December 1989, Volume 31 Issue 12

 

          Research Articles
Plantlet Regeneration from Protoplasts lsolated from an Embryogenic Suspension Cultureof Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.)
Author: Chen Zhi-xian, Li Shu-jun, Yue Jian-xiong, Jiao Gai-li, Liu Shao-xiang, She Jian-ming, Wu Jing-yin and Wang Hai-bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(12)
      
    Protoplasts were isolated from an embryogenic suspension culture of commercial cotton cv. The protoplasts were released enzymatically and isolated by centrifugation on a sucrose cushion. The isolated protoplasts were initially cultured in a liquid medium with K3 mineral salts and modified Km8p organic compositions, supplemented with 0.05C0.1 mg/l 2,4-D, 0.2C0.5 mg/l 2ip in the dark. The regenerated plantlets from protoplasts of coker312 and coker 201 cv. were obtained. Embryogenesis from protoplast of Jin4 cv. and microcolonies form protoplasts of JiHe321 and Lul cv. were observed.
Abstract (Browse 1884)  |  Full Text PDF       
Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration in Capsicum
Author: Ge Kou-lin, T. Sasakuma and M. Tanaka
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(12)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 2082)  |  Full Text PDF       
Gumuia gyzzata A New Plant from the Lower Devonian of Yunnan, China
Author: Hao Shou-gang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(12)
      
    A new genus and species, Gumuia zyzzata is found in the Posonchong Formation of the Lower Devonian (Siegenian) from Wenshan district of Yunnan, China. It has both lateral and terminal sporangia. Successive sporangia develop on alternate sides of short axes near the hases of preceding sporangia, producing a zigzag fertile organization. The author supposes that it is a sympodium Opposite sporangia are suppositionally referred to the result from condensation of the axis between alternate sporangia. The new plant is tentatively referred to a putative zosterophyll.
Abstract (Browse 1980)  |  Full Text PDF       
Spores and Pollen from Crude Oil of Dushanzi Oilfield in Xinjiang
Author: Yang Hui-qiu and Jiang De-xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(12)
      
    Fifty-one species of fossil spores and pollen referred to 35 genera extracted from the crude oil samples taken from the Dushanzi Oilfield of the Junggar Basin in the Xinjiang Province are investigated in this paper. Based on the investigations of the spores and pollen in crude oils, petroleum source of the region are traced and problems on petroleum migration are discussed. The spores and pollen found in the crude oil samples collected from the Tertiary reservoirs of the Dushanzi Oilfield are mainly of Leiotriletes adriensis; Cyathidites minor, Dictyophyllidites harrisii, Murospora jurassica, Marattisporites scabratus, Aratrisporites xiangxiensis, Schizosporis microreticulatus, Cycadopites nitidus, C. typicus, C. minimus, Callialasporites dampieri, C. radius. Paleoconiferous asaccatus, Pseudowalchia ovalis, P. landesii, Podocarpidites multicinus, P. muhesimus, Ovalipollis enigmatica, O. minor,Caytonipollenites pallidus, Pteruchipollenites thomasii, Alisporites grandis, A. bilateralis, Piceites pseudorotundiformis, Abietineaepollenites dunrobinensis, A. minimus, Pinuspollenites labdacus maximus, P. labdacus minor, Piceaepollenites alatus, Cedripites canadensis, TsugaepotIenites viridifluminipites, Taxodia ceaepollenites hiatus, Ephedripites eocenipites, E. fusiformis, E. tertiarius, E. scobridus, Eucommiidites troedssonii, Salixipollenites discoloripites, Quercoidites henrici, Q. microhenrici, Q. asper, Rhoipites pseudocingulum, Caryapollenites simplex, JuglanspoUenites verus, Liquidambarpollenites stigmosus, Chenopodipollis psilatoides, C. minor, Artemisiaepollenites sellularis, Tubulifloridites macroechinatus, etc. Some of the microfossils belong to Jurassic, and some belong to Tertiary in age. Judging from the fossil spores and pollen in crude oils, two series of petroleum source rocks might exist in the southwestern petroleum province of the Junggar Basin. They belong to the Lower to Middle Jurassic Badaowan to Toudenhe Formations and the Oligocene Anjihaihe Formation respectively.
Abstract (Browse 2105)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Flavonoids from the Pollens of Typha davidiana, T. Latifolia and T. angustata(Pu Huang)
Author: Liao Mao-chuan, Liu Yong-long and Xiao Pei-gen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(12)
      
