September 1989, Volume 31 Issue 9

 

          Research Articles
Studies on Chemical Components of Peucedanum wawrii(Wolff)
Author: Ye Jing-shen, Zhang Han-qing and Yuan Chang-qi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(9)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1791)  |  Full Text PDF       
Experimental Manipulation of Pollen Protoplasts Sperms and Generative Cells
Author: Zhou Chang and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(9)
      
    This review deals with the up-to-date advances in manipulation of male sexual cells, i.e. pollen protoplasts, sperms, and generative cells of flowering plants, including the isolation, purification, culture and/or fusion, as well as cell-biological studies of these haploid protoplasts or cells. These experimental approaches show fascinating prospects for both genetic engineering and fundamental researches on plant reproductive cells.
Abstract (Browse 1793)  |  Full Text PDF       
Mycorrhizal Dependency of Various Kinds of Plants
Author: Lin Xian-gui and Hao Wen-yiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(9)
      
    Mycorrhizal dependency of various kinds of plants was estimated in pot cultures. Seeds or cuttings inoculated with Glomus spp. were grown in unsterilized sandy fluvo-aquic soil or sand, fertilized with dilute Hoagland's solution. Results showed that the weight of shoot and root of all mycorrhizal seedlings was significantly greater than that of uninoculated seedlings except chrysanthemum which was generally recognized as a nonmycorrhizal family. Mycorrhizal dependency of different plants decreased in the following order: grape, China rose, white clover, asparagus, violet, petunia, corn, cotton, soybean, tobacco, peanut, tomato, mungbean, lily and chrysanthemum. Mycorrhizal inoculation also enhanced the flowering of China rose and terminal bud growth of pomegranate. There was no correlation between the percentage of mycorrhizal infection and mycorrhizal dependency, although all plants were infected after inoculation.
Abstract (Browse 1970)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies OB the Microfossils from the Hebiancun Formation, Hutuo Group, Wutai Mountain Area, North China
Author: Xu Zhao-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(9)
      
    Well preserved microfossils were here described from the middle of Hebiancun Formation, Hutuo Group, northern China, estimated to be 2,000 2,400 Ma years old based on the K-Ar and U-Pb isotopic. They were coccoids (Globophycuswenshanensis Xu sp. nov.) and filamentous (Siphonophycus cf. kestron and Siphonophycus sp.) and occur in petrographic thin sections. The coccoids were preserved by permineralization in the chert part of the conical stromatolites (Zhongtiaoshanella) and the filamentous in black chert. The paleoenviromental modal for the setting of the Hebiancun Formation was able to be reconstructed according to the microfossit assemblage and different lithology observed. The formation was divided in ascending orders as follows: The breccia; the thick sandy dolomite; the black chert in which the filamentous microfossils in subparalled colonies were preserved; and the dolomite with conical stromatolites in which the coccoidal microfossils with hyaline and unlamelleted sheath was observed. As mentioned above, it was conjectured that the descent and uplift of the geosynclinal area led to transgression and regression during the Hebiancun time. Compared with the all microfloras in the world known uptodate the characteristics of the microfossils from Hebiancun Formation was similar to that from Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa. Both of them show of the big sizeof the algal bodies inspite of different types. The algae Seemed to have a big cell period during their systematization.
Abstract (Browse 1880)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Structures of Two New Triterpene Saponins C and D from Polygala japoni-ca Houtt
Author: Fang Zha-pu and Yin Gu-jiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(9)
      
    Two new triterpene saponins C and D have been isolated from the aerial parts of Polygala japonica Houtt. Their molecular formulas: C42H68O15 were structural isomers of each other. Acid hydrolysis of the two saponins all produced a sapogenin (2a, 3a, 24-trihydroxyo-lean-12-ene-28-oic acid) and D-glucoses. But only the saponin D could be hydrolyzed in the alkaline solution, the products were identical with those from acid hydrolysis. Their structures have been established by means of 1HNMR,13CNMR and MS as 3-O-[汕-D-glucopyranosyl(l↙2)汕-D-glucopyranosyl] 2汐, 3汐, 24-trihydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oic acid, 28-O-[汕-D-glucopy-ranosyl (1↙2)-汕-D-glucopyranosyl] 2汐, 3汐, 24-trihydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oic acid.
Abstract (Browse 1887)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Cadmium on Photosystem II in Spinach Chloroplasts
Author: Yang Dan-hui, Xu Chun-hui, Zhao Fu-houg and Dai Yun-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(9)
      
