situated between the cell wall and the plasmalemma. The multivesicular body is a organelle about 0.5-米m in diameter with a single membrane surrounding several smaller single vesicles. It is possible that multivesicular body and/or single iesicles transverse the plasmalemma to produce paramural body. The figures show that the paramural bodies appear always beside the isolalion layer at the different stages of development of the graft union and the multivesicular bodies appear mostly near the region where plasmodesmata are secondarily formed between the stock and the scion (Fig. 15, 17, 20). This may reflect that paramural body and multivesi- cular body, as well as single vesicles, are capable of performing vesicular transport. The deposition and reabsorption of material of the isolation layer occur due to vesicular transport. All the above facts seem to indicate that paramural body, multivesicular body and single vesicles can be both endocytotic and exocytotic. The present study supports the theory of vesicular transport, and authors suggest that transcellular cytosis occurs not only through plasmodesmata but also through plasmalemma in oapoplast. The single vesicles, paramural bodies and multivesicular bodies take an active part in the transport process of symplast-apoplast-symplast.
Abstract (Browse 2026)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Variation and Ecochemistry of Rabdosia eriocalyx
Author: Wang Zong-yu, Rean De-chun, Chen Zong-lian and Wang Chuan-fun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(5)
      
    In this paper, authors deal with the change Laws of phytomorphology and active component content of Rabdosia eriocalyx (Dunn) Hara showing antitumor activity in various time, locality and habitat, From these authors illustrate the relation between species and variety, and the best harvest stage.
Abstract (Browse 1920)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Ultrastructural Study on the Early Embryonic Development of Radish
Author: Qiu De-bo and D.J. Harberd
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(5)
      
    The ultrastructure of the mature embryo sac, the early stages of the embryo and endosperm development of common radish, Raphanur sativus was examined. The embryo sac consists of 7 cells with antipodal ceils disappeared when it matures. The egg cell is highly polarized. The wall surrounded the chalazal end of the egg cell is incomplete, showing a discontinuous structure of an electron dense material deposited intermittently in the space between the two plasma membranes of the egg cell and central cell. The synergid has filiform apparatus, rich in organelles and well developed ER. The two polar nuclei of the central cell are located near the egg apparatus because of the big vacuole, and the finger-like protrutions from the cell wall, as that in synergid, are found. The first division of the zygote occurs 4每5 days after pollination and the development of the embryo follows the Onagrad type, and the structure of the embryo cell is quite simple for containing small quantity of ER, plastids and other organelles. The primary endosperm nucleus deviates 2 days earlier than zygote. The endosperm is of nuclear-endosperm containing chloroplasts, well developed ER, and plentiful of mitochondria and golgi bodies and the nodule-like aggregation in both. the chalazal and micropylar ends of the embryo sac during the early development appeared, and cell wall starting at the micropylar end by freely-growing forms about 16 days after pollination.
Abstract (Browse 1839)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on G-bands and Macrocoils in Plant Chromosomes
Author: Yang Xiao-feng and Zhang Zi-li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(5)
      
    Four different methods including trypsin urea, SDS and NaOH are presented for the in situ induction of G-bands and macrocoils on the chromosomes of Secale cereale, Hordeum vulgare and Vicia faba. The bands obtained were numerous and along the whole chromosome, the number of the G-bands was much interrelated with the condensation of chromosomes. The bands of homologous chromosomes in some cells were matchable. The G-banded chromosomes in late prophase have nearly reached high resolution level. When incubation periods were beyond critical time for G-banding, macrocoils were often revealed. Gyre number changed with chromosome condensation and the direction of coils has showed different patterns. Transformation of G-bands into macrocoils was first reported in plant chromosomes. Some chromosomes showing G-bands under light microscope appeared spiral patterns under scanning electron microscope. In this paper the relationship between G-bands and macrocoils in plant chromosomes is also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1858)  |  Full Text PDF       
Embryogenic Suspension Culture and Plant Regeneration from Suspension-Derived Proto-plasts of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)
Author: Jia Shi-rong, Luo Mei-zhong and Lin Yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(5)
      
