January 1989, Volume 31 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
Studies on the Spore Morphology of Selaginella sinensis and Its Ecological Significance
Author: Wu Yu-shu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(1)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 2184)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on Chemical Components of the Essential Oil from Peel of Citrus grandis Osbeck Native to China
Author: Lin Zheng-kui and Hua Ying-fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(1)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1907)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Analysis of Aroma Components for Oenothera odorata Jacq Fresh Flowers
Author: Zheng Yao-qing, Xu Hong-yan, Sun Yi-liang, Wu Zhu-ping and Liu Mi-xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(1)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1805)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cryopreservation of the Stem Segments in Chinese Gooseberry
Author: Jian Ling-cheng and Sun Long-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(1)
Abstract (Browse 1819)  |  Full Text PDF       
Evaluation of Environmental Quality of Atmosphere by Determination of Element content in Plants and Soils in Tianjin
Author: Lin Shun-hun, Huang Yin-xiao, Yao Yi-qun and Han Rong-zhuang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(1)
      
    165 plants and 40 soil samples were collected at seven areas in Tianjin. The analysis of sulphur and heavy metals in these samples showed the polluted degree of the air. It is indicated that the plants at smeltery (polluted industry area) contain Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb highest and NJ, S higher. The content of heavy metals in these plants were 3 to 11 times higher than that of the background value. In business-traffic area and park, the amount of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd in the plants were 1.5 to 3.5 times higher than the background value. In the other area, such as culture-education area, road and suburbs, the pollution is not significant, and in the clean area (Panshan), all elements in the plants are the lowest. As to the soils in polluted industry area (Smeltery), the amount of Ph, Cu, Cd, Zn and S was 725, 348, 9, 3 and 14 times higher than that of the background value respectively. Among them, most of Pb, Cu were deposited in surface layer. In soil of business-traffic area, Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and S were 2 to 10 times higher than the background value, and in the soil of clean area, all elements are also the lowest. The stomata of plants which were blocked by the particles going down from the air resulted in increase in the stamotal diffusive resistance and the order of the resistance in the different places are as follows: polluted industry areas > parks > business-traffic areas > road > clean areas. These results are in agreement with the polluted state of the plants and soils in above mentioned areas.
Abstract (Browse 1947)  |  Full Text PDF       
Biflavones of Taxus wallichiana Zucc
Author: Qiu Lin-gang, Lian Min, Ma Zhong-wu and He Guan-fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(1)
      
    Three biflavones have been isolated from the leaves of Taxus wallichiana Zucc. distributed in Himalaya Mountains in Xizang. Based on IR, UV, MS, and chemical method, they were identified as sciadopitysin (i), ginkgetin (j) and sequoiaflavone (k), respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1797)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Identification of Fatty Acid Component from Seed Oil of Microula sikkimensis (Clarke) Hemsl
Author: Li Jing-min, Wang Jing-ping and Yu Peng-lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(1)
      
    The seed oil content of Microula sikkimensis (Clarke) Hemsl. is up to 45% There is 8.1% of 污-linolenic acid which has the pharmacological action in the fatty acids composition, It has showed that this oil has a stronger effect on reducing triglyceride in serum. Fifteen different kinds of fatty acids were analysed. The unsaturated C20, C22, C24 acid, C18 triene-acid and tetraene-acid of the seed oil were separated on AgNO3-silica gel column and HPLC. and were identified by Periodata-Permanganate Oxidation, GLC, IR, UV, and MS. They are cis-11-eicosenoic, cis-13-docosenoic, cis-15-tetracosenoic, cis-6,9,12-octadecatrienoic and cis-6,9,12,15- octadecatetraenoic acids.
Abstract (Browse 2012)  |  Full Text PDF       
An Approach to a Function of Photorespiration in C3 Plants
Author: Wu Ji-tuo and Gao Yu-zhu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(1)
      
    Intact attached leaves of wheat were illuminated at 2000 米mol m-2﹞s-1 in CO2-free gas for 3 hours, inhibition percentage of photosynthesis in these leaves by illumination was related lo oxygen concentration in the gas. (1) The damage to the leaves became less gradually when oxygen concentration rose from 0 to 10%. (2) Almost no damage occurred between 10%每50% O2. (3) The damage appeared again when oxygen concentration exceeded 50%. The duration of CO2 outburst of wheat leaves in CO2-free gas containing 8%每11% O2 was 0nly about 15每30 min. However, no photoinhibition could be observed under this condition. Oxygen also could prevent isolated chloroplasts from the damage by strong light. No matter what concentration of oxygen in CO2-free gas was during photoinhibition treatment, the photodamaged site was always in PSj. It is concluded from the results that the way in which photoinhibition was alleviated by oxygen seems not only to be photorespiration, but also the other unknown mechanisms waich may play more important part in it.
Abstract (Browse 1913)  |  Full Text PDF       
Water Vapour Diffusion in the Substomatal Cavity
Author: Yang Shu-dong and Wang Tian-duo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(1)
      