    Cadmium ions, as an environmental pollution factor, significantly inhibited the photosynthesis especially, photosystem j activity in isolated spinach chloroplasts. The presence of 5 mmol/l Cd2+ inhibited the O2-evolution to 53%. Cd2+ reduced the activity of photoreduction of DCIP and the variable fluorescence of chloroplasts and PSj preparation. The inhibited DCIP photoreduction activity could only be restored slightly by the addition of an artificial electron donor of PSII, DPC, and the inhibited variable fluorescence could not be obviously recovered by the addition of NH2OH, another artificial electron donor of PSj. It is considered that, besides the oxidizing side of PSI1, Cd2+ could also inhibit directly the PSj reaction center. The inhibitory effect of Cd2+ on the whole chain electron transport (H2O↙MV) was more serious than on O2-evolution (H2O↙DCMU). It is suggested that the oxidizing side of PSj is not the only site for Cd2+ action. There may be another site inhibited by Cd2+ in the electron transport chain between PSi and PSj.
Abstract (Browse 2016)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Substitutions Among Mn, Ca and Mg Ions and Oxygen Evolution of Anabaena Variabilis
Author: Fang Zhao-xi, Peng De-chuan and Mei Zhen-an
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(9)
      
    he changes of Mn2+ contents in Anabaena variabilis were probed by EPR. Treatments with CaCl2 and Ca (NO3)2 at high concentrations induced the release of bound Mn and the decrease of oxygen-evolving activity of the cyanobacterium. When the release percentage of bound Mn reached up to 57%, the oxygen-evolving activity decreased to zero. MgCl2 treatment resulted in less effectiveness than CaCl2 MnCl2 at high concentration inhibited cyanobacterial oxygen evolution, as the indication of EGTA. In the comparision with control the low temperature fluorescence emission spectra of the cyanobacterium treated by CaCl2, MgCl2 and MnCl2 changed with the shoulder disappearance at 686 nm and the decline of ratio of F730/F695 The possible competitive substitutions among ions at their binding sites in oxygen-evolving complex were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1882)  |  Full Text PDF       
Solubility of the High-Lysine Component of Hordein A
Author: Dong Nin, Wang Li-rong, Lan Lan and Zhang De-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(9)
      
    Barley flour was defatted with petroleum ether and eliminated the salt and water soluble proteins with 2 times 5% NaCl and I time redistilled water extracting. After the above procedures, the hordein I was extracted with 55% isopropanol. The dry hordein I was solublized in 2% SDS and then separated by sephadex G-100 chromatography. The peak 2 hordein's molecular weight was 14每20 kD in SDS-PAGE protein pattern. Authors defined this group of hordein as hordein A. Its lysine content was 2.6%. The further experiments showed that this group of hordein A was soluble easily in isopropanol and alcohol but difficultly in 5% or 0.5 mol/l NaCl solution. It could be suggested that this group of hordein A is prolamine but not salt-soluble protein.
Abstract (Browse 1796)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on G-Banding Karyotype in Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
Author: Ding Yi and Song Yun-chun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(9)
      
    G-banding karyotypes of three cultivars in barley were analyzed. Multiple closely adjacent G-bands were able to be observed in each early metaphase or metaphase chromosome treatted by an ASG method. The more concentrated the chromosome, the less was the number of G-bands during mitosis. The position of band distribution, staining degree and band numbers between homologous chromosomes were basically identical. Chromosome pairing for karyotype analysis could be carried out more accurately. G-banding patterns of different chromosome pairs were not the same, they could be used as the markers to distinguish one from another chromosome pair. During the same mitotic stage the banding patterns including number, relative position and staining degree of the bands between different cultivars were basically the same, but they had differences in the size and staining degree of some bands near centromeres. G-banding technique and G-banding of metaphase chromosomes were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2198)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Polyploid Breeding of Isatis indigotica Fort.
Author: Qiao Chuan-zhuo, Wu Mei-shu, Dai Fu-bao, Cui Xi and Li Ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(9)
      
