February 1990, Volume 32 Issue 2


          Research Articles
The Changes of Some Enzymes Activities from Cucumber Leaves after Inoculation with Cucumber Powder Mildew
Author: Dong Yi-min, Xu Jian-hua and Guo Ji-fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(2)
    Polyphenoloxidase peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase from cucumber cucumis sativus L. leaves were studied during the period of 22 days after inoculation with cucumber powder mildew. These results suggest that early rapid increase of polyphenoloxidase, peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities is of great significance in the disease resistance. Thus it may provide as one of the physiological indexes for the selection of cucumber resistant cultivar. The mechnism of disease resistance may be shown by toxic role of phenol oxidates and cell wall lignification.
Abstract (Browse 2094)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Characteristics of the Pollen Spore Time Series Fluctuation and Its Significance in the Geological Environments of the Quaternary in Kunming Basin
Author: Tong Guo-bang, Bai Shi-ying, Zhou Shun-jlang and Zhang Zun-pai, Chen Le-yao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(2)
    The low-pass, band-pass and high-pass digital filtering methods were adopted to study the periodical fluctuations of vegetation in accordance with the pollen spore series of No. 1 borehole in Kunming Basin. The result showed that there were obviously 4 periods in vegeiation succession: the long period was 1每1.4 million years; the middle period was 0.25每0.31 million years; the short period was 97每12 and 48每63 thousand years. The three-pass filtering curves showed the information of geological dating, stage and pattern of vegetation succession. This paper presents a good contrast with the three-pass filtering curves, climatic fluctuation, O isotope in deep sea and the earth*s orbit eccentricity. The result is satisfactory. The paleoclimatic analysis and the geological dating methods, based on the quantitative analysis, are used to discuss the paleovegetation succession, stage and pattern as well as the fluctuation of the pollen time series and the climate cyclic variation and to present the succession of the climatic variation in the Quaternary. The succession contains two climatic cycles, each for more than 1 million yrs., ten climatic periods, each for 0.25每0.3 million yrs., and 25 climatic fluctuations, each for 97每125 thousand yrs. It is considered that the geological and climatic information can be validly extracted by means of the method of the digital filtering from the pollen spore succession; thereupon we may deduce the succesional trend and progress of the paleovegetation that reflects the flutuations of the paleoclimate and the geographical conditions.
Abstract (Browse 1954)  |  Full Text PDF       
Seasonal Varrations of VA Mycorrhizae in the Rhizospheres of Welsh Onion (Allium fistulosum) and Corn (Zea mays) in Beijing and Their Relationship to Several Environmental Factors
Author: Peng Sheng-bin and Shen Chong-yao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(2)
    Seasonal variations of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infections and VAM fungal (endogonaceous) spore densities were systematically investigated in the rhizospheres of Welsh onion Allium fistulosum) and corn (Zea mays) in Beijing from 1986 to 1987. The relationships among the occurrence of VAM and VAM fungi, several soil factors (contents of N, P, and organic matters, pH) and climatic factors (soil and atmospheric temperature, accumulated temperature, precipitation, photoperiod and relative humidity) were tentatively evaluated with linear correlation and relational grade. The results obtained showed that mycorrhizal infection rate of the two plants was gradually increased with the extention of their growth period, especially in June and September during the whole year the infection rate was the highest. Spore densities in the rhizospheres of two plants varied greatly and two 'peaks appeared in June, July and October respectively throughout the year. In the rhizospheres of Welsh onion and corn in Beijing, the investigated soil factors showed little Change during the whole growth period of plants, so it was considered that climatic factors were more important to the seasonal variations of VAM occurrence in the:same.region. Analytical results of linear correlation and relational grade indicated that the occurrence of VA mycorrhizae was most closely related to the accumulated temperature during the whole year.
Abstract (Browse 2192)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Constltuents of the Flavonoids from the Leaves of Typha angustifolia L.
Author: Liao Mao-chuan, Liu Yong-long and Xiao Pel-gen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(2)
    Six flavonoids were isolated from the leaves of Typha angustifolia L. On the basis of spectroscopic (IR, UV, MS, 1HNMR and 13CNMR) analysis, they were identified as quercetin-3,3'-dimethyl ether (TF-i), isorhamnetin (TF-j), quercetin (TF-k), quercetin-3,3' dimethyl ether-4'-O-汕-D-glucoside (TF-l), isorhamnetin-3-O-汕-galactoside (TF-m), and isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside (TF-n). Compounds TF-i and TF-m were found in the genus of Typha for the first time.