    Eight identical flavonoids were isolated from the alcoholic extract of the pollen of Typha davidiana Hand.-Mazz., Typha latifolia L. and Typha angustata Bory et Chaub. On the basis of spectroscopic (IR, UV, MS and NMR) analysis and the identification of the acidic hydrolytic products, they were identified as naringenin (), isorhamnetin (), quercetin (), isorhamnetin-3-O-(2G--L-rhamnopyrano-syl)-rutinoside(), quercetin-3-O-(2G--L-rhamnopyranosyl)-rutinoside (), iso-rhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (),isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside (), kampferol-3-O-neohesperidoside (). Compound was found in this genus for the first time.
Abstract (Browse 2359)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Chemical Constituents from Cynanchum Komarovii Al. Ilinski
Author: Fang Sheng-ding, Zhang Rui, Chen Yan, Xu Chuan-feng and Lu Shu-xi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(12)
      
    Ten compounds were isolated from the roots and stems of Cynanchum komarovii Al. Iljinski. They were identified as 7-demethoxylophorine (), epi-alnusenol (), -sitosterol (), triacontanolic acid (), sucrose (), desoxytylophorinin N-oxide (), apocynine (), paeonol (), -sitosteryl--D-glucopyranoside () and glucose () by means of UV, IR, NMR, MS spectral analyses and through chemical methods. These compounds were first reported in this plant. One of them, is a new alkaloid. The bioassay results showed that the compounds , and reaction product exhibited cytotoxic effects to P-388 leukemia cell in vitro. is also a new compound.
Abstract (Browse 2381)  |  Full Text PDF       
Relationship Between Seed Coat of Korean Pine and Its Dormancy
Author: Lai Li, Zheng Guang-hua and Xing Hong-wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(12)
      
    The relationship between the seed coat and the seed dormancy of korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) is discussed in this paper. The germination percentage of seeds with their coats broken, is very low. It showed that the mechanical obstruction of the hard seed coat is not the major cause of the seed dormancy. The experiments with embryos cultured in vitro and treated with exogenous ABA or germination test of seeds soaked by ABA solutions show that ABA is not the major cause of the seed dormancy either. Respiratory patterns of the intact seeds and of those with their testa or both removing testa and inner coat were studied. It is indicated that removing both of testa and inner coat greatly enhanced the oxygen uptake. Obviously, the impermeability of oxygen through the seed coat is, therefore, the major external cause of the seed dormancy.
Abstract (Browse 2008)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Somatic Embryogenesis of Coptis chinensis
Author: Gui Yao-lin, Xu Ting-yu, Gu Shu-tong, Guo Zhong-shen Hou Song-sheng, Ke Shang-qiang, Wu Yu-lan and Li Hong-lin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(12)
      
    Leaf explants of Coptis chinensis were cultured on medium MS+2,4-D 1ppm and calli were easily induced. After the calli were transferred on to the medium MS+6-BA 0.5 ppm+ NAA 1 ppm for differentiation, a lot of somatic embryos emerged. Embryoids developed into plantlets throughout processes of globular, heart-shaped, torpedo-shaped, and cotyledon stages. Embryoids were encapsulated in 4% sodium alginate and 2% CaCl2 as artificial seed, then some somatic embryos encased in capsule converted to plantlets in the aseptic conditions. After the calli were subcultured on the medium through 3C4 passages for differentiation, the whole callus could be converted to embryogenic callus and formed numerous scattered embryogenic cell mass. The somatic embryos of C. chinensis may be produced from surface cells or any embryogenic cell mass of calli. These results could provide an excellent experimantal system for large scale to obtain single embryoids as well as making artificial seeds.
Abstract (Browse 1904)  |  Full Text PDF       
Culture of the Cotyledon Protoplast of Xinjiang Muskmelon(Cucumis melo L.) and Plant Regeneration
Author: Sun Yong-ru, Li Xiang-hui, Sun Bao-lin, Zhang Wei, Zhang Li-ming, Li Ren-jing, Dang Zhao-nan, Zhang Meng-yun, Meng Qing-yu and Wei Xiao-wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(12)
      
    The cotyledon protoplasts were isolated from sterile seedling of Xinjiang muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) and cultured in modified Miller medium. The high frequency division of the regenerated cells was observed It was indicated that the agarose bead culture with B6S3 nurse cells is the most suitable for the cotyledon protoplast of Xinjiang muskmelon when compared with thin liquid culture and double layer culture. The intact plants were differentiated from the regenerated calli by two steps of culture with liquid first and then solid medium.
Abstract (Browse 2023)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regeneration from Supersweet Maize Protoplasts Derived from Gametophytic Cell Suspensions
Author: Sun Jing-san(C. S.Sun), Lu Tie-gang, L. M. Prioli and M. R. Sondahl
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(12)
      
