October 1990, Volume 32 Issue 10

 

          Research Articles
Two C-Banding Patterns in the Seeds of Cunninghamia lanceolata
Author: Chen Ke-yong and Fang Yong-Xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(10)
      
    Somatic chromosomes of root tip cells in the seedlings of dioecious Cunninghamia lanceolata were studied with Giemsa C-banding technique. The metaphase chromosomes had two heavy C-bands in the secondary constriction and terminal satellite regions of the one pair of homologous chromosome. It was found that some seeds exhibited this pair of C-bands in different size, while some other seeds exhibited this pair of C-bands in same size. The corresponding results can also be observed in their interphase chromosomes. Based on these results, it was conjectured that the sex differentiation may exist in the seeds of dioecious Cunninglamia lanceolata and the transformation of sex expression may occur in the development process of this plant.
Abstract (Browse 1781)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Root-Formation Test
Author: Zhao Zhong-ren and Huang Gui-qin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(10)
      
    This paper describes a new and convenientt rootformation test. It is excised cucumber cotyledon root-formation test. The experimental results showed that the mininum level of IAA detectable in this bioassay was 0.3每100 ppm and the number of roots formed in excised cucumber cotyledon was proportional to the logarithm of the IAA concentration in the range of 3.0每30 ppm. This bioassay is specific for natural and synthetic auxins. It had less error and better repeatability than others.
Abstract (Browse 2046)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Cytochemistry of Albuminous Ceils in Secondary Phloem of Stem in Pinus bungeana Zucc.
Author: Yang Xiong and Gao Xin-zeng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(10)
      
    Mature albuminous cells which are connected with differentiated and functional sieve cells show rather high activity of acid phosphatase at pH 5.0. No increased activity could be detected in ordinary ray cells, cambium cells and young albuminous cells contiguous with developing sieve cells. Collapsed albuminous cells show little or none of the activity. With ATP as substrate, enzyme localization is the same as with 汕-glycerolphosphate. When adenosine triphosphatase activity is visualized at pH 7.2 with ATP as substrate, the highest activity still localized in mature albuminous cells. With the development of young albuminous cells, the enzyme activity is being gradually exhibited, but disappearing when the maturecells begin collapsing. On the other hand, in ordinary ray cells the enzyme activity is ahnost not detectable.
Abstract (Browse 1722)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Changes of the Infected Cells in Onobrychis viciaefolia Root Nodules
Author: Han Shan-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(10)
      
    Ultrastructural changes of the infected cells and the bacteria in Onobrychis viciaefolia root nodules were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Onobrychis viciaefolia root nodules during their development possessed main features as follows: 1. In early developmental stages of the infected cells, there were often many small vacuoles in their cytoplasm. 2. Comparing with the development of the infected cells, except some bacteria still maintained rod-shaped, other bacteria gradually become to dumbbell-shaped, even short-chMn-shaped, lotus-root-shaped or other shapes. These bacteria had no obvious nucleoid zones and fibrillar-shaped nucleoid material and polyphosphate granules, however, there was a kind of especial inclusion in their cytoplasm. 3. The perilyacteroid membranes of the bacteria often occurred the fusion each other.
Abstract (Browse 1735)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cuticular Studies on Two Pleistocene Species of Lauraceae in Baise Basin, Guangxi
Author: Liu Yu-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(10)
      
    Two fossil leaves with cuticle described here were collected from the Pleistocene Changseling Formation of Baise Basin, Guangxi. A detailed comparison of the cuticular analysis between the fossils and their living equivalents indicated that the two fossil species belong to 2 genera of Lauraceae, that is, Alseodaphne of, hainanensis Merr. and Pheobe cf. sheareri (Hemsl.) Gamble. The first report on lauraceous fossil leaves with cuticle in China showed that cuticular analysis had a reliable value in identifying the angiospermous fossil plants.
Abstract (Browse 1780)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Anatomical Study of Plagiozamites oblongifolius and the Systematic Position of Plagiozamites
Author: Guo Ying-ting, Tian Bao-lin and Han De-xin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(10)
      
