May 1989, Volume 31 Issue 5

 

          Research Articles
A Study of Polysaccharides in Aloe
Author: Wang Shu-xiu, Wen Yuan-ying, Wang Lei and Hu Chang-xu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(5)
      
    Polysaccharides isolated from fresh leaves of Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.) Berger, unique species in China, were studied. Purified on columns of Sepharose 6B-CL, three constituents, A60, A90a and A90b were got. The M. W. of three polysaccharides were calculated to be approximately 12,000, 47,000 and 12,000 respectively by authentic dextrans. A60 contained mannose only and A90b contained glucose and mannose in the ratio of 3:4. Smith degradation indicated acetyl butantetraol, 2,6-dimethylacetyl mannitol, 3,6-dimethylacetyl mannitol and 2,3-dimethylacetyl mannitol for A60 and acetyl butantetraol only for A90b. Methylation analysis of As0 furnished 2,3,6-trimethyl mannose only and methylation analysis of A90b furnished 2,3,6- tri- 2, 3, 4, 6-tetramethylglueose and 2,3,6-trimethylmannose. Both A60 and A90b were shown 汕-linkage in IR. From these results structure for A60 has been assigned 汕-(1↙4) linked mannan with partially acetylated in 2,3, or 6 and for A90b, 汕-(1↙4) linked glucomannan. Activity against implanted S-180 in mice could not be found in A60. But A60 was able to promote immunity then could be used for treating the hypoimunity diseases.
Abstract (Browse 1882)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Chemical Constituents of Antitumor from Sabina vulgaris Ant
Author: Fang Sheng-ding, Gu Yun-long, Yu Han-gang and Sayep Musadillin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(5)
      
    Eleven known compounds, transcommunic acid (i), cis-communic acid (j), sandaracopimaric acid (k), isocupressic acid (l), sugiol (m), 12-hydroxy-6, 7-seco- abieta-8, 11, 13-triene 6, 7-dial (n), 汕-peltatin-A-methyl ether (o), bergaptin (p), 汕-sitosterol (r), lignoceric acid (s), cerotic acid(t) and a new 3, 4-benzocumarins sabilactone (q) were newly isolated from the bark of Sabina vulga ris Ant. (= Juniperus sabina L.). Their structures were determined from spectra data and chemical evidence. Compounds l每r were first isolated from this plant. The bioassay results showed that compounds i每l, n ando were shown to be cytotoxic effects for P-388 leukemia cell in vitro.
Abstract (Browse 2054)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fluid Dynamics Simulating Experiment of Pressure Gradient for Assimilate Translocation in Sieve Tubes
Author: Yong Hua-nian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(5)
      
    According to the similitude theory of fluid mechanics, a pressure-driven experiment in a sieve tube model has been performed. The relationships between the pressure gradient and the transport velocities at the various diameters of sieve pore have been obtained. The experimental data were compared with the theoretical prediction based on the poiseuille equation. The result shows that the pressure gradient required for translating the assimilate is directly proportional to the translating velocity, which agrees with Poiseuille equation. However, the resistance of the sieve plate to flow is much more than that estimated by the previous theory. Even though the translating velocity is a normal level and the diameter of the sieve tube is a typical size, the pressure gradient required for flow is about 1 bar/m. It will increase sharply with the decrease of the diameter of sieve pore. The ratios of the pressure gradients measured in the test to that predicted by Poiseuille equation are about 2每4 for the five kinds of diameters of Sieve pore. Additionally, a simulating test of the pores being partly plugged has been performed. The result shows that the pressure gradients measured are greatly beyond the range that may be kept in plants. This study will be helpful to assess Munch hypothesis.
Abstract (Browse 1996)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Carbon Isotope Ratios and Centents of Mineral Elements in Leaves of Chinese Medi cinal Plants
Author: Lin Zhi-fang, Sun Gu-chou, Wang Wei, Chen Bang-yu, Kuo Chun-yen and James.R. Ehleringer
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(5)
      
    Leaf carbon isotope ratios and 13 kinds of mineral elements were measured on 36 species of common Chinese medicinal plants in a subtropical monsoon forest of Ding Hu Shan in Guangdong Province. The 汛13C value were from 每26.4 to 每32.6%, indicating that all of the species belonged the photosynthetic C3 types. The relative lower value of 汛13C was observed in the life form of shrubs. The contents of 7 elements (N, P, K, Ca, Na Mg, Si) were dependent upon the species, life form, medicinal function and medicinal part. Herb type medicine and the used medicinal part of leaves or whole plant showed higher levels of above elements than the others. Among the nine groups with different medicinal functions, it was found that more nitrogen was in the leaves of medicinal plants for hemophthisis, hypertension and stomachic troubles, more phosphorus and potassium were in the leaves for cancer and snake bite medicines, but more calcium and magnesium were in the leaves for curing rheumatics. Ferric, aluminium and manganese were the main composition of microelements in leaves. There were higher content of ferric in leaves for hemophthisis medicine, higher zinc in leaves for cold and hypertension medicine, and higer cuprum in leaves of stomachic medicine. It was suggested that the pattern of mineral elements in leaves of Chinese medicinal plants reflected the different properties of absorption and accumulation. Some additional effect due to the high content of certain element might be associated with the main function of that medicine.
Abstract (Browse 2209)  |  Full Text PDF       
Somatic Embryogenesis and Cytological Variation in Protoplast Culture of Levisticum officinale Koch
Author: Jia Jing-fen, Shi Ji-hong, Wang Yu-mei and Zhang Shi-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(5)
      
