January 1990, Volume 32 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
Observation on the Characteristic Features of Cell Wall Formation in Free-Nuclear Endosperm During the Early Stages of Cellularization in Triticum aestivum
Author: Zhang Wei-cheng, Yan Wen-mci and Gao Xiao-yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(1)
      
    Triticum aestivum cv. Yang Mai # 1 was used to study the celI wall formation in free-nuclear endosperm with electronmicroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. During the initiation of cellularization the peg-like wall ingrowths developed, and the freely growing walls gradually cleaved the cytoplasm into small compartments in both regions (ventral and dorsal) of the 'endosperm sac, but in ventral region the anastomose of freely growing wall often occured. The striking resemblance and close connection betwteen nucellar debris and freely growing walls showed the possibility that the disintegrated nucellus played an important role in supporting the wall formation of endosperm during the early stages of cellularization.
Abstract (Browse 1784)  |  Full Text PDF       
Forest Fire in Early Holocene Forest Changes at Lake Barrine, Australia
Author: Chen Yin-shuo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(1)
      
    Fire is one of major factors in forest ecosystem. This paper presents results of charcoal and pollen analysis on Early Holocene sediments in Lake Barrine, Australia. Time series analysis and mathematical modeling were used to infer patterns of forest fire, relationship between fire and major vegetation elements and the roles forest fire played in forest changes. The analysis shows that in Early Holocene fire frequencies in this area decreased from one major fire in less than 50 years in the early Eucalyptus forest stage (zone S1) to one in 230 years in the later stage (zone S2). After the establishment of rainforest, fire activities were much weaker. The effects of fire on three major elements of Eucalyptus forest varied according to their different fire adaptive traits. In process of the change from Eucalyptus, forest to rainforest, fire protected-the former and delayed.the establishment of the later.
Abstract (Browse 1881)  |  Full Text PDF       
Moss Communities and Their Characteristics in Ice-free Areas of the Windmill Islands, Wilkes Land, Continental Antarctica
Author: Hu Shun-shi and R. D. Seppelt
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(1)
      
    The moss vegetation of the Windmill Islands can be classified into the following seven communities: 1.Grimmia antarctici community; 2. G. antarctici-Ceratodon purpureus community; 3. Bryum pseudotriquetrum community; 4. G. antarctici-B, pseudotriquetrum community; 5. Ceratodon purpureus community; 6. C. purpureus-G, antarctici community; 7. C. purpureus B. pseudotriquetrum community. Communities 1, 3, 4 and 7 occur in wet habitats while communities 5 and 6 are found in rather dry habitats, community 2 distributes between dry and wet habitats. Microtopography governs the distribution of water supply and therefore community types. Stable moss communities usually form moss hummocks and hollows. Species composition, colour and height of the hummocks determines the vertical structure of the moss community layers with 2-3 strata being discernible and level structure forming mosaic. Other phytocoenological characteristics of the moss communities, such as the dense moss cushions, asexual reproduction (although antheridia or archegonia have been found in each of the species), abundance of epiphytic algae and lichens growing on the surface of moss hummocks, the colour change of some species in different habitats, appear related to moisture availability, light intensity, wind exposure and temperature.
Abstract (Browse 1844)  |  Full Text PDF       
Selection and Characterization of Asparagus Mutants Resistant to Inhibition by Lysine Plus Threonine
Author: Yin Yan-hai, Chen Hui, Kuang Bai-jian and Wang Jing-ju
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(1)
      
    Asparagus officinalis calli were induced from shoot of seedlings. After mutagenization, two lysine plus threonine resistant mutant lines (LTR2, LTR3) were obtained by selectionnonselection-reselection procedures with 2 mmol/1 lysine plus threonine. LTR2 and LTR3 caIli remained resistance to lysine plus threonine after being subcultured for 1 year, and both of them showed cross resistance to 1 mmol/l aminoethylcysteine. In resistant calli, the free lysine, methionine and an unknown amino acid were l-l0 times more than those in controls.
Abstract (Browse 1896)  |  Full Text PDF       
Separation and Purification of Chongzujueside
Author: Chen Ya-min, Lu Ying-hua, Ma Cun-sheng, Chen Yah-jun and Yu De-quan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(1)
      
    From Hypodematium sinense lwatsuki (Thelypteridaceae) a new xanthone C-glycoside was isolated. According to chemical properties and spectroscopic (IR, UV, MS, 1H-and 13C-NMR) analysis, the structure was established as 1,3,6-trihydroxyxanthone-8-C--D-glucopyranoside, named chongzujueside.
Abstract (Browse 1844)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Essential Oil trom Zanthoxylum avicennae, (Lam.) DC. and Its Antimildew Active
Author: Cheng Shi-fa, Zhu Liang-feng, Lu Bi-yao, Yu Yue-xin and Liu Zhu-jin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(1)
      
