November 1990, Volume 32 Issue 11

 

          Research Articles
Sporo-Pollen Assemblage from the Miocene Tongguer Formation of Inner Mongolia and Its Climate
Author: Wang Wei-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(11)
      
    Tongguer Formation, one of the most famous Neogene fossiliferous strata in China, is well developed in Tongguer (Tung Gur) district located in the southeast part of Erlien, Inner Mongolia. Sporo-pollen assemblage obtained is characterized by the dominont content of Qucrcoidites, Chenopodipollis, Artemisiaepollenites, and by the moderate amount of Salixipollenites, Cyrillaceaepollenites, Tricolpopollenites, along with a few of Betulaceoipollenites, Ulmoideipites, Labitricolpites, Rutaceoipollis, Graminidites, Pinuspollenites, Abietineaepollenites, Ephedripites and Polypodiisporites etc.. A comparison is made between the present assemblage and that from Shangdou-Huade Basin, Inner Mongolia, and the climatic variation tendency revealed by these assemblages is contrast with that from the oxygen isotopic records of the DSDP boreholes. The geological age of Tongguer Formation is then assigned to the middle Miocenelate Miocene boundary or the earliest late Miocene, which is a slight later than the result from the vertebrate fossils.
Abstract (Browse 2377)  |  Full Text PDF       
Signal Molecules of Plant-Inducers of Gene Expression of Bacteria
Author: He Xian-guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(11)
      
    In process of the inter action between plants and microorganisms, microorganisms can take specific compound released by plants as chemical signal. The signal is soon effective on microorganisms. Therefore, the microorganism produce gene expression which is nece. ssary in order to attack host plants. Since Stachel (1985) first reported that acetosyringone and 汐-hydroxyace- tosyringone contained in percolating substance of wound cells in tobacco roots could activate toxic genes (vir), the conception, that signal molecules of the plant act as inducers of gene expression, has been suggested. Recent research advances on this field mentioned above have been summerized in present paper.
Abstract (Browse 1747)  |  Full Text PDF       
Miocene Diatoms from the Shanwang Basin of Shandong Province and Analysis by Fuzzy Mathematics of the Paleoenvironment
Author: Shi Ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(11)
      
    This paper mainly deals with paleoenvironment of the Miocene diatomaceous earth of the Shanwang Basin. Diatomaceous samples were collected both horizontally and ventically from the Basin. The method of the fuzzy mathematics used, and a comprehensive study on the different diatom assemblages in sections (No. 1, No. 4, No. 5) show that in a graphic way the development and feature changes of the diatom assemblages of Melosira and Cymbella-Fragilaria. The changes in the scope of space and time indicate the water depth and the geographic area of the Basin. Another salient feature of the paper is the study of microstratum analysis on diatomaceous layers with different colors. Using the evidence of electronic scanning and information from 汛O18 method, the paper will probably give usefull information on seasonal temperature changes of the Basin.
Abstract (Browse 1929)  |  Full Text PDF       
Palynological Study on Yellow Rain in Northern Jiangsu Province
Author: Zhang Zhong-ying,Shi Gui-jun and Liu Shuang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(11)
      
    This paper is largely dealing with the recent on-the-spot investigation and palynological study on yellow rain in northern Jiangsu Province. Many samples of yellow rain on leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) collected from the village of Xinxi, southwest of the township of Xinfeng, Jingjiang County were analyzed using palynological technique. The yellow drops were composed mainly of pollen from crops which are common in the area and they were in blossom at that time. Among the grains observed in acetolysed preparations the dominant element is the oil-bearing crop pollen of Brassica campestris L. (69.7%, 634 grains counted), plus some other pollen such as Vicia faba L. (27.1%) and Astragalus sinicus L. (1.4%). On investigation it was found out that there did exist an apiary around the yellow rain site. The bee feces, however, bore a strong resemblance both in appearance and in pollen compositioa to the yellow spots on leaves we collected. Palynological analysis showed that samples of yellow rain collected from different times at the same site were completely different in their pollen composition, suggesting that the local flowering plants are the source of the pollen found in samples of yellow rain. All data obtained so far do support the bee feces theory for the origin of yellow rain proposed by one of the authors (Zhang Zhong-ying) early in 1977, indicating that yellow rain is a phenomenon of nature.
Abstract (Browse 2211)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chemical Constituents of the Fssential Oils from the Leaves of Laurus nobilis and Tendency in Changes of the Constituents Month by Month
Author: Lin Zheng-kui,Hun Ying-fang,Gong Guo-ping and Gu Yu-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(11)
      
