March 1990, Volume 32 Issue 3

 

          Research Articles
The Polarographic Behavior of Carotene and Its Determination
Author: Wang Nai-xing, Zhang Xiao-ling and Su Xiao-di
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(3)
      
    The differential pulse polarographic behaviour of carotene in nonaqueous media have been investigated. The detection limit is 3.7 ℅ 10-7mol/l. This method provides a rapid and simple way for direct determination of carotene and is also successfully applied in practice in plant samples.
Abstract (Browse 1929)  |  Full Text PDF       
Male Germ Unit and Sperm Heteromorphism: The Current Status
Author: Hu Shi-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(3)
      
    In angiosperms, two sperms have been recognized as cells linked together by themselves and closely associated with the vegetative nucleus in pollen grain or in pollen tube ;o form so called the ※male germ unit (MGU)§In addition to MGU, recent studies have shown the existence in several plants that the two sperm cells in pair may be very different in size, shape, organelle content, and sperm heteromorphism. The concept of the MGU and sperm heteromorphism has appeared in more than 40 reports and has triggered new research concerning the angiosperm fertilization process, In this review, a survey and analysis of the MGU and sperm heteromorphism in literature of last decade are presented and the new experimental approaches are suggested.
Abstract (Browse 2051)  |  Full Text PDF       
Early Cretaceous Angiosperms of the Yanji Basin, Jilin Province
Author: Tao Jun-rong and Zhang Chuan-bo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(3)
      
    An assemblage of fossil plants was discovered in the Yanji Basin, Jitin Province, consisting mainly of pterid0Phytes, gymnosperms and a few angiosperms. The present paper deals with the angiosperms only; They are: Rogersia angunifolia, Saliciphyllum longifoliurn, Sapindopsis magnifolia, Sterculophyllurn eleganurn, ,Ficophyllum, "Sassafras", Ranunculophyllum pinnatisectum sp. nov., Clernatites lanceolatus sp. nov., and the fruits Carpolithus brookensis, Carpolithus sp. gymnosperm Sequoia as well, all angiosperms having the morphological features of early angiosperms. Most of them are similar to the elements of the Potomac Group in North America and to some extent approach the fossil plants of Neocomian in Mongolia. This assemblage is manifestly different from the Albian flora of Kolyma River (URSS) and Portugal of Europe because of belonging to different stages. Thus, the age of the Dalazi Formation of Yanji Basin is tentatively ascribed to Aptian. The characteristics of this assemblage indicate that the floras of Eurasia and North America had been closely related during the early Mid-Cretaceous and that the early angiosperms were widely distributed in the North Hemisphere. Judging from the characteristics of this assemblage and the deposition, the authors speculate that in Northeast China the climate was warm and humid during the early Mid-Cretaceous.
Abstract (Browse 1835)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effects of Cadmium on Chlorophyll-Protein complexes and Distribution of Excitation Energy in Spinach Chloroplasts
Author: Yang Dan-hui,Xu Chun-hui,Wang Ke-bin and Dai Yun-ling
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(3)
      
    The fluorescence emission and excitation spectra at 77 K showed that Cd2+ treatment reduced the ratio of F686/F736, F696/F736 and F480/F436 in spinach chloroplasts. It is suggested that Cd2+ impeded the excitation energy transfer from light harvesting chlorophyll to PSj trap. The chlorophyll protein complexes of spinach chloroplasts were resolved by SDS-PAGE. It showed that the total amount of LHCj decreased after Cd2+ treatment. A decrease of 27 kD polypeptide in LHCj was also found by the treatment of Cd2+. Since LHCj play an important role in the absorption and transfer of light energy and the distribution of excitation energy between PSj and PSi, a decrease of LHCj certainly may cause a decrease of excitation energy transfer from LHCj to PSj reaction center.
Abstract (Browse 1740)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Chromosome Doubling of Triticum durum-Haynaldia villosa Intergeneric Hybrid Calli
Author: Han Bin, Chen Xiao, Xu Hui-jun, Zhang Wen-xiang, Xin Zhi-yong and Huang Hui-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(3)
      