    By means of rotatory belt fractional distillation, LC, HPLC, PGC and derivative methods, 27 compounds were separated from the essential oil which isolated from Zanthoxylum avicennae (Lam.) DC. by stream distillation. Twenty two of them were identified by the methods of IR, GC/IR,, 1H-NMR,18C-NMR, GC/MS/DS and the preparation of derivatives. Among them, 4-methyl-6-acetoxyhexanal was first found in nature. Fifteen compounds have been tested their antimildew activities. Citral, l-octanol, 4-methyl-6-acetoxyhexanal and linalool showed strong activities. The relationships between the structure of compounds of essential oil and their respective antimildew activities are also dealt with in this paper.
Abstract (Browse 2248)  |  Full Text PDF       
Separation and Identification of Chemical Constituents of Dysosma majorense(Gagn.)Hsiao et Y. H. Chen, nov comb
Author: Yin Meng-long, Chen Zhong-liang, Gu Ze-sheng and Xie Yu-xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(1)
      
    Ten compounds, namely physcion (), podophyllotoxone (), isopicropodophyllone (), picropodophyllone (), 4'-demethyl-podophyllotoxone (), dehydropodo- phyllotoxin (), diphyllin (), picropodophyllin (), podophyllotoxin () and 4'-demethylpodophyllotoxin (), were separated from Dysosma majorense (Gagn.) Hsiao et Y. H. Chen, nov comb. Compound was first isolated from natural source and anthraquinone was first isolated from genus Dysosma. , and showed strong acttve inhibited against P388.
Abstract (Browse 2014)  |  Full Text PDF       
Esterase Isozyme of Indigenous Wheat to China
Author: Cui Yun-xing and Ma Yuan-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(1)
      
    Esterase isozyme of dry seeds, anthers and immature seeds from 54 accessions of indigenous wheat to China was analysed. The result showed the specialties of esterase isozyme in different tissues. There were 12 zymogram types of esterase isozyme in 54 materials. A special marked band, esterase isozyme band 2A, was found in Xinjiang wheat. Cluster analysis suggested that (1) Yunnan wheat was geneticaly close related to Tibet semi-wild wheat. Both of them are in the same level of evolution and belong to one taxonomical group. (2) Common wheat and Tibet common wheat belong to one group and (3) Xinjiang wheat is a special group, having its own evolutionary process.
Abstract (Browse 1915)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Partial Characterization of the Major Seed Storage Proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana L.
Author: Huang Bai-qu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(1)
      
    This study was aimed at the characterization of the major storage proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two major protein fractions, i.e., the fraction and proteins, were isolated from the extract of mature seeds of this plant by molecular seive gel filtration chromatography. Various polyacrylarnide gel electrophoretic techniques were used to study the properties and polypeptide compositions of these two protein fractions. In was shown that during the SDS gel electrophoresis, fraction protein was separated into 6 major bands with the mol. was. of 34, 31, 29, 28 and 19-20 kD, respectively, whereas Fraction protein migrated as 3 low mol. wt. bands (10-12 kD) on the same gel. Non-denaturing native gel electrophoresis revealed that fraction was a neutral protein and Fraction was a positively charged basic protein with an isoelectric point (pI) higher than 8.8. Fraction I protein was further separated into at least 16 polypeptides in isoelectric focusing/SDS two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, i.e. each SDS band contained 3-4 polypeptides with the same mol. wt. but different pis. This suggested a more complex polypeptide composition of this protein. The properties of fraction and proteins were in good accordance with that of the 12s and 1.7s storage globulins in seeds of many other dicotyledonous plants, and therefore had been characterized as the two major seed storage proteins in this species. These two storage globulins were shown to be accumulated within a defined period during the late stage of seed development (12-14 DAF) and became predominant protein components in mature seeds. In the mean time, a few points in relation to the polypeptide composition and subunit molecular configuration of the 12s globulin were noted.
Abstract (Browse 1905)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relation Between Growth of Gastrodia elata Protocorms and Fungi
Author: Xu Jin-tang and Mu Chun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(1)
      