Abstract (Browse 1963)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of the Volatile Oil of Abies nephrolepis Maxim Leaves
Author: Yang Zhi-yun, Jiang Zi-tao, Gu Jing-xian, Liang Zhao-jun and Wang Xin-fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(2)
    The volatile oil of Abies nephrolepis Maxim leaves growing in Changbai Moutain region was analyzed by OV-1 Capillary column (25℅0.25)GC/MS/DS and found to contain 46 chemical constituents, 22 of them which make up 96.8% of the total oil were identified. The major components are 汐-pinene (15.944%), camphene (20.329%), limonene (29.709%), bornyl acetate (17.083%), etc. Six components from the oil were isolated by N2 protected vectification under vacuum, preparative circle thin-layer chromatography and column chromatography. Limonene, borneol, bornyl acetate and 汐每bisabolol were idetified by IR and MS.
Abstract (Browse 2246)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Relationship Between Polyamines and Senescence of Detached Wheat Leaves
Author: Huang Wei-yu, Wang Ya-lai and Yuan Lin-jiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(2)
    The role of polyamines in the regulation of senescence was examined in excised wheat leaves. The polyamines每putrescine (Put) spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) prevented The loss of chlorophyll normally associated with senescence of leaf tissue maintained in darkness. P. olyamines were also highly effective in retarding earlier event每the rise in protease activity of leaf senescence, prior to chlorophyll loss. A good quantitative correlation was found between chlorophyll and MDA content. After 0.5 mmol/1 Spd was applied, SOD activity was stabilized and POD activity was hardly changed. On the contrary, SOD activity dedlined and POD activity increased in the control. The analysis of isozyme showed that a new band of POD isozyme was found after incubation for 48 hours, but it was not observed at the same time after the treatment with 0.5 mmol/1 Spd. On the other hand, SOD isozyme had no change in senescing process or after the treatment. In the dark-induced senescence, ADC and ODC activity decreased. The kinetin promoted ADC and ODC activity compared with that of the control. The antisenescence function of kinetin was reversed partially by DFMO. A possible reason for polyamines antisenescence function and their relation to the plant hormones is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2164)  |  Full Text PDF       
Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Genetic Analysis of Fraction I Protein and Isozymes from Hybrid Between Barley and Wheat
Author: Zhu Jian, Lin Wen-sheng, Sun Chong-rong and Zhong Yu-quan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(2)
    The analysis of isozymes and fraction i protein obtained from harley, wheat and their hybrids was conducted by isoelectrofocusing PAGE. The results showed that cytoplasmic inheritance of hybrid mainly came from barley female parent and nucleic inheritance mainly from wheat male parent.
Abstract (Browse 1944)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Reconstitution of P-Cluster-Deficient Molybdenum-Iron Protein
Author: Huang Ju-fu, Luo Ai-ling, Xie Xue-mei and Wang Ao-jin
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(2)
    After the treatment of nitrogenase MoFe protein from Azotobacter vinelandii with O-phenanthroline, 汍700nm (molecular extinction coefficient at 700 nm), →汍450nm (molecular circular dichroic extinction coefficient at 450 nm) and the acetylene reduction activity of the treated protein were decreased with the increase in iron atoms chelated from P- cluster of the protein. However, they were restored with the restoration of the metal content after reconstitution of the treated protein with reconstituting solution containing Na2MoO4, ferric citrate, Na2S and dithiothreitol. The results showed that the restoration of the reconstituted protein was resulted from the assembly of new P-cluster in the protein. It seems to be further demonstrated that P-cluster in the MoFe protein is a necessary and important fraction for the protein to reduce substrates.
Abstract (Browse 1920)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Pigment Cell Culture of Panax ginseng
Author: Li Shu-min and Zhu Wei-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(2)
    Hormone autotrophic cell lines producing anthocyanins were obtained from the callus cultures of Ponax. ginscng C. A. Meyer by jrraldiation of 污每ray. After repeated selections, a cell line 2511 was isolated and characterized. Under suspension culture condition, the cell cultures could be increased by about 300% and contained 2每3% of anthocyanins and 0.3-0.7% of ginseng saponins on cell dry weight basis after the incubation for two weeks. The 12每15g dry cells and 300 mg anthocyanins per liter medium could be produced during a 14-day growth cycle. 20 mg/1 phenylalanine or 30 g/l sucrose added in to the medium brought about a marked increase of anthocyanin content. In addition, the effects of monochromatic light, light intensity, carbon source and medium pH on cell growth and anthocyanin production were also tested. About 8 g dry cultures and 90 mg anthocyanins could be obtained from the cultures of l liter agar medium. Four anthocyanins were isolated from the ginseng pigment cells. The aglycone, one of the major pigments, was identified as cyanidin and the possible structure was established as cyanidin 3每O每汕每D每xylcopyranyl每(1↙2) 每汕每D每glucopyranoside by means of UV spectrum, 1HNMR spectrum and 13CNMR spectrum.