    In vitro culture of young inflorescences of F1 intergeneric haploid which, having a somatic chromosome number of 2l, had been obtained from immature embryo culture of Triticum durum stewart 63 D311[4X] ℅ Haynaldia villosa before, resulted in proliferation of totipotent calli from which plantlets were regenerated. Regenerations were also obtained from immature embyro calli of Fl intergeneric hybrid of T. durum mexicali-75℅H, villosa and T durum 81086A℅ H. villosa 742 calli were used for colchicine treatment during the cultivation of culture. The colchicine concentrations were 20, 50, 100 and 150 mg/l for treatment of 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 19 days respectively under 10 hours of light daily at 20每27⊥. After treatment, calli were put at lower temperature for several days to make them grow slow and be strong. The results show that the average of the chromosome doubling rate [No. of fertile plantlets/totai No of plantlets℅100%] is 78.8% [rang from 45.7每96.9% according to different hybrids] , and the treatment effect No. of fertile plantlets/total No. of calli is 15.8%. The treatment with 150 mg/l of colchicine for 10 days got the best result with chromosome doubling rate of 94.1% and 8 days got the best result with treatment effect 34.1% respectively. Colchicine treated calli had 42 or 21 chromosomes and they were either separated in different calli or mixed in one callus, while F1 seed root tip cells of fertile plant had 42 chromosomes. Some unequal divisions and chromosome fragments were observed in pollen mother cells of fertile plants.
Abstract (Browse 2007)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytoplasmic Fibril Network of Germinated Pollen and the Movement of Cytoplasmic Particles
Author: Liu Guo-qin, Teng Xiao-yue and Yan Long-fei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(3)
      
    In the pollen germinated for more than 4 hours, many cytoplasmic fibrils can be observed under optical microscope. These fibrils which form a network are always in motion, being rigid and flexible to a certain extent, defined as moving cytoplasmic fibril network in the present paper. The network fibrils are different from cytoplasmic streaming, because they not only, move vertically but also horizontally. Furthermore, they restrict the transportation of cytoplasmic particles. Electron micrographs show that the fibrils are composed of many parallel microfilaments with 5每7 nm in diameter, and at the joint of two microfilaments there are arrowheaded compounds in the same direction and the same distance about 420 A. They may be the force ※motor§ and the ※viscous cluch§ formed by the directional arrangement of myosin which is necessary to the movement of both fibrils and cytoplasmic particles.
Abstract (Browse 1894)  |  Full Text PDF       
Simultaneous Determination of Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Abscisic Acid as the Pentafluorobenzyl Derivative with Electron-Capture Gas Chromatography
Author: Li Hui-lin, Yun Zi-hou,Yang Yi-ping, Zhang Li-ping and Tan Zhi-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(3)
      
    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) were converted in to pentafluorobenzyl esters by 汐-bromo-2, 3, 4, 5, 6-pentafluorotoluene at 55⊥. The derivatization took about 90 minutes. The two esters generated were able to be simultaneously determined with electron-capture gas chromatography. The method is simple and sensitive. The minimal test does: 10-14g for IAA and 10-13g for ABA.
Abstract (Browse 1804)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Structural Types of Bordered Pits of Gymnospermous Woods in China
Author: Zhou Yin, Jiang Xiao-mei and Zhang Li-fei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(3)
      
    The structural types of bordered pits are the important characteristics of wood ultrastruc ture in gymnospermous woods have a certain value for the classification of wood. This study was based on the fine structures of bordered pits of 4 classes, 8 orders, 11 families, 42 genera and 100 species in gymnospermous woods of China, in which the authors suggested that bor dered pits could be classified into 8 different types: 1. Cycas-type, 2. Araucaria-type A, 3. Araucaria-type B, 4. Pinus-type A, 5. Pinus-type B, 6. Taxodium-type A, 7. Taxodium-type B, 8. Gnetum-type. In type A, the warty layer is absent or rare in pit chamber and in type B, the warty layer is present. In this paper, the variation in phylogeny of the pit membrane in bordered pits is also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1963)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructure of Sunflower Embryo Sac in Respect to the Concept of Female Germ Unit
Author: Yan Hua, Yang Hong-yuan and W. A. Jensen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(3)
      
