October 1989, Volume 31 Issue 10

 

          Research Articles
Callus Regeneration from Protoplasts of Panax ginseng
Author: Li Le-gong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(10)
      
    Protoplasts were enzymatically isolated from the cultured cell line No. 246 of Panax ginseng and suspended in a 67V-D liquid medium. After 35 days of culture, the cell clusters derived from protoplasts were transfered to a 67V-E semisolid medium. When the cell clusters grew to 2 mm approximately, they were transfered to common 67V medium for the callus regeneration.
Abstract (Browse 1933)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary investigation on the Vegetational and Climatic Changes Since 11, 000 Years in Qinghai Lake An Analysis Based on Palynology in Core QH85-14C
Author: Da Nai-qiu, Kong Zhao-chen anti Shan Fa-shou
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(10)
      
    Qinghai Lake is the largest inland saline lake in China. it is situated in the northeastern part of the Qinghai Xizang Plateau. This paper is based on the information of the sporo-pollen assemblages of 47 samples from the drill core and surface samples. The general treads of vegetational and climatic changes since 11,000 years B. P. may be subdivided in ascending order as follows: In the first stage which corresponds to zone i of the sporo-pollen assemlage, the vegetation during the past of 11,000每10,000 years was represented by a temperate shrub, semi-shrub and steppe, consisting of Chenopodiaceae. Artemisia, Nitraria, Ephedra and Gramineae were predominant. At the same time, some subalpine conifers, Pinus, Picea and Betula, would grow by the side of rivers and lakes, the climate was warmer and wetter than that of the Late Pleistocene. Due to the rising temperature in this zone, the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary might be estimated at about 11,000 years B. P.. The vegetation of the first stage belonges to temperate steppe with a few trees: In the second stage (Zonej of pollen), the vegetation was characterized by a temperate forest steppe during this period of 10,000 to 8,000 years B. P. Forest area apparently increased and some broadleaf deciduous and need leaf evergretn trees, such as Quercus, Betula, Pinus and Picea, grew by lakes and on mountains. At this time, the climate was warmer and wetter than that of the first stage. In the third stage (Zone k) between B,000 and 3,500 years B. P, The vegetation was composed of a temperate mixed broad-leaf deciduous and needle-leaf evtrgreen forest. The needle-leaf evergreen forest consisting of Picea, Pinus, Abies, Betula grew in temperate zone mountains. The climate was relatively warm and wet. The fouth stage (zone IV), the vegetation was dominated by shrub semishrub, dwarf semishrubs, steppe and semi-arbors. Some trees consisting of Betula, Picea, and Pinus decreased in number in the lake regions. Some subalpine cold temperature evergreen trees, such as Abies and picea disappeared from the lake region. This indicated that the climate was warmer and drier during the past 3500每1500 years B. P. than the third zone. In the fifth stage (pollen zone V), the vegetation comprised steppe and desert from 1500 years ago to the present time. Some arborealtrus such as Betula and Pinus were less increased about 500 years B. P. at this time the temperate and wet slightly, rose up. From the above analysis, it is clear that the Qinghai lake region has been confronted with the vegetational and climatic changes since ll,000 years B. P. Therefore, the palynoflora of the Qinghai lake has its significance in Geography and vegetational history.
Abstract (Browse 1921)  |  Full Text PDF       
Liposoluble Compounds in Oscillatoria renuis
Author: Wu Qing-yu, Yi Yin, Sheng Guo-ying and Fu Jia-mo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(10)
      
    Living microplanktonic blue-green alga Oscillatoria tenuis has been cultured in the laboratory as experimental material. The chemical analysis showed that the weight of liposoluble organic matter in O. tenuis was 5.8% of dry cell and the amounts of pigments were more over than those of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The distribution of hydrocarbons in O. tenuis indicated that a dominance of normal alkanes between n-C14 and n-C19, while a maximum at n-C17.The pigments, such as demagnesium chlorophyll a, 汕-carotene and an unknown orange-red pigment have been measured in the alcohol fraction and benzene fraction of liposoluble compounds on column chromatography. The research of liposoluble compounds, especially aliphatic hydrocarbons in blue-green algae is valuable to understand them as original materials for the organic matter found in ancient sediments.
Abstract (Browse 1960)  |  Full Text PDF       
Indole Alkaloids of Melodinur henryi Craib
Author: Li Chao-ming, Tao Guo-da, Wu Shu-guang, Zhong Ji-yu and Zhou Yun-li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(10)
      
    The fruits of Melodinus henryi Craib (Apocynaceae) are used in folk medicine for the treatment of children meningitis and fractureetc. Eight indole alkaloids have been isolated from the roots and fruits of Melodinus henryi Craib by aluminum oxide and silica gel chro- matography. Seven of them were identified as tabersonine (1), 11-methoxy-tabersonine (2), lo- chnerinine (3), →14-vincamine (4), 16-epi-→14-vincamine (5), →14-eburnamine (6) and 19, 20- dihydrocondylocapine (7). The other one, namely, tenuicausine (8), is a dimeric indole alkaloid. Their structures were elucidated by spectral and chemical methods.
Abstract (Browse 1996)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Reactivation of Aerated Nitrogenase MoFe Protein from Azotobacter vinelandii by the Compounds of iron Molybdenum and Sulfur
Author: Huang Ju-fu, Luo Ai-ling, Xie Xue-mei and Wang Ao-jin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(10)
      
