June 1989, Volume 31 Issue 6

 

          Research Articles
Histo-Cytological Observation of Callus Formation and Organ Regeneration of Pedicel of Hemerocallis citrina B. in Vitro
Author: Zhao Guo-lin and Li Shi-weng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(6)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1820)  |  Full Text PDF       
Spores and Pollens from Crude Oil of Turpan Basin, Xinjiang
Author: Jiang De-xin and Yang Hui-qiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(6)
      
    Sixty-eight species of fossil spores and pollens referred to 39 genera extracted from the crude oil samples collected from the Turpan Basin of Xinjiang are recorded in this paper. Based on the investigations of fossil spores and pollens in petroleum, the questions on petroleum migration and source rocks are discussed. It is expounded and proved theoretically and practically that the phenomenon that the crude oil samples usually contain the fossil spores and pollen grains with different geological ages from reservoir rocks should result from petroleum migration, but not from resedimentation. The fossil spores and pollens in crude oil of the Middle Jurassic reservoir of the Qiktim Oil-Field of the Turpan Basin comprise mainly Leiotriletes pflugi, Deltoidospora gradata, D. magna, Cyathidites australir, C. minor, Biretisporites cf. potoniaei, Dictyophyllidites harrisii. Cibotiumspora paradoxa, C. jurienensis, Gleicheniidites rousei, G. conflexus, Undulatisporites concavus, U. pflugii, Granulatisporites arenaster, G. minor, Todisporites minor, Osmundacidites wellmanii, dpiculatisporis variabilis, Leptolepidites major, Aratrisporites scabratus Cycadopites nitidus, C. typicus, C. subgranulosus, Chasmatosporites elegans, Classopollis classoides, C. itunen- sis, C. annulatus, C. qiyangensis, Callialarporites dampieri, C. radius, lnaperturopollenites det- tmannii, Protoconiferus funarius, Paleoconiferus asaccatus, CaytonipoUenites pallidus, Vitreis- porites jurassicus, V. jansonii, Pseudowalchia ovalis, P. landesii, P. biangulina, Podocarpidites unicus, P. major, P. multicinus, P. multesimus, P. rousei, P. wapellaensis, Platysaccus lopsinensis, Ovalipollis enigmatica, O. minor, O. canadensis, Pteruchipollenites thomasii, Alisporites grandis, A. bilateralis, Pityosporites similis, P. divulgatus, Piceites expos us, P. podocarpoides, P. latens, Protopicea exilioides, Pseudopicea variabitifornus, Piceaepollenites complanatiformus, Abietineaepollenites dunrobinensis, A. microalatus, A. minimus, Cedripites minor, Eucommiidites troedssonii, etc. Some of the species are also found from the crude oil sampls taken from the Middle Jurassic reservoir of the Shengjinkou Oil-Field of the Turpan Basin. The above mentioned species of spores and pollens are widely distributed in the Lower to Middle Jurassic sediments of North America, Europe, Australia and China. They have also been found from the Lower to Middle Jurassic sediments of the Turpan Basin. Judging from the spores and pollen in petroleum, it may be concluded that the Lower Jurassic Badaowan-Sangonhe Formation and the Middle Jurassic Xishanyao-Toudenhe Formation should contain the favorable petroleum source rocks in the basin. As to petroleum migration mechanism, it is considered that petroleum must have migrated for comparatively short distances to accumulate into petroleum pools in this region.
Abstract (Browse 2016)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study on the Relationships between the Main Climatic Ecological Factors and the Physiological Activities and the Growth of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook in Its Northernmost Marginal Regions
Author: Qi Jin-gen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(6)
      
    Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook is a native plant of the moist subtropics in eastern China. In the present paper, the C. lanceolata artifical forests, which were cultivated in the Taiping and Jinzhai counties of Anhui province where were their northernmost marginal regions, were mainly studied on the relations between the climatic ecological factors and the physiological activities and the growth of the annual ring width. The results based on surveying and companing the microclimatic ecological factors including the intensity of light, temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity and the physiological activities of photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration and water potential of leaf tissues showed that the astigamitic light was more effective than the direct light to the growth of C. lanceolata, and the optimum temperature scope of net photosynthesis of C. lanceolata is from 25 to 29 in the Taiping County. According to the analysis of the annual ring width of C. lanceolata regarding the climatic ecological factors by the mono-correlative, polycorrelative and stepwise multiple linear regression, the author is convinced that the relative humidity and percentage of sunshine time during the growth period (from April to October) are the most important factors among the climatic ecological factors affecting the growth of C. lanceolata in the Jinzhai county. So the author suggests that C. lanceolata has some potentiality for development in these regions mentioned above.
Abstract (Browse 1998)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on the Cotinus coggygria var. Cinerea Scrub in Qingzhou Mountain Area of Shundong Province
Author: Zhao Ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(6)
      