    The chemical constituents of the essential oils from the leaves of Laurus nobilis L., have been identified both by capillary GC-MS and fused silica capillary GC Kovats retention in,lex of components. From laurel leaf oil, 45 compounds have been identified, among which, 19 compounds such as 1,4-cineole, sabinene hydrate etc. have not been found in the leaf oil previously. This paper studies systematically the constituents of essential oil from dry, fresh leaves, and those of annual, perennial, different district, and reported the changes of the chemical constituents month by month. Results showed that the yield of essential oil and 1,8-cineole content is the highest in July.
Abstract (Browse 2407)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fractional Selection of Somatic Embryos in the Production of Carrot Artificial Seeds
Author: Zhu Cheng, Huang Mei-juan, Niu Xiao-mu, Li Xiu-qing and Fu Xiao-di
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(11)
      
    Carrot somatic embryos were selected fractionally from the cell suspension with an equipment of embryonic cell clumps selector. The operation and optimal conditions of this equipment used for selection of somatic embryos (SEs) have been tested and determined repeatedly. Three classes of SEs in different sizes, numbers and morphology were obtained. The rate of fractional selection with this equipment was 872 mature embryos/100 ml cell suspensionlh. These 3 classes of selected SEs were encapsulated in alginate beads to produce artificial seeds. In vitro germination frequencies of these seeds with production of seedling-quality plantlets were tested on MS medium in sterilized condition. In addition seedlings from artificial seeds grew normally to adults in soil pots. These results indicated that the use of selected SEs to produce artificial seeds increases the seed quality obviously.
Abstract (Browse 1857)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Studies on the Spectral Characteristics and Components of Chlorophyll-Protein Complex CPa Band from Three Different Preparations
Author: Xu Chun-hui, Wang Ke-bin, Zhao Fu-hong, Yang Dan-hui and Dai Yun-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(11)
      
    The comparative studies on the spectral characteristics of the chlorophyll-protein complex CPa isolated separately from spinach chloroplast preparation, O2-evolving PSj preparation and PSj reaction center core complex showed that the CPa band isolated from the former two preparations contained not only Chl a but also small amount of Chl b. This is different from the general view that there is only Chl a but no Chl b in CPa band. Furthermore, the Chl b content in CPa from the chloroplast preparation was higher than that of O2-evolving PSII preparation. It was found that there was only one chlorophyll-protein complex band, i.e., CPa band in PSj reaction center core complex. So it is considered that PSj reaction center chlorophyll-protein complex must be included in CPa band; but at least in the chloroplast preparation and the O2-evolving PSII preparation, some other components were also contained in CPa.
Abstract (Browse 1766)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of the Calcium on Polygalacturonase (PG) Activity and Synthesis at Different Ripening Stages of Tomato Fruits
Author: Lu Chun-bin, Liu Cun-de, Shen Quan-guang and Liang Hou-guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(11)
      
    It has been reported that PG is a key enzyme related to the tomato fruit ripening and that the application of calcium can dramatically decrease the PG activity and delay the ripening of fruits. In this paper the effects of calcium treament at various ripening stages on the transformation of absorbed calcium, PG activity and PG synthesis in tomato fruits were studicd. According to the analysis of calcium by atomic absorption spectroscopy, it was shown that the soluble and total calcium contents in pericarp of fruits treated with calcium at mature-green stage were increased significantly, and that more soluble calcium was transformed into bound calcium. Both the absorption and transformation of calcium decreased in fruits treated with calcium at later stage of ripening. The inhibition of calcium on PG activity was most effective by treatment at mature-green stage, but less effective at later stage of ripening. One reason for the decrease of calcium inhibition was probably due to the decline of calcium absorption as fruit ripening. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of PG showed that PG with a molecular weight of 46.7 kD was absent in mature-green fruits, and PG synthesis occurred only at the later stage of ripening. It seems that the earlier the treatment was done the more effective of the calcium inhibition of PG synthesis. Based on the above results, it was concluded that the PG plays a major role in ripening and senescence of tomato fruits, and both PG synthesis and its activity were inhibited by calcium. In order to delay the ripening and senescence of tomato fruits, the treatment with calcium should be done at mature-green stage.
Abstract (Browse 2491)  |  Full Text PDF       
In vitro Propagation, Dedifferentiation and redifferentiation of Marchantia polymorpha L.
Author: Li Wen-an
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(11)
      