    Results of studies on chromosome doubling treatment with colchicine, identification of polyploid plants, selection for beneficial characteristics and evaluation of relevant drugs of polyploid Isatis indigotica Fort. were reported. By both gemmiferous seeds treated with 0.05%每0.5% aqueous solution of colchicine and growing shoots apices with 0.05%每0.3% aqueous solution of colchicine, polyploid plants were obtained. The most suitable time of treatment was 6每12 hours. In addition to direct cytological examination, some characteristics were able to use for identification of polyploid plants, such as number of chloroplats peraguard cell and number of furrows on the wall of pollen grain. Among the autotetraploid induced or between the polyploids and diploid parents, some morphological characteristics were compared. Polyploid lines with better fertility, good yield, and free amino acid in roots, high content of indigo and indirubin in leaves have been obtained through five years selection.
Abstract (Browse 2094)  |  Full Text PDF       
Establishment of the Basic Preparation Process for Artificial Seeds of Carrot
Author: Li Xiu-qing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(9)
      
    The basic process for preparation of artificial seeds of carrot is established by optimization experiments during the induction, encapsulation and germination of somatic embryos. The seedling rate of artificial seeds by this process under sterile conditions reached 96%, and the survival rate of the seedlings reached 79% after they were transplanted into the greenhouse.
Abstract (Browse 1843)  |  Full Text PDF       
Bud Regeneration by Cell Suspension Culture of Sunflower
Author: Liu Gong-she and Wang Fu-xiong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(9)
      
    Three genotypes were selected from 54 genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to test the ability of bud regeneration by tissue and suspension cultures. Suspension cells delivered of the callus were originated from the hypocotyl explants. The growth rate of cells was set up in MS with addition of BA (0.5 mg/l) and 2.4-D (0.001 mg/l). The buds were regenerated directly from the callus when 2,4-D was removed from the medium.
Abstract (Browse 1930)  |  Full Text PDF       
Setting up a Single Cell Clone Lines of Cathamus tinctorius
Author: Zhou Ping and Zheng Guang-zhi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(9)
      
    Different concentrations of 2,4-D, KT and NAA were able to influence the plating efficiency (PE) of single cells of Cathamus tinctorius. The best combination of these three hormones for the growth of single cells was 2.0, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/l, respectively. The PE was obviously different as cells came from different generations of suspension subculture and the third generation of suspension culture cells, had the best PE which 8.5 times as high as that of the first generation of suspension culture cells. Single cell growth in condition medium or in solid-liquid dual layer culture was better than in normal plate culture. The PE of single cell clones in condition culture was 3.6 times as high as in normal plate culture. The PE of single cell clones in solid-liquid dual layer culture was 4.7 times as high as in normal plate culture. Many clones from single cells were set up. Different growth rates were observed in different single-cell clones. The lowest growth rate in these clones was 3.08 g/g/35 days, the highest growth rate in these clones was 23.33 g/g/35 days.
Abstract (Browse 1862)  |  Full Text PDF       
Embryological Studies on Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.)
Author: Lian Yong-quan and Shen Jia-heng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1989 31(9)
      
    Embrylogical studies of ginseng were carried out systematically. The main results were as follows: 1. The anther is tetralocular. Meiosis of the microspore mother cells was accompanied by simultaneous cytokinesis, and resulting in tetrahedral tetrad. The mature pollen grains are three-celled type. 2. The megasporocyte undergoes meiosis and gives rise to a linear or a "T" shaped tetrad of megaspore, the chalazal megaspore was functional. The development of female gametophyte was of the Polygonum type. 3. In the same flower, the corresponding developmental stages of the stamen and pistil are observed; and we also related them with the outer flower mophology. 4. The double fertilization of ginseng referred to the type of the premitotic syngamy. About 7每10 hours after pollination, most of the female and male nuclei begin to fuse with each other. 5. The primary endosperm nucleus begins the first mitotic division within 36 hours after pollenation, the resting period of the zygote is about 15每20 days long. The endosperm belonged to the nuclear type. When there are about three hundreds free nuclei cell walls begain to appear thus forming cells in the endosperm.
Abstract (Browse 1893)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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