Abstract (Browse 2154)  |  Full Text PDF       
Patterns of the Transition of Vacuoles into Protein Bodies in Developing Cotyledon Cells of Soybean
Author: Zheng Yi-zhi, He Meng-yuan, Hu A-lin and Hao Shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(2)
    At 18 days after flowering, it was observed that the big central vacuoles in tile cotyledon cells began to subdivide or pinch-off into smaller ones, in which the storage proteins gradually accumulated, and the protein bodies thus formed. Three patterns of protein accumulation in the vacuoles were noticed, in one of them, the storage proteins deposited onto some regions of the inner surface of the tonoplast and new protein bodies formed by a budding-off process of the storage proteins enclosed by a portion of the tonoplast membrane. In other two patterns, storage proteins accumulated in vacuoles as pr oteinaceous lumps or as flocculent materials. The relation between the patterns of storage protein accunmlation and soybean agglutinin (SBA) accumulation in vacuoles and the pathways of intracellular transport of storage proteins are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1845)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Localization of Adenosine Triphosphatase Activity in Stigma Cells of Populus lasioearpa and Its Changes During Development
Author: Zhu Tong, Ma Zuo-li and Li Wen-tian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(2)
    The ultrastructural localization of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities in stigmatic cells in various developmental stages of PopUlus lasiocarpa was investigated using the cytochemical method Of read phosphate precipitation. The results show as follows: 1. Lead deposits which marked the ATPase activities were observed on the pellicle of stigmas. The ATPase activities greatly increased in receptive stage, but they were few or even absent in young and old stages. The changes Of pellicle ATPase strongly exhibited that ATPase was correlated with the pollen-stigma interaction. 2. In the stigma ceils inreceptive stage, ATPase was mainly located at mitochondria cristae, chloroplast lamellae and endoplasmic reticulum. Lead deposits were also visible on the plasmalemma, plasmodesma, nuclear membrane and in nucleoli. No lead deposits were found on dictyosome and vacuole membrane. 3. During the degeneration of stigmatic ceils; the location of ATPase changed. The distribution of ATPase was in vacuole membrane, digestive vesicle, mitochondrium envelop, chloroplast envelop, and digested fragment. The mitochondrium cristae and chloroplast lamellae where ATPase was the most active in previous stage now lost their ATPase activities.
Abstract (Browse 2050)  |  Full Text PDF       
Megasporogenesis, Microsporogenesis and Development of Female and Male Gametophyte in Siraitia grovenorii
Author: Zhang Zhen-jue, Mo Ting-xu and Qian Nan-fen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(2)
    1. The ovule is anatropous, bitegument and crassinucellate. 2. Embryo sac belongs to Polygonum type. Mature embryo sac has 7 cells. 3. In the course of rnegasporogenesis callose appears. 4 Microspore mother cell meiosis is simultaneous type; Tetrad is tetrahedral. 5. Pollen grains are 2-celled. 6. Tapetum consists of 1-3 layers. Cells of inner layer are large, and of outer layer smaller.
Abstract (Browse 2235)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Spore Morphology of Some Chinese Sphagnum L
Author: Zhang Yu-long and Wu Pan-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(2)
    The spores of 5 species and 1 subspecies of Sphagnum in China were examined under LM and SEM, and one of them under TEM. All of the above spores are radial symmetrical, tetrahedral, rounded-triangular in polar view and 36.1-55.7 米m in diameter. Among them, the size of the spores of S. cuspidatum is the largest. Trilete is distinct, narrow and slightly curved, ca. 1/3-1/2 of the spore radius, margo very distinct under SEM, perine with gemmae and verrucae. The sporoderm of Sphagnum contains perine, exine and intine. On the basis of spore morphology, the point of view that Sphagnum is a primitive genus in mosses is supported. In sporo-pollen analysis the spores of Sphagnum are easily confused with some spores of ferns.
Abstract (Browse 2047)  |  Full Text PDF       
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