    The specimens of petrified fossil plant, Plagiozamites oblongifolius, described here, were collected from the sandstone of Late Permian of Western Guizhou, China. Their morphological as well as the internal anatomical characters were preserved. All of the samples were treated with hydrochloric acid and made into peels and thin sections. The main internal anatomical characters are as follows: The mesophyll of pinna is not differentiated into spongy and palisade tissue. The phloem of the pinna vein is ectophloic and the xylem of which is exarch. The tracheids are annular, helical and scalariform thickening. The vein is surrounded by the transfusion tissue which consists of parenchymous cells and short tracheids. In the transverse section of rachis, the vascular bundle is in "U" shape. It has amphiphloic siphonostele with exarch xylem. The protoxylem consists of small tracheids with spiral or annular thickened walls, and the metaxylem, with scalariform or transitional type of scalariform and pitting thickening. The structure of vascular bundles of the pinna and the rachis is similar to that of Cycas (Fig. 1, 2). The systematic position of Plagiozamites has been disputed for a long time. However, based on the morphological and anatomical characters of Plagiozamites, they might be belonged to cycadophytes. If the fructifications of Plagiozamites are considered as the same type as that ef Noeggerathia, Plagiozamites should be a kind of progymnosperms.
Abstract (Browse 2039)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Heavy Liquid Floating on the Calculation of Pollen Concentration
Author: Du Nai-qiu and Chen Yin-shuo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(10)
      
    The calculation of pollen concentration has become a standard method in pollen analysis. Heavy liquid floating usually produces clean and pollenrich preparations. Pollen loss in this process can affect results of calculation of pollen concentration by exotic pollen method. These effects are evaluated quantitatively in this paper. The errors caused by floating vary from 1 to 15 per cent approximately, depending on the specific gravities of heavy liquid used in preparation and different pollen sizes.
Abstract (Browse 1791)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Fritillaria pallidiflora Schrenk
Author: Xu Dong-ming, Huang En-xi,Wang Shu-qin, Wen Xiao-guang and Wu Xiu-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(10)
      
    Six steroid alkaloids, imperialine (i), imperialine-3汕-D-glucoside (j), peimissine (k), imperialine N-oxide (l), cycloparnine (m), and cycloposine (n) were isolated from the bulbs of Fritillaria pallidiflora Schrenk. Their structures were determined from spectral data and chemical evidences. Imperialine N-oxide was first obtained from nature.
Abstract (Browse 2200)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Constituents of Four Medicinal Lichens
Author: Sun Han-dong, Niu Fang-di, Lin Zhong-wen, Cao Dong, Li Bo and Wu Jin-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(10)
      
    In the continuing search for exploitation and utilization of lichens, we have isolated 12 compounds from 4 species of medicinal lichens used in the North-western China. Their structures were deduced from spectral and chemical evidence, and the constituents are as follows: 1. Lethariella zahlbruckneri (DR.)Krog, atranorin (1), ethyl haematommate (10), methyl 汕-orcinolcarboxylate (8), (每)-placodiolic acid (4). 2. Lethariella cladonioids (Nyl.) Krog. Syn., methyl 汕-orcinolcarboxylate (8), haematommic acid (9), atranorin (1), norstictic acid (2), 8'-O-ethylnorstictic acid (3)- 3. Cladonia stellaris (Opiz.) Pouzar & Vezda, (+)-usnic acid (5), perlatolic acid (6), atranorin (1), 2, 4-dihydroxy-6-n-pentylbenzoic acid (12), 2-hydroxy-4-meth- yoxy-6-n-pentylbenzoic acid (11). 4. Dermatocarpon miniatum (L.) Mann., D-volemitol. A colour substance canarionic acid reported previously occuring in the genus Lethariella was proved to be identical with (每)-placodiolic acid.
Abstract (Browse 2401)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Chemical Constituents of Rhododendron wiltonii
Author: Hu Mei,Liu Yong-long and Xiao Pei-gen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(10)
      
    ix compounds were firstly isolated from the leaves of Rhododendron wiltonii HemsL et Wils. and identified by chemical and spectral means. They were ursolic acid(l), (+)-catechin (2), quercetin (3), kaempferol (4), polystachoside (5) and kaempferol-3-O-arabinoside (6). The (5) and (6) were obtained for the first time from Chinese rhododendrons.
Abstract (Browse 1899)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Chilling Injury on the Morphology and Cell structure of Hami Melon Fruits
Author: Xu Ling,Zhang Wei-yi and Tian Yun-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(10)
      