    Protoplasts were isolated from spongy calli in a well growing state. Protoplasts were induced to undergo sustained divisions and to form colonies in the liquid C81V medium supplemented with 2,4-D and kinetin. When protoplast derived colonies were transferred onto agarsolidified medium, the spongy, white calli developed. After being subcultured on N6 medium plus 6BA and IBA, the light-yellow, granular embryogenic calli emerged on the protoplast regenerated callus surface. A large number of plantlets were obtained on MS medium with NAA and IBA via somatic embryogenesis Cytological observation on the donor calli used for protoplast isolation and plantlets regenerated from protoplasts were carried out. Remarkable variation of nucleus morphology and chromosome numbers were observed in donor calli. However, the cytological abnormalities in plantlets regenerated from protoplasts were comparatively less seen. The reason are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2048)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fertilization and Embryo Development of Populus lasiocarpa Oliv
Author: Zhu Tong and Li Wen-dian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(5)
      
    The double fertilization and embryo development of P. lasiocarpa were studied using cytochemical method for DNA, RNA, polysaccharides and proteins. Stigmas were covered by secretion stained positively with PAS and mercuric bromphenol blue at receptive stage. The pollen grains germinated on the stigma in large quantities 6 hours after pollination. Fertilization started at the 6th days after pollination. The sperm nucleus fused with the secondary nucleus faster than the sperm nucleus with the egg nucleus. The syngamy belonged to peremitotic type. A great deal of starch grains in the embryo sac disappeared during fertilization. The endosperm was nuclear type and becomed a cel 31 days after pollination. The endosperm was characterized by a dense cytoplasm rich in protein. No discrete starch grains were observed in endosperm. Afterwards, the endosperm was consumed by the developing embryo, thus the mature seeds were non-endospermous. The zygote was dormant for 6每8 days. During the dormency, many striking changes took place, and then, the zygotes showed more pronounced polarity. These changes included the shinkage of the large vacuole, the reduced size, the reappearance of large vacuole, the enlarging of the size. The embryogenesis conformed to the Solanad type. The ovules matured into seeds successively 44 days after pollination. The mature embryo was straight. Two cotyledons folded each other.
Abstract (Browse 1864)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of High-Concentration Auxin and Plant Regeneration in the Immature Embryo Culture of Soybean
Author: Li Da-wei, J. Schmid and E. R. Keller
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(5)
      
    Using immature embryos of soybean as explants, green structures and somatic embryoids were able to be induced on higher auxin-containing media. Genotypes, developmental degree of the embryos, origin of the explants and medium compositions all affected the occurrence of the structures and calli. After the green structures were transferred to high 2,4-D containing medium (30 mg/l) calli were reinduced. These calli were maintained on the same medium without being subcultured for 2 months and then transferred to lower hormone-containing media. After 2 weeks, a great number of new green structures in the same shapes were induced. It was shown that high level of 2,4-D played a unique role in lasting the morphogenesis ability of the cultures. When the green structure were cultured on low hormone-containing media they developed new leaves and formed leaf clusters while the apical did not develop. In order to stimulate the apical development the medium containing 2 mg/l GA3 and 0.1 mg/l IBA was used and some plantlets were obtained. The different effects of NAA and 2,4-D on the explants and calli were studied. Calli induced from the cotyledon of immature seeds (416 mm) had a regeneration ability stronger than that from the seedlings. The calli induced by use of the medium containing high concentration of 2,4-D (5每30 mg/l) have higher potentialities in producing green structures. In contrast, the calli induced by high concentration of NAA (10 mg/l) were highly root-morphogenetic. The explants and the calli cultured on the medium containing 5 mg/l 2,4-D could be maintained for a long term without being subcultured frequently.
Abstract (Browse 3587)  |  Full Text PDF       
An Ultrastructural Evalution of Cytohistological Zonation in the Shoot Apical Meristem of Torreya grandis
Author: Shi Liang, Wang Fu-xiong (Wang Fu-hsiung) and Hu Yu-xi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(5)
      