    Fast growing embryogenic cell suspension culture was established when embryogenic callus derived from cotyledon protoplasts of cucumber was transferred into a liquid culture. So far the cell line has been subcultured for two years and retained the ability of embryogenesis and plant regeneration. Experimental data showed that the concentration of ABA or sucrose had a dramatic effect on embryogenesis and synchronization of embryoid development. Low level of sucrose concentration (1%) facilitated the precocious germination of the embryoids while 1 mg/l of ABA or 7每9% of sucrose was found to be effective for reducing callusing of the cultures and synchronisticly controlling the embryoids at globular or late globular stage. Embryogenic cells taken from 3每5 days after subculture were enzymatically digested. A large amount of viable protoplasts was isolated. Protoplasts were cultured in a DPDK1 medium either by means of drop or thin layer liquid culture or by means of sodium alginate encapsulation culture. Actively dividing cells formed cell colonies and globular embryoids which were transferred onto a solidified agar medium or directly into a liquid medium to form a shaken culture. The embryoids would proliferated continuously. Embryoids eventually developed into plantlets when they were transferred onto a 1/2 MSO medium devoid of phytohormones.
Abstract (Browse 1880)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Structural Changes During the Degeneration Process of Antipodal Complex and Its Function to Endosperm Formation in Wheat Caryopsis
Author: Zhang Wei-cheng, Yan Wen-mei and Lou Cheng-hou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(5)
      
    During the early developmental stage of wheat caryopsis the antipodal complex (composed of 20 or more cells) located on the chalazal part of embryo sac gradually turns to degeneration and degradation from its outer part to the innermost, undergoing apparent structural changes of protoplasm. The senescent tissue (antipodals) exports its cell contents continually to support the proliferation and enlargement of the adjacent free-nuclear endosperm and accommodate the dual function of both material transport and nurture supply. The lacking of callose deposition on the boundary wails between antipodals and endosperm is much benefit to the solute transport, but not all cell contents in antipodals undergo thorough degradation until exporting, at least, part of the protoplasm only undergoes limited structural disintegration. The disassembled protoplasmic constituents actively migrate through symplast route in the form of macromolecule. This shows another mode of material transport in feeding endosperm. The occurrence of wide cytoplasmic channel in part of boundary wal ls berween antipodals and endosperm shows a special structural transformation of intercellular connection. Therefore, disassembled nuclear materials, cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum and plastids, mitochondria, etc. could migrate from antipodals into the developing endosperm. It is deduced that this mode of material transport may play an important role in supporting rapid proliferation and enlargement of free-nuclear endosperm in the developing caryopsis.
Abstract (Browse 1965)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Light intensity on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Wheat Seedling
Author: Zhang Qi-de, Tang Chong-qin, Lin Shi-qing, Lou Shi-qing and Kuang Ting-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(5)
      
    The contents of pigments and chlorophyll-protein complexes, fluorescence characteristics and electron transport rate were compared for wheat seedlings grown under different light intensities. Leaves of wheat seedlings grown under low-light intensity (2 klx) had lower chlorophyll and carotenoid contents on leaf area or fresh weight basis, a lower ratio of chlorophyll a/b, lower CPIa and CPI contents in photosynthetic membranes than those of wheat seedlings grown under high-light intensity (20 klx). However, the LHCP content in photosynthetic membranes was higher in the former. The kinetic studies of fluorescence induction showed that wheat seedlings grown under low-light intensity possessed a bigger photosynthetic unit, lower PSj activity and lower efficiency of primary energy conversion than those grown under high-light intensity. Moreover. lower electron transport rate was found in the chloroplasts of the former.
Abstract (Browse 2041)  |  Full Text PDF       
Tannins from Bendo Eucalyptus
Author: Ma Zi-chao and Lawrence J. Porter
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1988 30(5)
      
    The gallic acid, (+)-catechin and myricetin glucoside have been isolated and indentified from Bendo Eucalyptus, and two kinds of dimeric flavan-3-ol B1 and B3 were isolated as their peracetates and identified by chromatography on TLC and 1H NMR spectroscopic cha- racteristics. It is showed that condensed tannin is a procyanidin with (+)-catechin as terminal units and (每)-epicatechin as extension units by hydrolyzation anthocyanidin reaction, phloroglucinol degradation and polarimetry, UV and IR spectrometry, HPLC, 3C NMR. Linkage is C4每C8. Degree of polymerization is about 4每5.
Abstract (Browse 2066)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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