December 1990, Volume 32 Issue 12

 

          Research Articles
Plant Regeneration from Sainfoin(Onobrychis viciaefolia)Protoplasts Derived from Cell Suspensions of Hypocotyl
Author: Zhao Gui-lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(12)
      
    The protoplasts were isolated from cell suspension cultures of hypocotyl (Onobrychis viciaefolia) cullured continuously for 3C4 months, and were cultured in modified Wguid - KM medium. The first division of the regenerated cell occurred after 24 h. culture. Small calli could be seen with naked eyes in 4 weeks. The calli which were propagated to 2C4 mm long in diameter in the () medium were transferred onto differentiation medium and shoots appeared after 2C3 weeks. The differentiated shoots formed their roots on 1/2 MS supplamented with NAA 1.0mg/1 and grew into plantlets.
Abstract (Browse 2012)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effects of Plant Growth Substances on Rind-Regeneration after Girdling in Solanum melongena cv. esculantum
Author: Liu Qing-hua aim Li Zheng-li (Lee Cheng lee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(12)
      
    This paper deals with the effects of four plant growth substances, ic. IAA, NAA, 2,4-D and GA and their different concentration on rind-regeneration after girdling in Solanum melongen var. esculantum. The formation of callus was promoted by IAA, NAA and GA, but retarded by 2,4-D in early stage. The initiation of vascular cambium in callus was retarded by all these substances. However, an increase in amount of xylem was promoted by IAA at low concentrations. The different concentrations of NAA and GA affected a decrease in amount of xylem. The formation of "bundled" vascular tissue was impelled by NAA, GA and 2,4-D. The initiation of phellogen was promoted by IAA and NAA at high concentrtion. In addition, the nest-like tracheid mass was induced in callus by IAA and NAA frequently.
Abstract (Browse 1925)  |  Full Text PDF       
Morphogenesis in in vitro Culture of Terminal Floral Apex of Banana
Author: Ling Ding-hou,Chen Wan-ying and Chen Mei-fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(12)
      
    The technique by which plantlets was able to be regenerated via organogenesis or and somatic embryogenesis in fruit banana were developed in this experiment. Somatic embryogenesis was induced and the embryoid of banana possessed typlcal structure of embryo: scutellum, coleoptile and coleorhiza in monocotyledon embryo.
Abstract (Browse 1893)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Light and Hormones on Leaf Senescence
Author: Li Xiao-ping and Hu Wen-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(12)
      
    With wheat leaves as material, the changes of superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxi-dation and membrane permeability during leaf senescence in light or dark, and treated withphytohormones (KT or ABA) have been studied. The changes of chlorophyll content, lipidperoxidation and fine structure of spinach chloroplasts senescing in light or dark have alsobeen studied. When leaves senesce in light, the activity of SOD increased at first then decreased. The increase of SOD activity was able to result from the synthesis of new protein. Lightwas found to delay the leaf senescence obviously but also accelerate leaf senescence by causinglipid peroxidation when prolonged the illumination time. The delay or acceleration of leafsenescence by exogenous hormones were observed, it may be due to the control of lipid peroxi-dation by adjusting the activity of SOD. O2-participated the chlorophyll decomposition andlipid peroxidation during chloroplasts senesce in light. A favourable role of light in mainta-lng the fine structure of isolated chloroplasts was clear.
Abstract (Browse 2049)  |  Full Text PDF       
New Observations on Leptophloeum rhombicum from the upper Devonian of Hubei, China
Author: Geng Bao-yin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(12)
      
    A petrified stem of Leptophloeum rhombicum is described from the Huangjiadeng Formation of the Upper Devonian in Changyang, Hubei. In the xylem of the axis, the secondary xylem is not preserved, the greatest part of the primary xylem is composed of metaxylem tracheids that are scalariform and have Williamson's striations. Based on their connections between adjacent transverse bars Witliamson's striations would be considered as a part of the secondary wall material. The small protoxylem tracheids form vertical ridges at the periphery of primary xylem cylinder. In cross section, the ridges appear as small radiating teeth of protoxylem. It provides further evidence that primary xylem in Leptophloeum rhombicum is similar to that in Carboniferous lepidodendrid lycopods. The opinion that the systematic position of Leptophloeum should be transferred from the Protolepidodendrales to the Lepidodendrales could be accepted and reaffirmed.
Abstract (Browse 1927)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on the Quantitative Relationship between Pinus Pollen in Surface Sample and Pinus Vegetation
Author: Li Wen-yi and Yao Zu-ju
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(12)
      
    Based on percentages of Pinus pollen in surface samples and that of Pinto vegetation, the data indicates that, in Pinus forest its pollen is more then 90% of total tree pollen, while in non-pine area it is usually less than 30%. The factors influencing dispersal of the Pinus pollen, besides production, are air currents and landform. In the Pinus mixed forest the behavior of associate tree pollen has great effect on statistical result of Pin,ts pollen percentage. To estimate quantitatively the relationship between Pinus plant and its pollen, two curves are fitted by powet regression. Although Pinus pollen has great productivity and complex dispersal characteristics, the relationships between Pinus trees and Pinus pollen shown in our data are relatively consistant.
Abstract (Browse 2052)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Constituents from Marsdenia globifera
Author: Qiu Sheng-xiang, Zhang Zhuang-xin and Zhou Jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(12)
      
