August 1989, Volume 31 Issue 8

 

          Research Articles
Studies on the Silver-Staining of Plant Chromosomes
Author: Zhang Zi-li and Liu Li-hui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(8)
      
    In the rye, barley and wheat, besides the Ag-NORs, some other Ag-stained regions including the telomeres, the centromeres and the middle of arms have been found. The phenomenon that the rye and barley have their own Ag-staining pattern is first described in this paper.
Abstract (Browse 1989)  |  Full Text PDF       
Early and Middle Jurassic Sporo-Pollen Assemblages of Qiquanhu Coal-Field of Turpan Xinjiang
Author: Sun Feng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(8)
      
    One hundred and thirteen species of spores and pollens belonging to 58 genera were found from 66 core samples taken from two boreholes of the Early and Middle Jurassic deposits in the Qiquanhu coal-field of the Turpan Basin, Xinjiang have been investigated in this paper. Two of the species are described as new. Three sporo-pollen zones from lower to upper are described as follows: Sporo-pollen zone i (equivalent bed: Badaowan Formation) . The pteridophytic spores are slightly more abundant than the gymnospermous pollen in this assemblage. The most abundant spores are Cyathidites minor, C. australis and Undulatisporites pflugii, U. taenus and so on. The second important fern spores are Osmundacidites, Lycopodiumsporites, Apiculatisporis and Duplexisporites. The most important gymnospermous genus is Cycadopites which ranks highest in the assemblage and includes C. nitidus and C. typicus.The other gymnospermous pollen include Classopollis, Pinuspollenites, Protoconiferus Piceites. Besides, there are a few pollen grains of Taeniaesporites and Chordasporites surviving from the Late Triassic in this assemblage. The present assemblage may be compared with the Early Jurassic sporopollen assemblage from the Daling Formation of the North-East Guangxi. Therefore, the Badaowan Formtion may be referred to Early Jurassic in age, probably Early Lias. Sporo-pollen zone j (equivalent bed: Sangonghe Formation) In this assemblage the gymnosperms are predominant.Of them, Podocarpidites and Pinuspollenites increase obviously, and Quadraeculina and Protoconiferus are common. Few surviving elements are observed. The most abundant spores are those of Cyathidites, and the particularly abundant pollens are those of Cycadopites, This assemblage may be compared with the Late Lias sporo-pollen assemblage from the Fuxian Formation of the Northern Shangganning Basin. Therefore, the Sangonghe Formation should belong to Early Jurassic, probably Late Lias in age. Sporo-pollen zone k (equivalent bed: Xishanyao Formation). The contents of the spores and pollens are almost equal in this assemblage. Cyathidites and Cycadopites are the most important spores and pollen. Osmundacidites and Quadraeculina are common. Neoraistrickia, Lycopodiumsporites and Eucommiidites troedssonii are present. Ancient striate bisaccate pollen disappears. The characteristics of this assemblage show some resemblances to those of the Middle Jurassic Yanan Formation in Chongxin county of Gansu province. So the Xishanyao Formation should belong to Middle Jurassic.
Abstract (Browse 2212)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study of Microalgae in the Intertidal Zones of the Deception Island,Antarctica
Author: Zhu Gen-hai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(8)
      
    his paper first presents a report on the composition and distribution of microalgae in the intertidal zones of the Deception Island, Antarctica. These microalgae samples were collected from six mud-sand flats stations on 21 January 1987. 179 taxa of microalgae belonging to Bacillariophyta (125 species, 25 varieties and 2 forma, 34 genera), Cyanophyta (18 species and 2 varieties, 6 genera), Pyrrophyta (6 species, 4 genera) and Chrysophyta (1 species 1 genus) were observed. The six dominant microalgae in each habitat are Fragilaria bongrainii, F. oceanica, F. striatula, F. islandica, Navicula antarctica and Synedra kerguelensis var. antarctica. Rhabdonema arcuatum, Cocconeis antiqua and Licmophora gracilis are abundant in station 4, 5 and 6. Oscillatoria spp., Lyngbya antarctica, Phormidium antarcticum and Nodularia spp. are also abundant in station 1, 2 and 3. The values of diversity indice for microalgae varied from 2. 85 to 6.86. The values of similarity indice in microalgae composition between biotopes ranged from 32 to 79 for pairs of stations. Microalgal species composition and quantitative distribution are depended on per cent contents of mud-sand and claysilt at different stations.
Abstract (Browse 1888)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Study on the Cell-Wall Polysaccharide of Amorphophallus rivieri
Author: Wang Shu-xiu, Wen Yuan-ying, Wang Lei and Hu Chang-xu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(8)
      