    In this paper stomatal pore and substomatal cavity are considered to be elliptic cylinders, A three-dimensional diffusion model is presented, which describes the diffusion of vapour from the surfaces of the cells surrounding the cavity to the outer end of the pore Equations describing vapour diffusion in the model are set up, based on Fick's law and the law of conservation of mass, and are solved by using computer. Quantitative relation between the cavity resistance to water vapour diffusion and: stomatal aperture is obtained and is given more general theoretical explanation. Comparing the formula obtained in this paper with those of Brown and Escombe and of Cooke et al., it is found that the cavity resistance calculated by the latter two formulas are 0.5 to 1 times higher in a large rankle of stomatal aperture values. Besides, it is shown by calculating that the rates of loss from guard cells and subsidiary ceils account for 88%每 93% and 7%每12% respectively of that from epidermic cells, and the litter amounts to 86%每96% of that from all the cells in the cavity in the large range of stomatal change.
Abstract (Browse 2217)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes Resolved from Ultrasonically Broken Thylakoid Memb-ranes of Blue-Green Algae
Author: Li Tong-zhu and Kuang Ting-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(1)
      
    When the thylakoid membranes of blue-green algae were broken by ultrasonic vibrations and subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at 4⊥, six green zones were resolved. They were designated as CPIa, CPlb, CPI; CPal, CPa2, and FC. The absorption spectrum of CPI had a red maximum at 674 nm and a peak in the blue at 435 nm. It was identified as PS chlorophyll a-protein Complex, but was contaminated with minor PSj which was implied by the appearance of fluorescence emission peak at 680 nm besides the main one at 725 nm at 77 K. The spectral properties of CPIa and CPlb were similar to that of CPl. The absorption spectra of CPa1 and CPa2 were similar, both having red maxima at 667 nm and peaks in the blue at 431.5 nm. Their fluorescence emission had the same peaks at 684 nm at 77 K indicating that they belonged to PSj. It was recognized that CPal of 47 kD is the reaction center complex of photosystem j and CPa2 of 40 kD is the internal antenna complex of photosystem j. The spectral characteristics of the chlorophyll-protein complexes resolved by ultrasonic method were similar to those of the same complexes resolved by SDS solubilization, except the absorbance positions of CPa1 and CPa2 in the blue peak and the red one which shifted to blue about 3每5 nm. It was calculated that in thylakoid membranes of blue-green algae 40.93% chlorophyll was in PSi, while 38.78% of chlorophyll in PSj. The difference of chlorophyll contents between PSi and PSj was only 2.15%. Concerning the fact that minor PSj compound remained in the part of PSi zones, it might be concluded that the distribution of chlorophyll between PSi and PSj in blue-green algae was equal. This result was in agreement with the hypothesis that PSi and PSj operates in series in photosynthetic electron transport.
Abstract (Browse 1786)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytochemical Localization of ATPase activity in the cells of Vascular Bundle of Different Parts in Sugarcane Leaves
Author: Peng Shi-yao, Zhuang Wei-jian and Liu Li-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(1)
      
    The results obtained by the cytochemical localization of ATPase activity reaction indicate that tile high enzyme activity was exhibited at the plasmalemma and endoplasmic reticulum in sieve elements and companion cells, and observed in the ground cytoplasm, vesicles and vacuoles of some companion cells. The reaction products of ATPase activity were also found at the plasmalemma and in the vesicles of parenchymatous, sclerenchymatous and mestom cells, and shown in intercellular spaces between the bundle sheath cells and the sclerenchyma cells or the mestom cells. The reaction strength of ATPase activity in different kinds of vascular bundles and its neighbouring mesophyll cells appeared to be not consistent. The activity at the free surfaces of mesophytl cells around large vein is higher than that of middle vein, and that of small vein is the lowest. Contrarily, the ATPase activity at the plasmalemma in small vein sheath cells is higher than that of middle and large vien. The highest ATPase activity was localized at the plasmalemma of phloem cells. Very high ATPase activity was also found at the plasmodesmata between the bundle sheath cell and the mesophyll cell. The results suggest that the photosynthates may be moved from mesophyll cells into bundle sheath cells through the plasmodesmata, and exported to apoplast of phloem from chlorenchymatous bundle sheath cells, and then actively loaded into the sieve element-companion cell complex.
Abstract (Browse 1903)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Mininucleolus in Nuclei of Meristematic Cells of Vicia faba
Author: Xing Miao, Hao Shui and Tong De-juan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(1)
      