    Two novel C-21 steroidal aglycones named marsglogenin-A() and marsglogenin-B() as well as six known compounds sarcostin (), gymnemarsgenin (), 20-O-cinnamoylsarcostin (), penupogenin (), gagaminin () and isolineolcn () were isolated from the acid hydrolysate of the crude glycoside extracted with ethanol from the stem of Marsdenia globitera (Asclepiadaceae). The structures of marsglogenin-A and marsglogenin-B were deduced as 20-O-benzoylsarcostin and 12-O-benzoylsarcostin on the bases of chemical and spectral evidences respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1958)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Chemical Constituents of the Plant Fritillaria unibracteata
Author: Yu Shi-chun and Xiao Pei-gen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(12)
      
    The plant Fritillaria unibracteata Hsiao et K. CHsia of the family Liliaceae is an elemental species of traditional Chinese drug "Chuan Beimu" in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Four compounds(C, D, E,F) have been isolated from its medicinal part (dried bulb). The latter three compounds were identified as D/E cis(22R, 25s)-20- deoxy-3,6-dihydroxy-5,14, 17-cevanine(D), -sitcsterol (E), stearic acid and palmitic acid(F) by mean of spectroscopic methods. Compound D belongs to a new alkaloid of cevine group of isosteroidal alkaloids which is attributed to the characteristic constituent of this genus, named as songbeinine.
Abstract (Browse 2157)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chlorophyll Accumulation in Leaves of Rice Pollen Albinos
Author: Zhang Yu-lin and Wang Zhen-gui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(12)
      
    In contrast to the green plantlets, rice pollen albinos contain a little chlorophyll only, and the relative contents of protochlorophyll (ide) and carotenoids comparing with chlorophyll are much higher however. The contents of chlorophyll and related pigments in leaves of pollen albinos vary regularly with the variation of light regimes. The spectra of regenerated albinos from pollen albinos possess the same characteristics as described above, but their pigment contents are lower. It is likely that the occurrence of these characteristics of pollen albinos may be attributed to their deficiency of plastid membrane system and the latter in turn may be the result plastom mutation. In view of the variation of pigment contents among different planoets of the same variety, it is resonable to deduce that plastids of pollen albinos are heterogeneous structurally and functionally.
Abstract (Browse 1945)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study of the Protein Bodies in the Stem-Tip and Leaflet Cells of the Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb) Makino
Author: Ji Qiao-ling, L Wen-yuan,Chen Mu-zhuan and Guo Jie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(12)
      
    Studying with light microscopy and transmisoion electron microscopy indicated that the stem-tip and leaflet mesophyllous cells and epidermal cells of the G. pentaphyllurn contained the electron density bodies, heterogenous and globoid, 0.2C1.8 m in diameter, bundled with membrane. Cytochemical dyeing proved that they were protein bodies, distributed mainly in vacuc, le, lined tightly with vacuole membrane, stock together with cytoplasmic masses. This is suggested that they played a role in the cell differentiation and morphogenesis.
Abstract (Browse 1855)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Secondary Xylem Anatomy of Hippophae rhamnoides under Different Habitats
Author: Zhang Xin-ying and Cao Wan-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(12)
      
    This paper deals with an anatomical study of the secondary xylem of H. rharnoides from different habitats using light microscope (LM) and SEM. It gives a detail description of the general characteristics of the constitutions of the secondary xylem of the plant. By taking the ten major quantitative characteristics of the secondary xylem of H. rhamnoides-vessel frequencies of early wood and late wood, percentage of solitary vessels, tangential vessel diameter, vessel member length, fibre-tracheid length, ray frequency and ray height--as indicators. Male and female plants have been made a comparison under the same or different habitats. The results of observation showed that the change in habitat showed no effects on the structure of the secondary xylem of H. rhamnoides except that there were some effects on some quantitative characteristics. This paper also makes a survey of the effects of rainfall and sex on thte structure of the secondary xylem of H. rhamnoides.
Abstract (Browse 1860)  |  Full Text PDF       
Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies on the Development of the Organs of Litchi Flower
Author: Xu Shi-xiong (S. Y. Zee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(12)
      
    The pattern of development of the floral parts of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) flower was followed using scanning electron microscopy. Before making scanning electron microscopic observations, specimens were tannin-osmium impregnated and critical point dried. In the bisexual flower, floral organogenesis starts with the formation of protrusions near the floral apex. The two to three protrusions present at the apical region of the floral apex later expand and fuse to form the ovary. At the upper middle region of the ovary another protrusion develops which later becomes the style and the stigma. When the flower matures the tip of the style not only splits but also becomes twisted. On the upper side of the stigma there are numerous papillate cells. These cells are covered with mucilage when fully mature. The development of the filament and anther begins a little bit earlier than the gynoecium. The first sign of androecium development begins when protrusions start to develop around the floral apex. Each litchi flower possesses 6 to 10 anthers. In addition to forming bisexual flowers, litchi also produces a large number of male and female unisexal flowers. But under the scanning electron microscope it is very difficult to distinguish accurately between male and female flowers, because both flowers invariably give rise to some poorly developed organs of the opposite sex. Thus it seems that all flowers in litchi are potentially bisexual and only at the final stage of development (i.e. about 50 days after floral initiation) sex organs fail to develop properly in some flowers.
Abstract (Browse 1945)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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