    The cell-wall polysaccharide from Amorphophallus rivieri was found to be a mannan of MW. 72000. The anomeric configuration was determined from the specific rotation and IR spectrum of the polysaccharide. Smith degradation gave glycerol acetate only. The complete methylation followed by hydrolysis and acetylation gave 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-1, 5-di-acetylmannitol, 3,4,6-tri-O-methyl-l,2,5-tri-acetylmannitol and 3,6-di-O-methyl-l,2,4,5-tetra-acetylmannitol in the ratio of 1.08: 32: 1. Based on all of these results, the structure assigned to the repeating unit of the polysaccharide was given.
Abstract (Browse 1895)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Chemical Constituents of Emmenopterys henrys Oliv. Native to China
Author: Ma Zhong-wu and He Guan-fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(8)
      
    Emmenopterys henryi Oliv. is native to China. Only one species is involved in this genus Emmenopterys. This species is distributed in the western part and southern part of China. No datum of chemical constituents on Emmenopterys henryi has been recorded. Nine crystalline substances have been isolated from ether and ethanol extractions of trunk of E. henryi. Eight of them have been identified as taraxerone, taraxerol, ursolic acid acetate, 汕-sitosterol, scopoletin, umbelliferone, daucosterol, and umbelliferone-7-汕-D-glucoside, respectively, by chemical and spectral (IR, UV, NMR, and MS) analysis.
Abstract (Browse 2195)  |  Full Text PDF       
Scanning Electron Microscope Observation on the Pollen Grains of Chenopodiaceae
Author: Hao Hai-ping, Zhang Jin-tan an Yan Shun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(8)
      
    Pollen grains of 50 Chenopodiaceae species were observed under SEM and distincted into 5 morphological types, 6 subtypes. This work suggest that the Chenopodiaceae pollen is distinctable at substructural level.
Abstract (Browse 2028)  |  Full Text PDF       
Autoradiographic Study of Gamma-Ray Induced Unscheduled DNA Synthesis in Bean Root Meristem Cells
Author: Liu Zhen-sheng, Qiu Quan-fa, Chen Dong-li and Cong Yian-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(8)
      
    The gamma-ray induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in root meristem cells of Vica faba was studied autoradiographically by calculating the number of cells with different 3H-thymidine labelling degree. It was found that the level of unscheduled synthesis in cells with intermediate dose (500 R) irradiation was higher than that in cells with lower dose (250 R) irradiation; however, higher dose (1000 R) irradiation would inhibit the reparative replication.
Abstract (Browse 1859)  |  Full Text PDF       
The HCN Potential of Chinese Sorghum and Sudangrass Varieties and the Changes of HCN Potential During the Growth of Seedling
Author: Wu Xian-rong and Liu Jian-wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(8)
      
    In this paper, we measured the HCN potential (HCN-p) of 148 sorghum (Sorghum hicolor (L.) Moench) and sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense) varieties and the changes of HCN-P during seedling growth. The results showed that most of the varieties had their HCN-p more than 1000 ppm (94:59%). Among them, 33.11% belonged to 1400每1600 ppm, 22.97% to 1200每1400 ppm, 17.57% to 1000每1200 ppm, and 14.86% to 1600每1800 ppm. The varieties which HCN-p were less than 1000 ppm or higher than 1800 ppm had a little proportion (11.44%). The varieties with the lowest HCN-p were ※Xinliang 80§ (672 ppm), ※sudancao§ (753 ppm), ※Huangke Sudancao§ (856 ppm), ※Limuji§ (860 ppm), and ※MI03§ (876 ppm). Those with the highest HCN-p were ※Yuanxin lA§ (1967 ppm), ※Shisanjie§ (1904 ppm), ※Mi- bangz§ (Da Lai (1900 ppm), ※7503 A§ (1889 ppm), and Mijia Honggaoliang (1883 ppm). Sudangrass had the lowest HCN-p (about 700 ppm), sweet sorghum had higher HCN-p (about 1500 ppm). with the seedling growth, HCN-p reached its highest value in 4-day-old seedling. The first leaf had the highest HCN-p content, the second leaf and sheath had lower and root had the lowest.
Abstract (Browse 2357)  |  Full Text PDF       
Preliminary Studies on the Acting Mechanism of Stabilizing Factor of Nitrare Reductase Activity (NR-SF)
Author: Huang Gao-hong and Li Zhi-zheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(8)
      
