November 1989, Volume 31 Issue 11

 

          Research Articles
A Study on the Chemical Constituent of Essential Oils of Parthenium argentatum a Gray Leaves
Author: Zhu Xin-qiang, Wang Guo-liang, Wang Jin-feng and Jia Wei-jiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(11)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 2026)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on the Triglyceride Composition in Apricot Kernel Oil, Peach Kernel Oil and Plum Kernel Oil
Author: Liao Xue-kun, Guo Hui-ran and Wang Hui-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(11)
      
    The triglyceride composition of kernel oils from apricot, peach and plum was separated and analysed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The results showed that their oils predominantly contained OOO and OLO among 11 triglycerides.
Abstract (Browse 2005)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cyto-Histological Observations on Organogenesis of Rubus laciniatus Culture In Vitro
Author: Ke Shan-qiang, Fu Jun, Gui Yao-lin and Xu Ting-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(11)
      
    Leaf explants of Rubus laciniatus were cultured on Nitsch and Nitsch basic medium supplemented with either 6-BA 2 mg/L and NAA 0.1 kg/l or 2, 4-D 2.5 mg/l and NAA 0.1 mg/l. Adventitious buds were produced from leaf-like structures. Some ultrastructural observations of cells have shown that the most easy change part of a plastid during the cell differentiation in Rubus leaf explant culture in vitro was lamella system, storage starch and plastogluboli.
Abstract (Browse 1808)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on the Cuticle of Otozamites hsiangchiensis Sze
Author: Sun Bai-nian, Yang Shu and Shen Guang-long
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(11)
      
    According to the systematical study on the cuticular samples of Otozamites hsiangchiensis Sze, authors indicated that there were some obvious changes of epidermal structures in different parts of its frond. The relation between the changes and the externally morphological feature of the frond is discussed. Authors compare also the species with other similar species of the genus Otozamites. On the basis of the careful measure on its minute characteristic, the cuticular diagnosis of the species is given as follows: Upper cuticles were 2C2.5 m in thickness, without stomata, papillae and trichome bases. Epidermal cells rectangular, nerve-courses and interveinareas were distinguishable. Lower cuticles were slightly thinner than upper ones, with densely stomatal apparatus and papillae. Cells of stomatal zones were irregular in outline. Cells of nerve-courses arranged in 2C3 transverse rows and more or less rectangular in outline. Anticlinal wails of all cells were strongly sinuous. Stomata is syndetocheilic, slightly sunken and varied in size, most of them arranged in long or short rows, only a few dispersed. Guard cells were slightly lower than subsidiary cells. Subsidiary cells were subcircular in outline, more heavily cutinized than encircling cells.
Abstract (Browse 1910)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Gnetum montanum Markg
Author: Zhou Jian-bo, Chen Yu-shu, Zhao Shu-nian and Xie Jia-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(11)
      
    Six compounds had been isolated from the stem of Gnetum montanum Markgr, on the basis of spectral analysis (UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS), physico-chemical constants and preparation of the derivative. They were identified as 2-hydroxy-3-methoxyl-4-methoxycarbonyl pyrrole (1), 2-hydroxy-3-methoxymethyl-4-methoxycarbonyl pyrrole (2), 3,4-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-dibenzyl ether (3), 3, 3,4-trihydroxy-4-methoxy-dibenzy ether (4), 2,3-diphenyl-pyrrole (5) and aminemethyl-methyl alcohol (6). (1)(4) are new compounds,
Abstract (Browse 1966)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Structure of Dresgenin from Dregea sinensis var. Corrugata
Author: Jin Qi-duan and Mu Quan-zhang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(11)
      
    Dresgenin, a new aglycone, was isolated from the rhizome of Dregea sinensis var. corrugata (Schneid) Tsiang et P. T. Li (Asclepiadaceae). On the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical reactions, the structure was established as C/D cis 5-H, 3, 8, 14, 17-tetrahydroxyl-12--O-benzoyl-20-hydrooxyl-pregnane. The mass spectrum suggests the presence of benzoyl group. Alkaline hydrolysis of () with 5% methanolic potassium hydroxide yields deacyldresgenin () and benzoic acid.
Abstract (Browse 1910)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Exogenous ABA on the Resistance to the Chilling Stress in Cucumber Seedlings
Author: Li Ping, Wang Yi-rou, Zhen Li-ping and Lin Hong-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(11)
      