    This paper deals with the ultrastructural changes in sunflower (Helianthus annum L.) embryo sacs before and after fertilization with particular emphasis on the wall change events. At early stage, the embryo sac component cells are separated with each other by complete walls. During maturation, a common wall zone bordering the egg cell, synergids and the central cell becomes thinner and eventually disappears, leaving only two layers of plasma membrane for the future target zone of double fertilization. The egg nucleus and the secondary nucleus move toward each other near to the plasma membrane. After pollination one of the synergids deposits electrondense materials on its tonoplast, which is the first sign of degeneration; the other synergid has no such changes. The pollen tube penetrates the degenerated synergid and the discharged )contents, including two sperms, move along a gap between the two plasma membranes. Each sperm fuses with the egg or the central cell, respectively. After fertilization, the fertilized egg and secondary nuclei move away from each other. A new wall regenerates along the previously naked zone,separating the zygote, primary endosperm cell and persistent synergid. The zygote soon enters into mitosis, even while wall formation continues. Multilayered endoplasmic reticula and dictsomes, which are located in the central cell and along the new wail, secrete numerous vesicles into the forming wail. Based on present observations, and previously reported facts in other plant materials, it is concluded that the egg, synergids and the central cell make up a female germ unit. This unit is formed prior to fertilization by degradating a portion of the common wall, which, together with other important features, facilitates gametic fusion. Once fertilization is finished, the unit is dismissed and the zygote and persistent synergid form a wall over their entire surface. The antipodal cells, a member of embryo sac also, are not a participant of the female germ unit.
Abstract (Browse 2013)  |  Full Text PDF       
Genetic Transformation of Leaf Explants of Populus tomentosa
Author: Wang Shan-ping, Xu Zhi-hong and Wei Zhi-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(3)
      
    The leaf disc method developed by Horsch et al. (1985) has been used for transformation of Populus tomentosa. The strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens used harbored a reconstructed Ti plasmid which contained gene 4 of T每DNA and the chimeric CAT(chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) gene. Leaf explants from shoot cultures of Populus tomentosa were co-culfivated with the bacterium. On the hormone free medium, teratoma-like shoots developed from the edge of the leaf explants. When the abnormal shoots were excised from the explants and transferred onto rooting medium, a mass of callus formed at the base of shoots, with new shoots developing, but without root formation. The measurement of'endogenous cytokinin showed that the transformed shoots produced 14 times as much iso-pentenyl adenosine as untransformed shoots did. All teratoma-like shoots-tested showed the presence of nopaline, and were able to grow well. on the medium containing 60-100米g/ml chloromycetin, while normal shoots turned white after 40 days. Pretreatment of A. tumefaciens with phenolic compound, salicylic acid, would increase the frequency of transformation significantly.
Abstract (Browse 1935)  |  Full Text PDF       
Chromosomal Variation in Callus Subcultures of Fritillaria pallidiflora
Author: Wang Lun-shan,Ding Hui-bin,Wang Ya-fu,Yang Han-min and Jia Ting-yao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(3)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1864)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Chemical Constituents of Elsholtzia ciliata (Thund.) Hyland
Author: Zheng Shang-zhen, Shen Xu-wei and L邦 Run-hai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(3)
      
    Fourteen compounds have been obtained from the Elsholtzia ciliata (Thund.) Hyland. Their structures were identified by spectral and chemical methods as following: i. 6-methyl-tritriacontane, j. 13-cyclohexyl-hexoacosane, k. 汕-sitosterol, la. palmitic acid, lb. linoleic acid, lc. linolenic acid, m. ursolic acid, n. 5-hydroxy--6, 7-dimethoxyflavone, o. 5-hyd-foxy-7, 8-dimethoxyflavone, p. 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone, q. 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dime-thoxyflavone, r.汕-sitosterol-汕-D-glucoside, s. 5-hydroxy-6-methylflavanone-7-O-汐-D-galacopy-ranoside, t. acacetin-7-O-汕-glucoside. Among all the compounds, s is a new compound. Except for lb and lc, the other twelve compounds were first found in this plant.
Abstract (Browse 2317)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Alkaloids from Thalictrum fortunei
Author: Wu Zhi-xing,Dong Guo-ping,Wu Tong-bin and Min Zhi-da
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(3)
      
    From the whole plant Of Thalictrum fortunei S. Moore. which grows in the southeast of Anhui province, three kinds of crystaline have been obtained. They are bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids. Their structures consisting of two ether linkages of head-head, tail-tail were elucidated as. compound 1 and 2. Compound 1 is 7每5∩, 11每12∩type new alkaloid and named thalifortine. Compound 2 is showed to be identical with aromolirie. The other one is N-phenyl-2-haphthylamine (3).
Abstract (Browse 2033)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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