    The gemma and gametophyte of Marchantia #olymorpha were propagated in vitro. Dedifferentiation and redifferentiation as well as the media used and cultural conditions reguired were described. Since the differentiation of bryophytes was very difficult, it was necessary to culture the tissue through initiation of partial dedifferentiation on MS agar medium supplemented with 1 mg/1 2,4-D and 3% sucrose, and then subsequently the tissue was transplanted onto 1/2 Knop agar medium with addition of 4每8 mg/1 2,4-D, 0.25每0.5 mg/1 BA and Fe salt of MS medium. The formed calli were visual but still contained rhizoid, in this stage. The small calli finally were subcultured in white agar medium supplemented with mixture of pyruvic acid, citric acid and fumaric acid (5 mmol/1); 1 mg/1 2,4-D and 4% glucose. They could be differentiated thoroughly into normal tissue. The time of the total process for differentiation requied as long as 10 months. The redifferentiation and regeneration of thalli were far easier than those of higher plants even if they were transplanted onto MS phytohormone-free medium.
Abstract (Browse 1946)  |  Full Text PDF       
Investigation on the Ontogeny of Pollen in Pinus thunbergii Parl
Author: Xiao De-xing and Chen Zu-keng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(11)
      
    The microsporogenesis in Pinus thunbergii occurs in early to middle March, and the development of pollen in late March to early April. A mature pollen grain consists of four cells. The starch grains aggregate in the equators during meiosis i to j. The callose materials appear first in inner side of the wall of meiocyte and then in the equator. Sometimes the 3-or 4-sac- cate pollen grains have been found. In the ontogeny of pollen in Pinus thunbergii following events are noteworthy. (1) During meiosis the equatorial aggregation of starch grains in me iocyte becomes conspicuous. (2) During formation of tetrad the callose wall appears in regular activity. It is noteworthy that there is itself feature for the accumulation of callose in Pinus thunbergii. After formation of prothallial cells the callose appears mainly in the area between body and saccus. So the prominent symmetry of distribution of callose occurs in the pollen grains. But almost no callose accumulation takes place i,n tenuity in distal face of pollen grain. On the contrary, there are certain callose accumulation around the prothallial cells in the proximal face, forming the polar distribution of callose in pollen grains.
Abstract (Browse 1867)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Cytochemical Technique for Demonstration of Lipids, Polysaccharides and Protein Bodies in Thick Resin Sections
Author: Hu Shi-yi and Xu Li-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(11)
      
    An effective cytochemical technique for the simultaneous demonstration of lipids, polysaccharides and protein bodies in the same section from the tissue embedded in Epon 812 is described. Thick sections of peanut cotyledon are used for a typical sample according to the following procelures. Firstly, PAS reaction: (1) Oxidize sections in 0.5% periodic acid in 0.3% nitric acid for 10 min, (2) Wash in running water for 1每2 min and then pass through distilled water, (3) Stain in Schiff's reagent for 30 min, (4) Wash in sodium metabisulfite 3 times, 2 min for each time, (5) Wash in running water for 5 min and then pass through distilled water. Secondly, Sudan black B staining: (1) Rinse section in 70% ethanol for 1-2 min, (2) Stain in fresh 1% Sudan black B in 70% ethanol for 30每60 min at 40每60⊥, (3)Rinse in 70% ethanol for 1 min and then in distilled water. Thirdly, Coomassie brilliant blue R staining: (1) Rinse sections in 7% acetic acid for 1每2 min, (2) Stain in I% Coomassie brilliant blue R in 7% acetic acid for 20 min at 60⊥, (3) Differentiate in 0.1% acetic acid for I min, (4) Rinse in lunning water for 5 min and then pass through distilled water, (5) Dry at room temperature or in oven, 40⊥. The dry sections mount in glycerin-gelatin. After the above three step staining, the three main compounds of the cell can be stained simultaneously. Starch grains and cellulose cell wall take cherry red colour, lipids appear in black, protein bodies are blue. The sealed slides can be kept permanently.
Abstract (Browse 2347)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Temperature on Induction of Regenerative Stamens in vitro Culture, Microsporogenesis and Pollen Development in Hyacinthus orientalis L.
Author: Lu Wen-liang, Zhu Ying-jie, K. Enomoto and Y. Fukunaga
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(11)
      