    Nitrate reductase (NR, E. C. 1.6.6.1), which was purified for 500-fold from crude extract of wheat leaves through the Blue-Dexdran Sepharose 4B affinity colume, could be still increased obviously by NR-SF in vitro. The results demonstrated that NR-SF increasedmainly activity of Cytochrome-C reductase (CytcR) in NR complex, but not affected activity of reduced methylviologen-nitrate reductase (MVH-NR). NR-SF was not similar to glutathione (GSH) which ieversed the inhibition of P-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB) on activity of NR. So that the action of NR-SF was not in protecting sulfhydryl group of NR protein from oxidation alone.
Abstract (Browse 1972)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Cytological and Histochemical Studies of Developing Soybean,Cotyledons
Author: Zheng Yi-zhi He Meng-yuan and Hao Shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(8)
      
    In the late globular proembryos, three regions could be identified, i. e. the cotyledon primordium, the epiphysis and the hypocotyl-hypophysis. In the cotyledon primordia, the mitotic frequency of the cells was comparitively high, the directions of the mitotic planes were mostly perpendicular to the long axis of the embryo, the size of the nucleolus was comparitively large, and the cytoplasm density was high. In the epiphysis region, however, the mitotic frequency of the cells was low, the size of the nucleolus was small, and as the first pair of leaf primordia appeared the mitotic frequency of the cells in that region began to increase. In the hypocotyls hypophysis region the mitotic frequency of the cells as well as the size of the nucleolus lied in between the corresponding values of those of the above two regions, the cytoplasm density was low and the size of the vacuoles was large. As the proembryo continued to develop the direction of the mitotic plane changed gradually, from mostly perpendicular to the long axis of the embryo to mainly inclined, or even parallel to that axis. As a result, the proembryo developed from a heart-shaped embryo into a torpedo-shaped embryo. After the first pair of leaf primordia appeared from the young embryo, the vacuoles in the cells of the cotyledons grew in size rapidly. About twenty to twenty five days after flowering, the starch grains, the protein bodies and the lipid granules began to accumulate in the cells of the cotyledons and gradually increased both in size as well as in quantity. About fifty days after flowering the diameter of the starch grains reached its maximum value of 6.2每7.0 米m, and decreased in value thereafter till the time of harvesting when most of the starch grains disappeared except those in the palisades. On the other hand, fifty to sixty days after flowering, the diameters of the lipid granules and of the protein bodies reached their maximum values of 5.4每7.0 米m and 6.2每7.0 米m, respectively. The observation revealed that the formation of the protein bodies was related to the vacules.
Abstract (Browse 1958)  |  Full Text PDF       
Histologial Studies on the Root-Knot Nematodes Nonresistant and Resistant Root Apex of Humulus lupulus L.
Author: Zhang Heng-yue and Li Zheng-li (Lee Cheng-lee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(8)
      
    The nematodes (Meloidogy incognita Chitwood.) invade near the root apex of the hop (Humulus lupulus L.), and usually lie near the meristematic zone. Fallowing their entrance, there are the formation of the giant cells and the consequent continuous divisions and activities of the flat meristematic cells, which result in formation of the nematode galls. Their sizes are also related to the number of nematodes. String beads nematode galls are often formed at the nematode-non resistant root part of the "Comet". The process of nematodes entering and later changing of the cells and tissue is almost the same as the formation of the nematode gall in other plants. Fewer nematodes can also enter the root tip of the highly resistant "Qingdao Dahua", but the subsequent special differentiation of the cells and tissues in the root have greatly restrained the activities of nematodes and ultimately to their death.
Abstract (Browse 1868)  |  Full Text PDF       
Distribution of Vascular Tissue in Four Rattan Canes
Author: Cai Ze-mo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(8)
      
    Vascular bundle density, fibre proportion, size of vascular bundle and diameter of metaxylem vessel in canes of four rattans, i.e. Daemonorops margaritae, Calamus simplicifolius, C. tetradactylus and C. dioicus, were measured in relation to their radial positions of cross section and different cane heights. The radial and vertical distributions were expressed by 1 ℅1 mm of unit, denominated 'a layer', from the bark to centre and by the number of nodes from the base to top respectively. All the measurements were done with a micro-projector. Distribution of radial direction. At all cant' heights, a distinct or even abrupt change in the measured characteristics occurs between the peripheral two layers. From this zone towards the centre, the vascular bundle density shows approximately the same in all inner layers; the fibre proportion demonstrates a decreasing tendency; the size of vascular bundle and the diameter of metaxylem vessel reveal an increasing trend at different degree. Distribution of vertical direction. The vascular bundle density in the various layers shows a little or even no difference between different heights. The fibre proportion in the outermost layer exhibits a decreasing tendency' from the base to top, and in inner layers some of them still have more or less the similar tendency. There are obvious differences, but noany pattern of variation, between the different heights in relation to both size of vascular bundle and diameter of metaxylem vessel in all the layers, except that the later in C. dioicus and D. margaritae shows an increasing trend from the base to top. In addition, the practical significance of the distribution of fibre proportion was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2234)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Erycibe hainanesis
Author: Wang Pu, Yao Tian-rong and Chen Ze-nai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(8)
      