    A small intranuclear body, termed spherule, mininucleolus, karyosome, nuclear body or coiled body, has been reported in the cell of higher plants. This intranuclear body has been suggested to represent products of transcription, to correspond to the complex of transcription, or to be related to the RNA metabolism after transcription. Opinions on its composition are diverse and the origin and functions of the body are still obscure. We studied this intranuclear body, called mininucleolus in our paper, and found that the body appeared as an ovoid or spherical structure about 0.3 to 0.5 米m in diameter. The mininucleolus was shown, with conventional TEM staining, to be the same electron-dense as the condensed chromatin, but no structural connections could be found between them. The results of Bernhard's staining and the protein specific staining indicated that the mininucleolus contained both RNA and proteins which formed ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles about 15 米m in diameter. These particles are very similar, in their ultrastructure and chemical composition, to the granular components of the nucleolus. A careful examination revealed that the mininucleoli were formed in the granular region of the nucleolus. After they became separated from the nucleolus, these bodies were distributed throughout the nucleoplasm, suggesting that they may move from the nucleolus to the nuclear membrane. Based on these data, we suggest that the mininucleolus is a non-chromatin intranuclear structure which is formed in the nucleolus and may have a function of transporting ribosomal RNA from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm.
Abstract (Browse 1899)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Studies on Woods of Three Species of Normal and Dwarf Trees
Author: Wang Yu-fei and Li Zheng-li(Lee Cheng-lee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(1)
      
    Wood structure of three species i.e. Larix chinensis Beissn., Alnus sibirica Fisch. and Quercus mongolica Fisch. of normal and dwarf trees were comparatively studied. The age variation of width of annual rings and size of tracheary elements in these trees follows their own regularities respectively during the course of ontogenesis. In normal, as trees grow, the width of annual rings increases gradually, reaches maximum, then declines in subsequence; while the size of tracheary elements exhibits a crescendo increment, and remains constant after reaching maximum. These trends were not affected by the change of enviromental conditions in which the trees grow. However, the width of annual rings and size of tracheary elements of dwarf trees which grow in adverse circumstances are respectively narrower and smaller than those of normal trees. Further, in dwarf tree of L. chinensis (coniferous wood); the diameter of bordered pits on tracheids of early wood decreases, ray height is lower and ray frequence is higher. In dwarf tree of A. sibirica (diffuse porous wood), vessel frequence increases and the number of bars per perforation decreases. The quatitative features of wood structure of dwarf trees, as compared with those of normal trees, showed more variations; whereas, their own qualitative features of wood structure remain constant. These findings might indicate that modifications of wood structure responsing directly to change of enviromental conditions are usually only qualitative.
Abstract (Browse 1802)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regeneration from Cotyledon Protoplasts of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)
Author: Wang Guang-yuan, Xia Zhen-ao (Hsia Chen-au), Chi Jing-fen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(1)
      
    otyledon protoplasts of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) isolated from 2每3 week grown seedlings were cultured in MS liquid medium (2,4-D 1, 6-BA 0.1 mg/l) and fresh medium added subsequently. After 6 weeks culture, the cell clusters were transferred to semisolid medium (the additive same as in liquid medium, agar 0.3%). When the calli grew to 0.5 cm in diameter, transfer them to MS medium (6-BA 2, IAA 0.2 mg/l) for differentiation. The regenerated plants were obtained. After comparing different culture methods, tomato protoplasts grew better in double layers than in agar plate and hanging drops.
Abstract (Browse 1892)  |  Full Text PDF       
An Ultrastructural Study on the In Vitro Parthenogenesis in Sunflower
Author: Yan Hua and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(1)
      
    This is the first report of ultrastructural studies on the parthenogenetic processes induced by in vitro culture of unfertilized ovules. A high responsive sunflower cultivar ※Dang Yang§ was used as material. Ovules at one day before anthesis were inoculated on solid N6 medium supplemented with 12% sucrose, 100 mg/l inositol but free from exogenous hormone. The culture was maintained at 28⊥ and in darkness. Samples were collected prior to inoculation and after 5 and 10 (lays of culture respectively. The chalazal part of the ovules was cut off and the micropylar part containing embryo sac was fixed with glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide. After dehydration through ethanol and propylene oxide series, the samples were infiltrated and embedded in Poly/Bed 812. Ultrathin sections were made with a Sorval MT-6000 ultratome, stained with uranyl acotate and lead citrate, and observed under a JEM-100 CX/II electron microscope. By careful selection of the sections, we were able to find several activated egg cells and parthenogenetic proembryos. The activated egg cells, as compared with the egg prior to inoculation, showed profound ultrastructural changes. These included locomotion of the nucleus from its former position near the chalazal pole toward the center of the cell, loss of polarity, increase and activation of organelles, wall formation at chalazal part of the cell and so on, indicating a triggering to parthenogenetic development in such cells. The consequent parthenogenetic proembryos showed some peculiar features other then in vivo zygotic proembryos: In some proembryos, two parts with different electronic density were found; the micropylar part consisting of dense cells was similar to an embryo, and the chalazal part consisting of light cells bore resemblance to a suspensor. This was likely an inversion of polarity. Another feature of the parthenogenetic proembryos was frequent occurrence of autophagic vacuoles in their cells, which might be a degeneration symptom, or alternatively a self-regulatory activity or a continuation of the dedifferentiation process. There were also some peculiar aspects concerning the cell wall of proembryos, including a free growth mode often resulting in incomplete wall formation. The authors tend to refer the above mentioned ultrastructural peculiarities to the effects of in vitro culture.
Abstract (Browse 1750)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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