    Ultrastructural differentiation of the shoot apex of growing vegetative buds of Torreya grandis was studied. At ultrastructural level, the shoot apex had the same zonation as in microstructure. The main characteristics of zonal differences were: the thickness of the cell walls, the size and the structure of the plastids, and the volume of the vacuoles. In the apical initials, the walls between apical initials and subapical group cells were thick, the vacuoles were distributed mainly in the outer half of the cells, and there were small starch grains in plastids. The walls of the subapical group cells were thick, the vacuoles were large, and the plastids contain large starch grains. In peripheral cells, normally there were no starch grains in plastids, the vacuoles were smaller. But there were numerous plasmodesmata in the cell wall. In the rib meristem, the cells were occupied mainly by large vacuoles and rich starch containing-plastids. Numerous plasmodesmata were in the thicken walls. During the four periods of the seasonal activities, the ultrastructure of tile apical cells also changed. In resting period, in comparison with other periods, starch-plastids were nacre developed, cell walls were thicker, and the vacuoles were larger. In bud expansion period, S-plastids decreased or even disappearedin bud scale formation period, large amount of small vacuoles appeared. In new bud formation period, the size of the vacuoles increases, and many cup-shape plastids appear. The relationships between the activities of the cells and the shape of the nucleus were also studied.
Abstract (Browse 2323)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytological Studies on Semi-Wild Races of Gossypium hirsutum
Author: Nie Ru-zhi and Li Mao-xue
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(5)
      
    The semi-wild races of Gossypium hirsutum are indigenous to Mexico. It becomes one of the important germplasms in the breeding of Upland cotton, but the cytogenetical study is still lacking. In this paper, the karyotypes of 8 semi-wild races were analyzed. The chromosome number of root tip cells in all races was 52. The ※race mexicanum§, ※race latifolium§, ※race parmeri§ and ※race panctatum§ belong to 1 B karyotype. Among them, the ※race mexicanum§ is the most primitive one, 2n=4x=52=44m (6SAT)+8sm. The races with 2 B karyotype were ※race yucatanense§, ※race marie-galante§, ※race morilli§ and ※race richmondii§, the last two races were more advanced, 2n = 4x = 52 = 32 m (2 or 4 SAT) +20sm. According to the results of karyotype analysis, the possible relationship in evolution of races is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1903)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Structure of Leaf Epidermis of Chinese Anthemideae
Author: Zhang Xin-ying, K. Napp-Zinn and K. Hangst
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(5)
      
    This paper presents a survey of the types and distributions of the stomata and trichomes of leaves from Chinese 98 species (belonging to 25 genera) of Anthemideae. The results are shown as follows: 1. The types of trichome are specific for the taxonomical characters of a grex in one case, for a genus in another, or for a subgenus, section or series elsewhere. 2. Polocytic, hemicytic and helicocytic stomatal complexes fit best for the characterization of groups of species on different levels between series and genus. 3. The sizes of epidermis cell, the lengths of stomatal guard cells and of the terminal cells of them are only quantitative characters, but not of much significances in systematics.
Abstract (Browse 1953)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Isolation and Structural Determination of r-harmine from the Seed of Peganum harmala L.
Author: Li Guo-wei, Ying Bai-ping and Liu De-xi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(5)
      
    污-Harmine, a new carboline alkaloid isolated from Peganum harmala L. (Zygophylaceae), has been shown to be 7-methoxy-4-methyl-污-carboline (n) according to its color reaction and spectral analyses. This is the first 污-carboline compound isolated from a plant, Harmine (i) has also been isolated from the same plant material.
Abstract (Browse 2080)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Pleozoic Seed---Genus Callospermarion
Author: Zhao Li-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(5)
      
    The petrified Paleozoic seed Callospermarion is discussed. A new species, C sinicum and C. sp. are discribed from several seed specimens collected from the Upper Caboniferous deposits in the Shanxi province. The characteristic of C. sinicum sp. nov. is between C. undulatu and C. pusillum. For example, the symmetry of C. sinicum sp. nov. is more distinctly bilateral than that of C. undulatum, but not as prominent as C. pusillum with promint lateral ridges. The characteristic of C. sp. is similar to C. undulatum, but is not the same. Relationship with other Paleozoic seed ferns is also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1968)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Components of Saussurea gossypiphora D. Don
Author: Qiu Lin-gang, Lian Min, Ma Zhong-wu and He Guan-fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(5)
      
    Saussurea gossypiphora D. Don growing above 4200每4700 m altitude on mountains so far have been not reported. We have first isolated 6 components from it. They are identified as (i) umbelliferone, (j) scopoletin, (k) 汕-sitosterol, (l) apigenin, (m) apigenin 7-0-汕-D-glucoside, (n) umbelliferone 7-O-汕-D-plucoside.
Abstract (Browse 2198)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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