    In order to culture the regenerated stamens of hyacinth in vitro to maturity, the effects of temperature on regeneration of stamens, microsporogenesis and pollen development were studied. Results showed: the proper temperature for stamen regeneration was 25⊥. The temperature going down gradually was advantageous to the microsporogenesis and pollen development. The most suitable temperatures for differentiation of microsporocyte, meiotic division and pollen first mitosis were 20每25⊥, 20⊥ and 10⊥ respectively. Under such temperature condition, it was possible to culture the regenerated stamens to maturity, and pollen grains in the stamens had the higher germination frequency. On the contrary, unsuitable temperature condition will make microsporogenesis and pollen development stop at certain development stage, it will finally result in pollen abortion.
Abstract (Browse 1882)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes in the Organization of Microtubules During Generative Cell Division and Sperm Formation in Lilium
Author: Xu Shi-xiong, Zhu Cheng and Hu Shi-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(11)
      
    Changes in the organization of microtubules in Lilium during generative cell division and sperm formation were studied using in vitro grown pollen tubes and immunofluorescence techniques. In lily, 2--3 hours after polleff germination the generative cell following the vegetative nucleus enters the pollen tube. Once in the pollen tube the nucleus of the generative cell begins to elongate. The chromosomes inside the nucleus start to condense and the overall shape of the generative cell becomes spindle in shape. Due to the presence of strong background fluorescence induced during fixation, it is difficult to see clearly the pattern of distribution of the microtubules in most generative cells, especially, at the nucleus region. However, in those cells which do not show such strong background fluorescence, one can see that in the cytoplasm of the generative cell.there are a number of axially orientated microtubule fibers extending from one end of the cell to the other. Occasionally a few helically orientated microtubule fibers can also be seen outside the nucleus. But these helical fibers are never seen in the cytoplasm of the head and tail regions. During metaphase, all the chromosomes move towards the equatorial plate region and each chromosome appears to have an axially orientated microtubule fiber associated with it. When the fiber enters the equatorial plate region, the fiber is inter rupted by a dark spot. This dark interruption resembles closely the kinetochore region seen in Tradescantia virginiana. During anaphase, sister chromatids separate to opposite poles and two future nuclei will be formed. These two newly formed nuclei are still connected to each other by a number of microtubule fibers. Each fiber becomes much thickened when it enters the region where the original equatorial plate was situated. Thus at this region there is a very strongly fluorescent area. Thia strongly fluorescent area resembles closely the fluorescent 'bar' region due to microtubule overlapping and interdigitating seen in the dividing cells of the diatom, Stephanopyxis turris. During telophase, however, a opaque band begins to appear in the middle region of this strongly fluorescent area. According to our interpretation, this opaque band may represent the region of formation of the cell plate. As this interpretation is cor rect or not, we believe it can be resolved easily using either confocal laser scanning microscopy or electron microscopy. The pattern of distribution of the microtubules in the sperm is very similar to that seen in the generative cell. The sheets or bundles of microtubules seen by Derksen et al. in the generative cells of Lilium we suspect, could be artefacts due to background fluorescence.
Abstract (Browse 1961)  |  Full Text PDF       
Higher Order Structure of the Condensed Chromatin in Interphase Nuclei of Wheat
Author: Xiang Wei, Jiao Ming-da and Hao Shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(11)
      
    Using conventional transmission electron microscopy, higher order structure of the condensed chromatin in interphase nuclei of root tip meristems of Triticum aestivum L. was investigated. Chromonemata at different levels with 20每25 nm, 50 nm and 110每120 nm in diameter were observed. It has been found that the chromonema of 110每120 nm in diameter was organized from chromonema of 50 nm, and the latter was organized in turn from chromonema of 20每25 nm. The manner of condensation of higher order structure within these three levels was discussed in this paper.
Abstract (Browse 1932)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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