    In the cucumber seedlings pretreated with ABA under light and dark or additional photosynthetic inhibitor (DCMU) before chilling, the effect and the regulative role of ABA on the chilling resistance of cucumber seedlings were investigated. After the excised cotyledonary discs were floated on 10-6 mol/l ABA solution for 24 h and the seedlings were sprayed by 10-4 mol/1 ABA in light, it has been found that ABA has an effect of the protection against low temperature injury in cucumber seedlings. The results showed that the leakage of electrolytes in cucumber cotyledory discs was decreased. The content of glutathione and the accumulation of MDA content in cotyledon of cucumber seedlings were decreased, and decline of the photosynthesis of the leaves or the quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence were slowed, thus the rate of survival in cucumber seedlings was raised. The effect of these regulation was able to be limited by dark or DCMU.
Abstract (Browse 1949)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Malondialdehyde on Activities of some Carboxylases and Cell Protective Enzymes in Spinach Leaves
Author: Lin Zhi-fang, Li Shuang-shun, Lin Gui-zhu and Guo Jun-yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(11)
      
    The activities of RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase, PEP carboxylase and glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase and three cell protective enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase) were reduced to different extents when malondialdehyde (MDA) was added to cell-free extracts of spinach leaves. The activities of RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase and glyceraldehyde-3-P de-hydrogenase were inhibited markedly at lower concentration of MDA. MDA also inhibited the activities of purified horseradish peroxidase and beef liver catalase as well. This irreversible inhibition might be prevented partially by cysteine, but not by glytathione and methionine. The peak of absorption was shifted from 245 nm to 266 nm when MDA reacted with catalase. It is suggested that the damaging effect of MDA accumulated in vivo to enzymes might cause the further dysfunction of metabolism in the cell.
Abstract (Browse 2030)  |  Full Text PDF       
Characteristics and Distributions of Isozymes of Superoxide Dismutase in Leaf Cella of Peanut and wheat
Author: Wu Bao-gan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(11)
      
    The isozymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in leaves of wheat and peanut were investigated and identified by isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. The total four bands were found in wheat leaves, among them the band with the highest mobility was proved to be the chloroplastic SOD, the others with intermediate mobilities were probably cytoplasmic SODs. It was observed that there was apparent difference between patterns of SOD isozymes from leaves of wild and cultivated peanut. Leaves of wild peanut contain three different types of SOD isozyme (band A, band B and band C). Band A and B were cyanide-sensitive, hence they should be Cu-Zn-SOD. Band C was cyanide- insensitive and might be Mn-SOD located in mitochondria. The major part of SOD activity in cultivated peanut leaves was concentrated in chloroplasts, and it was cyanide-sensitive. The experiments of SOD activity inhibition by KCN showed that leaves of cultivated peanut contained more Cu-Zn-SOD. On the contrary, the percentage of non-Cu-Zn-SOD was highter in wild species than in cultivated. The PI values of distinct bands were determined and the significance of this study for the further evaluation of resistance of peanut plant is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1954)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Aluminium on Physiological Functions of Rice Seedlings
Author: Hao Lu-ning and Liu Hou-tian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(11)
      
    The phytotoxicity of aluminium on rice seedlings was studied. Putting different concentrations of AlCl3 in culture solution and maintaining for 30 days were made as the treatments of A1 to rice seedlings. More than 1.0 ppm of A1 obviously inhibited the growth of both roots and shoots. The most of A1 was accumulated in roots and the minority of Al was transported to shoots. Aluminium inhibited the Hill reaction and photophosphorylation of chloroplasts as well as the respiration and oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria in roots. Calcium was an antagonist to aluminium in effects on above functions of rice seedling.
Abstract (Browse 1792)  |  Full Text PDF       
Correlation Between Lipid Preoxidation Damage and Ultrastructural Changes of Mesophyll Cells in Barley and Wheat Seedlings During Salt Stress
Author: Gong Ming, Ding Nian-cheng, He Zi-yi and Liu You-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(11)
      
    The correlation among lipid preoxidation, destruction of membrane system and ultrastruc- tural changes of mesophyll cells during salt stress was studied with the NaCl-resistant barley (Jian No. 4) and NaCl-sensitive wheat (Ning Mai No. 4) seedlings. During initial period of salt stress, mesophyll cells was able to maintain higher SOD activity, less lipid preoxidation and approximately integral membrane system; with the increasing intensity of salt stress, SOD activity lowered, MDA content increased obviously, electrolytes and UV-absorbed substances in cells leaked, cell organelles were destroyed severely, and even whole cell structure was ruined. The barley was able to maintain more intact cell structure and less damage of membrane system than the wheat did. These results indicated that changes of ultrastructure of mesophyll cells were consistent with disorder and damage of their membrane systems, and the damage of membrane system might be as a result of the increase of membrane lipid preoxidation.
Abstract (Browse 1840)  |  Full Text PDF       
SEM Observation on Crystals and Silica in Wood Species of Chinese Gymnospermae
Author: Jian Xiao-mei and Zhou Yin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(11)
      