    After the exposure to air, the crystalline nitrogenase MoFe protein from Azotobacter vinelandii was resulted in the remarkable increase in its absorption (ABS) and the significant decrease in its activity and circular dichroism (CD). However, when the aerated MoFe protein was incubated with the reconstituting solution which consisted of Na2MoO4, ferric citrate, Na2S and dithiothreitol, the ABS and CD of the aerated. MoFe protein both were completely restored, simultaneously with the significant restoration of acetylene reduction. It is shown that the P-cluster and other parts related to the protein activity which was damaged by O2 are able to be repaired to a certain extent by the reconstituting solution.
Abstract (Browse 1925)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Sulfur on the Ethylene Production in Rice Seedlings
Author: Zhang Ying-ju and Xiao Ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(10)
      
    The rice seedlings for experimental use were raised by water culture. When the seedlings were grown in sulfur deficient solutin for 13每15 days, the ethylene production from the roots and the leaves was decreased. If seedlings were continuously grown in sulfur deficient solution, the ethylene production was decreased in roots, lint increased in leaves. When the S-deficient seedlings were supplied with SO42- or 0.1 mmol/l cysteine, the ethylene production was increased approximately up to that in control after 36 and 12 hours respectively. The S-deficient seedlings supplied with 0.1 mmol/l methionine for 6 hours will produce much more ethylene than that in control. The contents of cystine and methionine were decreased in leaves of S-deficient seedlings grown for 13 days.
Abstract (Browse 1813)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Drying Method of Plant Specimens for Scanning Electron Microscopy the t-Butyl Alcohol Freeze-Drying Method
Author: Gao De-lu, Zhang He-min and Su Xiu-zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(10)
      
    The t-butyl alcohol freeze-drying method (lnoue and Osatake 1988) is a simple drying method of biological materials for scanning electron microscopy Fixed specimens were immersed in t-butyl alcohol after dehydration throgh a graded series of ethanol. Specimens in the alcohol were then forzen in a refrigerator. They were placed in the bell jar of a vacuum evaporator and simply evacuated with a rotary pump. The samples were completely dried within 40每60 min after the frozen alcohol was sublimated in the vacuum, when the specimen was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), both surface and intracellular structures were demonstrated in three-dimension without any significant drying artifacts. Careful comparison of the results indicated that the SEM imayes obtained by this method were either superior or equal to those obtained by the critical point drying method.
Abstract (Browse 2173)  |  Full Text PDF       
Establishment and Characterization of Haploid Suspension Cells in Supersweet Maize
Author: Sun Jing-san (C.S.Sun), Lu Tie-gang and M. R. Sondahl
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(10)
      
    Maize haploids contain only one set of chromosomes (monohaploids or true haploids), there is no opposition of dominant and recessive alleles. No gene is masked by a dominant allele. With these characteristics, haploid cell lines of maize offer an ideal system of isolating recessive mutants. It is easier to detect mutations in this system than those in diploids or polyhaploids that carry more than one set of chromosomes. The successful application of haploids for mutant selection requires the establishment of cell suspension cultures. Although a numerous studies on the haploid production from anther culture of maize have been reported during the last decade, the establishment of embryogenic cell suspension cultures from haploid callus of maize has not yet been documented. In this paper authors describe the selection of haploid friable embryogenic callus lines from some commercial important cultivars of supersweet maize and the establishment of haploid embryogenic cell suspension cultures. Twenty eight haploid highly embryogenic friable callus (Type j) lines were selected from gametophytic callus of commercial supersweet maize. This callus produced a large number of globular somatic embryos on its surface on the callus maintenance medium containing 2 mg/l 2,4-D. Some embryos developed and germinated subsequently into complete plantlets when the embryogenic callus was transferred on to the regeneration medium with 0.01 mg/l 2,4-D and 2 mg/l zeatin. Eight suspension cell lines were established from 3-month-old embryogenic friable callus in liquid medium. The medium which contained the mineral salts of N6 medium, vitamins and inositol of MS medium and was supplemented with 2 mg/l, 2,4-D, 200 mg/l casein hydrolysat (CH), 1.0 g/l 2-(N-morpholino)-ethanesulfonic acid (MES) and 3% sucrose, was optimal for growth of the suspension cells. Addition of CH and MES into the liquid medium was beneficial for the growth of the suspension cells. When the conditions were optimal, the suspension cells doubled in dry weight after about 3 days. An exponential increase in dry weight of the suspension cells occurred between 7 and 8 day following subculture (Fig. 2). Culture medium pH decreased from an initial pH of 5.6 after subculture to pH 4.1 within 2 days culture. There was a direct relationship between the growth rate of suspension cells and medium pH changes (Fig. 2). Suspension cells which were plated at low densities on filters directly over a feeder layer of nurse cells exhibited more colony formation frequency than that on filters without feeder layer. The data in the Table 1 show that the plated supersweet maize cells were nursed most effectively by the parental supersweet maize suspension cultures. The suspension cells and the regenerated plantlets were cytologically stable. Among 390 suspension cells examined, 343 (88.0%) had the haploid chromosomes (2n= 10), 45(11.5%) had an aneuploid chromosome number, amongst them 24 cells with 11 chromosomes (2n=10+l) and 21 cells with 12 chromosomes (2n=10+2), only two cells (0.51%) had a diploid chromosome number (2n=20) (Table 2). Examination of 21 regeneration plants derived from suspension cells revealed that all of them were haploid (2n=10) except one (2n=20+1).
Abstract (Browse 2140)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes in the Syntheses of DNA, RNA and Protein during Early Somatic Embrogenesis in Sainfoin(Onobrychis viciaefolia Sccp.)
Author: Lu Tie-gang and Zheng Guo-chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(10)
      