    The study on the smoke-tree (Cotinus coggygria var. cinerea) scrub was carried out by the methods of pointquarter and quadrat in Qingzhou Mountain area of Shandong Province. In the present paper, the spatial pattern and main species dispersion of scrub was reported. It was found in this study that the Shannon-Wiener diversity index increases with the increase of the resources content. The patchness indexes and niche breadth are different, not only on the same resource axis among species, but also on the different resource axis within one species. The value of niche overlap between every two species is high on soil resource axes, so the species are possibly competitive for utilizating these resources.
Abstract (Browse 1913)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Thalictrum acutifolium(Hand.-Mazz.) Boivin
Author: Lin Cui-wu, Wang Xue-fen, Zhou Fa-xin, Jiang Xue-yu, Wu Xiang-xian and Zhao Shu-kai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(6)
      
    From the root of Thalictrum acutifolium (Hand. -Mazz.) Boivin eight chemical constitions, seven of them ware identified as methylp UV, MS, 1H and 13C-NMR) and chemical reactions, seven of them were identified as methylpalmitate, cis-9-cis-12-methyloctadecadienoate, -sitosterol, nonacosane, n-pentatriacontane, oxyberberine and trilobinine (1,11-dihydroxy-2,9- dimethoxy-6-dimethyl-aporphine). Acutifolidine is a new compound. Its structure was deduced to be 2-hydroxy-1, 8, 9, 10-tetramethoxy-6-methyl-aporphine. Trilobinine was first isolated from genus Thelictrum.
Abstract (Browse 2158)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of Low Temperature lmbibition on Mito chondrium Respiration and Phosphorylation of PEG Primed Soybean Seed
Author: Yan Yi-tang, Liang Zheng, Zheng Guang-hua and Tang Pei-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(6)
      
    Cotyledon mitochondrium respiration and oxidative phosphorylation activity of PEG primed and unprimed (control) soybean seeds which have been exposed to low temperature imbibition before germination are studied. The ADP stimulated respiration rates of control mitochondria are evidently higher than state respiration rates of mitochondria from primed seed when L-Mal, -Kg and Succ are used as substrates respectively. The mitochondria from the unprimed do not possess respiratory control (RC.) On the contrary, mitochondria from the primed, even after seeds being exposed to 2C3 imbibition for 24 h, phosphorylate normally. The ADP/O and RC values are consistent with those of theoretical expectation. When NADH is used as substrate, unprimed seed mitochondria still possess oxidative phosphorylation activity, while ADP/O and RC values are obviously lower than those of mitochondria from the primed. The emerging sequence of the activity of the diverse phosphorylation sites during germination is also studied. When a different substrate is used, the emerging sequence of the primed is as follows: 1. NADH (12 h), 2.-Kg (24 h), 3. L-Mal and Succ (48 h). This corresponds to occurrence sequence of ADP stimulated respiration in control mitochondria. The above results show that low temperature imbibition has an irreversible destructive effect on oxidative phosphorylation activity of control mitochondria, and PEG priming has a protective effect on structure and function of the mitochondria under low temperature imbibition stress. The mechanism of soybean imbibitional chilling injury and protective effect of PEG priming are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2387)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Isolation of Plasma Membrane from Vicia faba Leaves and Pollen Tubes of Luffs cylindrica by the Two-Polymer Phase System
Author: Wang Yu-dong and Yan Long-fei (L. F. Yen)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(6)
      
    A method for the isolation of plasma membrane enriched fraction from plant sources is described. An aqueous two-phase system is suitable for the isolation of plasma membrane. Purified plasma membrane fractions have been prepared from Vicia faba leaves and pollen tubes of Luffa cylindrica. The determination of marker enzymes shows that the plasma membrane has a high affinity for the polyethylene glycol-rich upper phase, whereas those membranes from mitochondria, chloroplasts and other organelles prefer the dextran-rich lower phase and the interface. The plasma membrane was identified with the aid of silicotungstic acid-chromic acid staining. In the upper phase there are mainly stained elliptical vesicles, whereas in the lower phase there are many differnet kind of unstained vesicles. This result is coincident with the marker enzyme examination. The two-phase method for the isolation of plasma membrane may be widely applied not only to nongreen tissues but also to green tissues of plants.
Abstract (Browse 1839)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Epidermal Structure of Ginkgo Leaf
Author: Li Zheng-li, He Xian and Xu Bing-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(6)
      