    Plant regeneration from protoplasts isolated from haploid cell suspensions of commercial supersweet maize (SS 7700) was achieved and the plants were survival after transfer into soil in pots. Protoplast plating efficiency obtained from feeder layer system was 130 folds higher as compared with conventional liquid culture method, the composition of protoplast culture medium, the pore size of supportive membrane filter and the relationship between protoplasts and feeder cells were critical for callus formation. An enriched medium containing vitamins, organic acids, amino-acids and other organic substances such as coconut water could extremely improve callus formation. Filters with pore size within the range of 0.22C8.0 m in diameter was useful. Filters with smaller pore size of 0.04 m or larger 11 m appeared to decrease the frequency of protocolony formation. The feeder cells which belong to the same species (Zea mays) as protoplasts greatly increased protoplast plating efficiencies as compared to those of feeder cells belonging to other species such as Avena nuda and Nicotiana tabacum. Among 11 protoplast-regenerated plants examined, 10 plants were haploid and one plant was diploid.
Abstract (Browse 2211)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Freeze-Fracture Ultrastructure and Light Harvesting Chlorophyll Protein Complex in Thylakoid Membranes During Ontogeny of Maize
Author: Zuo Bao-yu, Tang Chong-qin, Jiang Gui-zhen and Kuang Ting-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(12)
      
    Freeze-fracture electron microscopy enables us to observe and count the freeze-fracture particles which correspond to the different functional components of thylakoid membranes. The present paper reports the observation on freeze-fracture ultrastructure of thylakoid membranes and the analysis of proteins by the SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis within the membranes from differenly located leaves of maize. In the past, we found that the leaies subtending the ear of maize had a much higher chlorophyll content, a lower chlorophyll a/b ratio and more staking thylakoid membranes and provided the photosynthetic energy used to fill the maize seeds more than that of other leaves. Recently, we have further found that the particle densities of all four faces of thylakoid membranes from the ear leaf were the highest, than those, successively, from the terminal leaf, and the fifth leaf (from the base of the plant). The particle densities on all four fracture faces of thylakoid membranes isolated from the ear leaves of maize were significantly higher than those from the terminal leaves with the increases of 19% in EFs, 28% in PFs and 20% in PFu. Increases in particle densities on the PFs, EFs and PFu faces result in increased densities of LHCP II, PS and PSI reactions centres, respectively. It is significant that this supramolecular architecture of the ear leaves is consistent with our analytical results of the SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis within the membranes (a detailed report in another paper). The contents of major polypeptides of 21 kD (LHCP ) and 25 kD (LHCP ) in thylakoid membranes from the ear leaves were more than those from the terminal leaves. The characteristics of both supramolecular architecture and polypeptide components are in favour of absorbing, transferring, distributing and conversing light energy in the course of photosynthesis of the ear leaves in maize.
Abstract (Browse 1835)  |  Full Text PDF       
Purification of 120-Kilodalton Phytochrome from Oryza Sativa L
Author: Tong Zhe, R. Schendel, W. Ridiger and Song Guo-qing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(12)
      
    The procedures of Grimm and Rdiger for the purification of 120 kDa phytochrome from oat seedlings were modified to isolate native phytochrome from etiolated rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp, japonica var. nongken 58) seedlings. Approximately l kg of 6d old seedlings (the first 2 days at 33, the last 4 days at 27 in darkness) were frozen in liquid nitrogen and then homogenized in a modified Waring blendor with an extraction buffer, at final pH 8.45 (4 ). After polyethylenimine precipitation, phytochrome in extract was converted to Pfr by irradiation of the resulting supernatant for 10 min with red light. The step of ammonium sulfate precipitation was followed by resuspending of resultant pellet in buffer B with the ratio of 10 ml per phytochrome unit. The pellet precipitated with ammonium sulfate at 42% saturation from combined phytochrome cont ning fractions after hydroxyapatite chromatography was washed with 10 mmol/l phosphate buffer in 0.8 ml instead of 0.65 ml per phytochrome unit. Then it was washed successively with 200 mmol/l and 100 mmol/1 phosphate buffer (0.85 ml per phytochrome unit). Native phytochrome (120 kDa) in 12% yield was dissolved in 2 mmol/l EHPES buffer (2.2 ml per phytochrome unit, pH 7.8, containing 5 mmol/l EDTA and 14 mmol/l 2-mercaptoethanol) was proved to be pure in SDS- polyacrylamide electrophoresis and showed typical absorption spectrum as that of native oat phytochrome.
Abstract (Browse 1875)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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