    99 wood species of Gymnospermae of China were observed. 20 wood species of them from 12 genera and 7 families, had the crystals reported in this paper. The shapes of the crystals were able to be divided into 5 types. The shape, size and location of crystals proved to be of diagnostic value and taxonomic significance in woody anatomy. In specimens all crystals were determined to be calcium oxalate by EDAX analysis and histochemical tests. The amount of calcium element was over 99%. In 4 wood species the calcium crystals that were formed as a result of fungal metabolism of wood all along the hypha. It is the first report on the occurrence of silicondioxide in the inter layer of tracheids and ray paranchyma and bordered pit of Abies recurvata Mast., silica without any geometrical form. An EDAX analysis of the silica revealed elemental composition of Si: 93.75%, Na: 1.8%, K: 0.87%, Al: 1.42%, Ca: 7.3%. The origin and significance of crystals and silica also were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2276)  |  Full Text PDF       
Establishment of an Autotetraploid Rice Anther Clone with High Frequency and Long Term Plant Regeneration
Author: Qin Rui-zhen Tong Qing-juan, Xu Zheng and Guo Xiu-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(11)
      
    Results of study on clone A87203 4C-1-5 from anther culture of homologous tetraploid rice were reported. The trials showed that the clone had a bud multiplication rate of 150C200 times, Under stereoscope, buds were differentiating on buds, forming bud masses. It had a callus induction frequency about 5 times when the bud masses were clipped into pieces and cultured on MS medium for dedifferentiation. Buds with the characteristics of high multiplication were able to be produced from about 50% of the calli when they were transferred onto MS medium for differentiation. It still maintained a vigorous multiplying ability though it had been subcultured for more than 30 generation during the past 1 year or more. Numerous plantlets were able to be produced by culture under regulated temperature and light conditions. A number of plantlets deriving from the buds had been planted in the fields this year. Most of them were normal, however, few plants had morphological variations, with 6 trisomic (2n+1 =25) plants observed during meiotic division of their pollen mother cells.
Abstract (Browse 1827)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Developmental Anatomy of the Seminal Root of Wheat
Author: Chen Yue-qin and Li Zheng-li(Lee Cheng-lee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(11)
      
    Wheat embryo usually gives rise to five seminal roots in matured caryopsls, although, the sixth root might develop in some cases. The first one is known as the primary root. Primary root emerged early, and its primodium was distinctly originated from the proembryo and could be gradually identified as three layers of initials. Lateral seminal roots emerged later from the embryonic axis in pairs, and originated from the surrouding cells of the procambium. Differentiation of lateral roots was much more vigorous than that of the first seminal root (primary root), and, its mother cells of metaxylem vessel appeared soon, Lateral seminal roots usually had more metaxylem vessels. In short, only the first root is the primary root, the lateral seminal roots are adventitious in nature, since their structures are similar to those of other adventitious roots.
Abstract (Browse 1946)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Identification of Integumentary Tapetal Wall Sac in Antirrhinum majus L.
Author: Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(11)
      
    Sac-shaped wall structures were isolated from post-anthesis ovules of Antirrhinum majus treated with acetic anhydride-H2SO4 (9:1), 50% cold chromic acid, 80% H2SO4C30% H2O2 (5:1) or cellulase-pectinase solution. This means that the wall sac is acetolysis-resistant as well as enzyme-iesistant and has some resistance to strong oxidizers. Observations on paraffin and ultrathin sections confirmed that the isolated wall sac was just the inner wall of integumentary tapetum, which enclosed the embryo sac from all side but leaves an aperture at each pole. This wall showed positive reaction to Sudan IV staining and auramine O fluorescence staining but negatively reacted to phloroglucinol, indicating that it was likely to be composed of highly stable lipid substances, preferably cutin or sporopollenin. Based on all these results, it is supposed that the wall sac functioned as a dam for preventing damage of young embryo and endosperm from the hydrolytic enzymes secreted by integumentary tapetum and also for chanalizing nutrient flow through the chalazal and micropylar apertures into embryo sac.
Abstract (Browse 1891)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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