    Ginkgo biloba L. has often been called a living fossil. Significant variations are often seen in its leaf form and structure of the epidermal layer and the morphological differences between the upper and lower layer. In the upper epidermal layer, the cells are rather orderly arranged in the appearance of a smooth surface. However, the cells of the lower layer are very irregularly arranged. The cell wall projects in various directions and is wrinkled. The stomata in the upper layer are rare and are restricted to the base of the leaf blade, for which they are often neglected. However, in some incidences, they are present only in the lower layer. The guard cells are deeply caved in by the surrounding 47 subsidiary cells, the upper part of which projects and covers the stoma. In the lower layer, two stomata, or occasionally three, that set close to each other might be observed. These phenomena are scarcely seen in other seed plants.
Abstract (Browse 2209)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Early Events in Thin Cell Layer Culture of Nicotiana tabacum
Author: Zhang Pi-fang and Wang Chi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(6)
      
    Explants were obtained by excising cortical tissue from stems of precultured Nicotiana tabacurn in 310 mm strips, containing 3C4 cell layers, and thickness of which was 30C40 m. Using modified microculture method, a successful experimental system that could be used for positioned sequential observation in vivo was established. Through continued observation in vivo and using microspectrophotometer technique, we found that, after 24 h culture of explants, nuclei in tabacco epidermal cells enlarged and their DNA contents increased, the density within the nuclei and cytoplasm also increased, cytoplasm and organelles in them moved faster. Thraugh these changes the cell dedifferentiation was completed, epidermal cells returned to interphase, ready for mitosis.
Abstract (Browse 1869)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Structure of Pollen Wall and Its Relation to Po41en Aggregation in Cymbidium goeringii (Rchb. F.) Rchb. F.
Author: Hu Shi-yi and Yang Jian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(6)
      
    The pollen wall of tetrads located in different positions of a mature pollinium of Cymbidium goeringii was examined with the electron microscope, and the compositions of wall materials were also tested with different histochemical methods. In all tetrads of a pollinium, the pollen wall can be distingished into an exine and an intine, but the exine may be varied greatly according to the tetrad position in a pollenium. The part of the pollen wall (the outer wall) of the external tetrads, lying close, to the tapetum, is composed of two layers, i.e. the exine, and the intine. Theexine consists of tectum, granulate ectexine and endexine, without foot layer. The intine is cellulose in nature. In the outer wall between different groups of: tetrads and in the inner wall within an individual tetrad, the structure of ectexine becomes simple and the deposition of sporopollenin is roduced The degree of reduction of ectexine nicreases from the outer to inner tetrads in several external layers of a pollinium, and even the internal tetrads have a reduced ectexine or lack of it. The present study also demonstrates that the mechanism of pollen aggregation into a pollinium is built on a combined effect of the following features: (1) connected bridges formed' by intine between two pollens within a tetrad, (2) formation of cytoplasmic channels between two pollens within a tetrad, (3) incomplete cell wall formation within a tetrad, (4) little size of tetrads and compact arrangement of mature tetrads and (5) a sticky viscin material surrounded on the outside of a pollinium.
Abstract (Browse 2053)  |  Full Text PDF       
Analysis of Free Amino Acids and Vitamine C in Fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides L., Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. and Berberils dasystachya Maxim
Author: Ji Lan-ju
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(6)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1977)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pollen Protoplast Culture Leading to Embryogenic Divisions in Hemerocollis fufva
Author: Zhou Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(6)
      
    Pollen protoplasts were isolated from the cold-pretreated flower buds containing uninucleate microspores and were inoculated in K3 basic medium supplemented with various additives. A part of the pollen protoplasts were triggered to embryogenic divisions and further to formation of proembryos and clusters. Microscopical observations showed that the first cell division might be equal or unequal and the subsequent growth might be organized or unorganized. This is the first example of pollen protoplast culture in which a sporophytic, or embryogenic, pathway is triggered
Abstract (Browse 2135)  |  Full Text PDF       
Limonoids from Dictamnus angustifolius
Author: Hu Chang-qi, Han Jian-wei, Zhao Jian-gang, Song Guo-qiang, Li Yu-hui and Yin De-xiao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(6)
      
    Five limonoids were isolated from the root bark of Dictamnus angustifolius G. Don. Their structures were determined as fraxinellone, obacunone, limonin, limonin diosphenol, and dictamdiol respectively, on the basis of their spectral data and chemical methods. Dictamdiol is a new natural degraded limonoid lactone derivative. Relative stereochemistry was established by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopic (COSY) experiment and biogenesis.
Abstract (Browse 2038)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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