    An early sign of chilling injury (CI) of Hami Melon (Cucumis melo L.) was observed as some irregular tiny spots on the rind. As the chilling prolonged (0每2⊥), they produced water-soaking lesions and commonly followed by Alternaria rot. The changes of injured tissue were studied using light, transmission electron and scanning electron microscopy. At chilling tempeeature (0每2⊥), parenchyma cells under epidermis became firstly flattened and plasmolyzed, and later resulted in the formation of depressed area of epidermal tissue. Initial occurrence of C1 symptoms was at the stomata. After prolonged exposure at chilling temperature, the pinsmalemma and tonoplasts of the parenchyma ceils were destroyed and plasmodesmas also disappeared. Comparing with change of various organelles, the chloroplasts were more sensitive than the mitochondria at chilling temperature, chloroplasts were broken completely during the last period of CI, but mitochondria still kept their structure.
Abstract (Browse 1889)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Identification of Photosynthetic Subpathways of Some C4 and CAM Plants
Author: Lin Zhi-fang,Sun Gu-chou, Li Shuang-shun, Lin Gui-zhu and Guo Jun-yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(10)
      
    The photosynthetic subpathways of five C4 plants and one CAM plant were distinguished according to their chemical, physiological and cytological characteristics. Based on C4 acid decarboxylation enzymes, four C4 plants of Setaria glauca, Sporobolus indicus, Zoysia tenuifolia and Leptochloa chinensis all exhibited the functional high activities of PEP carboxykinase and aspartate aminotransferase as seen in the known PEP-CK subtype. The 汛13C value of 每12.43% in leaves of L. chinensis was also consistent with that range among PEP-CK subtype. So, these species were classified into PEP-CK subtype. However, their chloroplasts in bundle sheath cells were evenly distributed, not as that displayed centrifugally or centripetally in three typical subtypes. The even arrangement of chloroplasts in bundle sheath cells was likely to be an evolutional intermediate from centripetal (NAD ME type) to centrifugal types (NADP-ME and most PEP-CK types). The high activities of NAD-malic enzyme and aspartate aminotransferase, accompanied with the centripetally located chloroplasts, 0.057 of quantum yield and tile 汛13C value of 每15.3% in leaves of C4 dicot Euphobia hirta indicated characteristics of NAD-ME subtype. Moreover, CAM plant Aloe vera clearly fell into PEP-CK sybtype because of its high activity of PEP-CK both in whole leaf and green tissue.
Abstract (Browse 1934)  |  Full Text PDF       
Gene Transfer into Intact Plant Cells by Electroporation
Author: Xu Hua-qiang,Cai Guo-ping,Wu Yi,Zhao Nan-ming, Tang Hui-xian. Fu You-ying,Jiang Shuang-ying, Ren Yan-guo and Jia Shi-rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(10)
      
    The effects of electric field pulses on the permeability and viability of intact suspension cells of Chinese cabbage were investigated. Intact ceils were found to be more resistant to the detrimental effects of electric field than that of the protoplasts. Pretreatment of intact cells by heat shock (45⊥, 10 min), acid medium (pH 4.0) or 汕-mercaptoethanol considerably increased thc transfer efficiency. CAT (chloramphenlcol acetyltransferase) activity was detected in the intact suspension cells of cucumber and rice electroporated with CAT gene.
Abstract (Browse 1654)  |  Full Text PDF       
Hormonal Regulation and Effect of L-Proline on Somatic Embryogenesis of Sainfoin
Author: Lu Tie-gang, Sun, Jing-san and Zheng Guo-chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(10)
      