    Five compounds have been isolated from the stem of Erycibe hainanesis Merr. They were identified as scopoletin (1), scopolin (2), baogongteng A (3), baogongteng C (4) and erycibelline (5) by spectral analyses as well as chemical methods. The derivatives, 4m, 5m and 5ma, are new tropane compounds', their spectral data and physical constants are reported in this paper. Erycibe hainanesis Merr. may replace Erycibe obtusifolia Benth. as a medicinal herb, and it is yet one of the plant resources of new myotic baogongteng A.
Abstract (Browse 1918)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation of Dual Promoter and Research on the Optimal Construction of Chimaeric Genes
Author: Zhu Qun, Bai Yong-yan and Loo Shi-wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(8)
      
    Agrobacterium tumefaciens induces crown gall tumout formation on many dicotyledonous plants. Tumour formation is accompanied by transfer and integration of a specific part of the tumout inducing (Ti) plasmid into the nuclei of the host cells. This part of the Ti plasmid is termed T region in tile bacteria and T-DNA in the plant cells. Crown gall tissues synthesize unusual T-DNA specific compounds known as opines. The Ti plasmids are classified according to the types of opine. The octopine and nopaline Ti plasmids have been studied most extensively. Apart from TL-DNA, TR-DNA of octopine Ti plasmid can be expressed in transformed plant cells. Transcription analysis indicated that there are five transcripts mapped to the TR-DNA, of the five transcripts, three of them including the most abundant mRNA (1∩ and 2∩) have been linked with mannopine production. The 1∩ (1.6 kb) and 2∩ (1.45 kb) transcripts code for the second and first enzymes in the manopine biosynthetic pathway respectively, experiments show that the 1∩ and 2∩ mRNA levels are significantely greater than that of the OCS transcript which is the most abundant one among TL-DNA transcripts. The two mRNAs are divergently transcribed and both originate within about 500 bp DNA segment of the TR-DNA. From pAR17, a clone carrying a 1.5 kb fragment of TR-DNA, we subcloned a 490 bp fragment. It contains two promoters located in diverse orientation and ended just at ATG codon of 2∩ promoter (the ATG codon is abolished) and several bp from 1∩ ATG codon. There are several restriction endonuclease sites in the recombinant plasmids pBZ741 and pBZ742 which are pWR13 carrying the 490 bp fragment in different orientation. DNA sequencing shows that the promoters of gene 1∩ and gene 2∩ contain typical TATA boxes, but no ideal CAAT box. We have modified pBZ741 and pBZ742 to get pBZ741 m and pBZ742 m respectively, in pBZ741m, EcoRl site is just at ATG codon position of 2∩ promoter; in pBZ742m, BamHl site is just at ATG codon. DNA sequencing confirmed the structures. In order to get improved gene expression, we constructed three different firefly luciferase chimeric genes: pBZ7610: promoter 2∩+ luciferase structure gene+Nos terminator. pBZ81tl: promoter 2∩ (modified) + luciferase structure gene +Nos terminator. pBZ8110: promoter 2∩ (modified) +luciferase structure gene + Nos terminator (in reverse orientation). We set up three intermediate vectors pBZ7621:pBZ8117 and pBZ8116 by insertion of tmr gene of T-DNA into pBZ7610, pBZ8lll and pBZ8110 respectively. We incorporated pP, Z7621 pBZ8117 and pBZ8ll6 into plant genetic engineering vector pGV3850 individualy to get pBZ7629. pBZ8127 and pBZ8126. These three chimaeric genes have been transfered into tobacco plant. Results show that three genes can be expressed in transformed tobacco plants. The luciferase activities in terms of light production are as following: pBZ7629, 2.6℅10每9; pBZS127, 3.8℅ 10每9; pBZ8126, 8.1℅ 10每10, These results suggest that both 5∩ promoter and 3∩ terminator are important for the chimeric gene expression in transformed plant. The 3∩ end structure which we used is an 1.2 kb fragment of the T'DNA of the pTiC58. It contains the 5∩ upstream structure of gene 613, so the reduced expression of luciferase chimeric gene carrying the 1.2 kb fragment in reverse orientation may be effect of a special siliencer element of 6b gene, it is worth to study further. The presumed translation start codon of luciferase structure gene used is 81 bp downstream from the fusion site. The modified dual promoter has a stronger activity in promotion of luciferase gene expression which is 1.5 times higher than that by normal dual promoter, it is possible that there are another TATA box and transcription start site of insect gene in the 81 bp fragment. This suggests that the distance between the promoter and gene translation initiation codon is very important for plant gene expression.
Abstract (Browse 2200)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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