    Hypocotylar explants of Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop. were cultured on LS basal medium supplemented with 1 mg/l BA and 1 mg/l KT. After two weeks of culture, calli were initiated on the surface of sections. Light-Yellow callus from .one of the explants was selected and proliferated on the medium above. Then it was transfered to LS medium with 1 mg/l BA to initiate somatic embryogenesis. The activity of RNA synthesis increased rapidly during the first two days. Of embryogenic culture and then decreased, but on the 5th day increased gradually. The activity of protein synthesis increased during the first three days and was the highest on the 3rd day. The activity of DNA synthesis had no mark change and emerged, a small peak on the 5th day. All the activities of syntheses of DNA, RNA and protein were higher on embryogenic culture than on nonembryogenic culture.
Abstract (Browse 1877)  |  Full Text PDF       
Light and Electron Microscopic Observation on the Developing Pattern of Cotyledons of Nelumbo nucifera
Author: Tang Pei-hua, Sun De-lan, Zhao Jing, Su Xiu-zhen and Jiang Hun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(10)
      
    The whole growing period (from the formation of cotyledon primordia till ripe) of cotyledons of Nelumbo nucifera takes about 30 days, but can be varied in 3每5 days according to the varieties, temperature, light duration and its intensity during the blooming season. The observations by light and electron microscopy show that the feature and structure of mesophyllous cell are changed greatly during its development. The developing pattern of the cotyledons is similar to that of dicotyledonous plants. For comparitive analysis the authors divide the whole developing process into four developing phases: i, the phase of cell division and organ formation; j, the phase of cell vacuolation, elongation and swelling; k, the phase of main physiological function in which the materials are largely synthesized and accumulated and l, the phase of dehydration, contraction, maturation and dormancy. The development of mesophyllous cells in different part of cotyledons is not simultaneous and the duration of each phase is also different. In general, the developing order is from the base to the top and first the outlayer then the centre. On the 25每26th days after fertilization almost all mesophyllous cells are developing into maturation and dormancy by order. This is the first report about the developing pattern of cotyledons and the ultrastructural changes in mesophyllous cells of Netumbo nucifera.
Abstract (Browse 1934)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Microtubule Cold Stability in Relation to Plant Cold Hardiness
Author: Jian Ling-cheng, Sun Long-hua and Lin Zhong-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(10)
      
    A comparative study on the microtubule cold stability of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), beet (Beta saccharifera) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) was carried out by immunofluorescent microscopy. The results indicated that the depolymerization of microtubules in the stomatal guard-cells of chilling sensitive plants, tomato and cucumber occurred under the chilling treatment of 0 ⊥每1 ⊥ for 3 hrs, but, in mediate cold rtsistant plants, spinach and beer did not so when their cold acclimated seedlings were treated for 3 hrs at 0 ⊥ and每5 ⊥. The microtubules in the stronger cold resistant winter wheat variety Nongta 139 were maintained in low temperature acclimating period, and could not be destroyed after the cold acclimated seedlings were frozen at 每8 ⊥for 3 hrs,. The results suggest that the microtubule cold stability is closely related to the cold hardiness of plants.
Abstract (Browse 1973)  |  Full Text PDF       
Immunochemical Identification of Myosin and Actin in Onion (Allium cepa) Bulb
Author: Tang Xiao-jing and Yah long-fei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(10)
      
    Specific antisera to Physarum actin and chicken skeletal muscle myosin have been prepared respectively. Using these antisera, myosin and actin are found to exist in onion bull, by counter immunoelectrophoresis, rocket immunotelectrophoresis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Abstract (Browse 1774)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cloning and Sequencing of rpoA Gene from Rice Chloroplast Genume
Author: Sun Chong-rong and M. Sugiura
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(10)
      
    The result of southern hybridization showed that the rice chloroplast genome can encode its own RNA polymerase. The 汐 subunit gene fragment of this enzyme has been cloned into E. coli plasmid pUC 19. By deletion method and dideoxynucleotide chain termination, we analysed its nucleotides sequence. This gene consists of 337 codons. It reserves a high homology between rice, monocotyledonous plant and tobacco, dicotyledonous.
Abstract (Browse 1974)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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