    The effects of BA and KT on somatic embryogenesis of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop) have been studied. Light-yellow callus was able to be formed from sainfoin hypocotyl explants cultured on LS medium containing I mg/l BA+ 1 mg/1 KT, and its somatic embryogenesis was induced by 1 mg/l BA and inhibited by 1 rog/1 KT on LS medium. Analysis of free amino acid in different types of calli indicated that the content of L-proline in embryonic callus was only as much as 2/5 of that in nonembryonic callus. Addition of L-proline to culture medium led to the stimulative effects on somatic embryogenesis in sainfoin and its optimal concentration is 1000 mg/1.
Abstract (Browse 1902)  |  Full Text PDF       
Purple-red Pigment Formed in Callus of Onosma paniculatum Bur.et French
Author: Zhu Ru-xing,Cao Ri-qiang,Wang Man-si,Pan Da-qian,Du Zheng-ming, Lu Wan-fang and ShiYao-zeng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(10)
      
    The callus of Onosma paniculatum produced by young roots and stems with 2-staged culture method contains slightly higher contents of the purple-red pigment than the original plant. This pigment is a naphthoquinone compound consisting of six shikonin derivatives, whose Rf values are very close to those of shikonin derivatives in the intact root and stem. Four monomers of shikonin have been obtained with the columned chromatography of silica gel H from the callus. The Structure analysis shows that the shikonin derivatives are deoxyshikonin, 汕, 汕-dimethy- lacrylalkannin, acetylalkannin and 汕-acetoxyisovalerylalkannin.
Abstract (Browse 2065)  |  Full Text PDF       
In vitro Selection of Aluminum-Tolerant Variant of Barley Callus and Its Characterization
Author: Zhu Mu-yuan,Huang Chun-nong, Xu A-bing and Yuan Miao-bao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(10)
      
    The haploid and diploid calli were induced respectively from anther and immature embroy cultures in barley cultivar &Zhaoshu No.3*, which is susceptible to acid-aluminum. In order to establish the selection conditions, these calli were cultured on the media with different pH values and aluminum concentrations to examine response to acid-aluminum. It was showed that pH 6每8 was optimal for the growth of calli and pH values under 5 or over 10 inhibited the growth of calli significantly and the selection medium was at pH 4.5 and 10 ppm Al+3. The callus lines toleranted to 10每20 ppm A1+3 have been selected from calli treated with 5000 red 污-ray radiation or no treatment. In the conditions of pH 4.5 and 10 ppm Al+3, the cells of original type were irregularly ellipsoide, dimly fluorescent and low respiratory intensity and didn*t grow, while the cells of Al-tolerant callus line were spherical, brilliant fluorescent and high respiratory intensity and continued to grow. lsozymes of peroxidase in Al-tolerant variant was somewhat different from that of original type. No plant was regenerated from Al-tolerant haploid calli, but 5 regenerated plants were obtained from diploid calli in selected subculture. Two of them survived were examined to be tolerant to pH 4.5, 10每20 ppm A1+3 and were able to grow in acid-aluminumrodish soil. Finally, the application of in vitro culture and selection for genetic improvement of Al-tolerance in barley was discussed briefly on the basis of the results obtained in the present study.
Abstract (Browse 2079)  |  Full Text PDF       
An EM Study on the Nucleolar Residual in Meristematic Cells of Vicia faba
Author: Xing Miao and Hao Shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(10)
      
    A special structure which originates from the nucleolus and persists during mitosis is observed in meristematic cells of Vicia faba, and is called nucleolar residual in this paper. The result of conventional staining showed that the nucleolar residual (NR) was a medium electron-dense structure that could be distinguished from chromosomes. At the end of prophase, the NR was observed in the dispersing nucleolar material, which consisted principally of granules and fibrils about 15 to 20 nm in diameter. In prometaphase, the NR, composed mainly of the similar granules and fibrils, was found attached to chromosomes. Results of Bernhard's technique for RNP (ribonucleoprotein) preferential staining indicated that the main chemical component of the NR was RNP, and sometimes bleached regions showing the same reaction as chromatin in Bernhard's staining appeared in the structure. In metaphase and anaphase some of the NRs were attached to chromosomes while others existed randomly in the cytoplasm. The NR is supposed, according to its cytochemical features and its behavi0ur during the nucleolar disintegration, to be a structure composed mainly of nucleolar matrix material or nucleolar skeleton.
Abstract (Browse 1863)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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