    Armillaria mellea penetrated protocorms from seed germination and vegetative multiplication corms of Gastrodia elata with rhizomorph. At beginning, they formed a hypha passing road and a hypha flow in the inner cells of cortex, and then, they both penetrated inside of large cells and penetrated outside of cortical cells. Gastrodia elata seeds depended on digesting Mycenct osmundicola etc gain nutrition to germinate at the stage of sexual reproduction, but its corms of vegetative multiplication must be penetrated by Armillaria mellea obtaining nutrition for normal growth at the stage of vegetative propagation.
Abstract (Browse 2144)  |  Full Text PDF       
Callus Formation from Protoplasts and Plant Regeneration from Tissue Culture of Silybum marianum Gaertn
Author: Liu Si-qing and Cai Qi-gui (Tsai Chi-kuei)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(1)
      
    Leaf calli of Silybum marianum Gaertn. subcultured for one year were used for protoplast isolation and culture. First division was observed three days after culture on medium M12, and the highest division frequency was 35.4%. One to three months later, small ralli were seen with naked eyes, and grew up gradually. Upon transferring them onto D6 differentiation medium, the green bud apices were observed two months later. However, no shoot differentiation was obtained. Hypocotyl calli were induced on MS+NAA 0.8mg/1, 6-BA 0.5mg/1. Two months after transferring calli onto D6 medium, shoots were regenerated from the surface of the calli. The freqency of shoot differentiation was 75%. On a MS rooting medium containing NAA 0.5 mg/1, IBA 0.1 mg/1, whole plants with healthy roots were obtained.
Abstract (Browse 2207)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Developmental Anatomy of the Monkshood-Tuber of Aconitum kusnezoffii
Author: Dong Zhong-min*** and Li Zheng-li (Lee Cheng-lee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(1)
      
    The monkshood-tuber of Aconitum kusnezoffii is a specialized structure attached to the root of the plant and is composed of apical bm4, axillary bud and its tuberous adventitious root. After the axillary bud emerges at the end of March of the following year, the primordium of the adventitious root develops from the procambium-like cells of the bud just below the first node at the abaxial part. With the active proliferation of the secondary phloem parenchyma ceils, the root increases its size very rapidly to form a tuber, When the adventitious root begins to develop, the first internode of the axillary bud extends horizontally to form a "bridge" connecting the daughter monkshood-tuber to the mother plant. In the third spring, each tuber sprouts one shoot giving rise to a new plant and in likewise produces a new tuber. It might be concluded that the monkshood-tuber is a renewal bud developing from a axillary bud. The so called bridge which connect the tuber and the mother plant is a special kind of subterraneous stem which is actually the first internode of the axillary bud.
Abstract (Browse 2125)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studles on the Initiation and Development of Gutta-containing Cells of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.
Author: Tian Lan-xin (Tian Lan-hsing), Lu Min and Hu Zheng-hai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(1)
      
    The gutta-containing structure in the cortex of a stem of Eucommia ulmoides is a filamentous, secretory cell. Observation of thin sections revealed that when the procambium of a stem differentiated into the earliest sieve elenents of protophloem, the initials cells appeared as daughter cells originated from a longitudinally equational or unequational divisions, or from the terminal cell formed by several transverse divisions of some cortical ground meristematic cells. Before the ceils of the cortical ground'meristem ceased to divide, the initial cells, in an arbitrary position of origin, develops continuously. These initial cells were able to be distinguished from the surrounding cells by their large length/width ratio, the presence of elliptical nuclei and dense cytoplasm, etc. Later, both ends of the initial cells extended rapidly through intrusive growth, forming the very long, thin and filamentous unicell with two dilated terminations. During development, the gutta particles were gradually synthesized and accumulated in the cytoplasm, where as the organelles degenerated progressively. In the muture gutta-containing cell, the cell cavity was filled with gutta particles, the nucleus as well as other organelles was disintegrated leaving an intact fibrous cell wall.
Abstract (Browse 1887)  |  Full Text PDF       
Partial cDNA Cloning and Nucleotide Sequence of Rice Dwarf Virus Genome
Author: Gao Qian, Ou Yang-xin, Liu Wei, Pan Nai-sui and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(1)
      
    Rice dwarf virus (RDV) was isolated and purified from infected rice leaves with chloro form extraction, PEG precipitation and sucrose gradient centrifugation. Total RDV RNA ge nome was separated in the agarose gel and segments of RDV RNA genome were purified. The cDNAs of several segments were synthesized with oligo dT as primer. Through cDNA mapping, subcloning and sequencing, we have obtained partial DNA sequence of those segments. Here we report the cloning and partial DNA sequence of segment 8 from RDV RNA genome.
Abstract (Browse 1799)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Chemical Constituents of Myripnois dioica Bunge
Author: Chen Meng-jing
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(1)
      
    Five compounds have been isolated from Myripnois dioica Bunge, a plant native to China. They are identified as nonacosane, taraxerol acetate, -amyrin acetate, -amyrin and -sitosterol.
Abstract (Browse 1995)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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