April 1990, Volume 32 Issue 4

 

          Research Articles
Projects of Plant Science Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China in 1989
Author: Qi Shu-ying and Gao Wen-shu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(4)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1793)  |  Full Text PDF       
Some Pteridosperms from Western Hubei in Late Triassic and Their Evolutionary Tendency
Author: Meng Fan-song
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(4)
      
    This paper deals with five fossil plants which are Paradrepanozamites dadaochangensis, Thinnfeldia elegans, T. nanzhangensis, Ctenozamites difformis sp. nov., C. microloba. They were collected from the lower part of Late Triassic Jiuligang Formation in Western Hubei, while the sequence found in these plants is just coincident with the order of their evolution. Although the fertile parts of Paradrepanozamites, Thinnfeldia and Ctenozamites are unknown, the writer believes that they belong to pteridosperms, according to the present materials from Text-fig. I, it is shown that these genera have close relations in shape. From Text-fig. I, it is also revealed that these genera mentioned above have a certain law of evolution. Based on morphological variations, two directions of evolutionary trends can be recognized as follows: 1. subradiat veins without midrib↙midrib but undeveloped↙well-developed midrib↙forming the ultimate rachis; 2. the pinnae being undivided↙only little part of every pinnae being divided↙most part of every one being divided↙bipinnate. As it is knoum that ontogeny is a recapitulation of phylogeny. So the original shapes in different evolutionary stages of Ctenozamites may be traced by the changes of the shapes of Ctenozamites difformis sp, nov. According to the facts related above, the writer proposes the following sequence of lineage of evolution of the genera in this paper: Paradrepanozamites↙Thinnfeldia↙Ctenozamites.
Abstract (Browse 1903)  |  Full Text PDF       
Palynological Analysis of the Late Cenozoic and Its Significance in Fulaerji, Heilongjiang Province
Author: Liu Min,Du Nai-qiu and Kong Shao-chen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(4)
      
    The pollen analytical investigation of 226.07 m,, deep QH70 core from Fulaerji district in the city of Qiqihar, Heilongjiang province have been carried out. Based on the characteristics of QH70 core sporo-pollen assemblages, seven pollen zones may be subdivided in the order as follows: The first zone (i) belongs to early period of the Late Cretaceous. When the flora was mainly composed of gymnosperm, the next was fern and a little original angisperm. Here the climate was hot and wet and the vegetation showed tropical-subtropical in aspects. In this core the author didn't find the Palaeogene flora. The j每k zones belonging to the Late Tertiary are characterized by predominance of arboreal pollens, mainly consisting of Amentiferae and some conifers. The flora of the Neogene was mainly composed of Pinus, Betula, Castanea, Ulmus, Corylus, Alnus, ,Juglans, Quercus, Carya, Fagus, Tsuga etc. some subtropical species of Hamamelis, Liquidambar, Castanopsis, Melia. Myrica and Taxodiaceae which still existed. The climate was warm and humid with the annual temperature higher than that of the present. As to the last period of the third zone (k) the assemblage of herbaceous plants and semi-shrub were predominant. The climate was changed into cool and less dry. The fouth pollen zone (l) is represented by herbaceous plants such as Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Gramineae, Polygonaceae etc. indicating the Fulaerji was covered by cold-temperature grassland with a cold and dry climate. According:to temperature decreasing at this zone, magnetostratigraphy and thermoluminescence dating we may take the start of the l zone as the mark of the beginning of Quaternary in this region. The age of the boundary between Pliocene and Pleistocene might be 2.4 million years or so. The geological age of pollen zones l每o, is assigned to Pleistocene. The characteritics of the sporo-pollen assemblage at these zones are quite different from one another. In the fifth pollen zone (m), the vegetation was represented by a steppe or tundra with a cold and dry climate at its initial stage, but in the late stage the flora was characterized by a deciduous broadleaved forest and steppe, indicating the climate was warm and less humid. Pollen zones n每o, the herbaceous plants, such as Artemisia, Gramineae, Chenopodiaceae etc. were predominant. The climate was rather dry and cold. The plants of the boreal conifers as Picea, ilbices, Larix, Pinus and the subpolor plants such as Betula were thriving in the low land and plain on the last glacial stage demonstrating that time the climate was humid and cold. Judging from the pollen analyses of core QH70, the vegetational development and climatic changes in Fulaerji had been rapid since the Late Tertiary. It is more or less significance to use pollen analysis in hydrogeology and engineering geology.
Abstract (Browse 2272)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Chemical Constituents from Podocarpus fleuryi Hickle
Author: Xu Ya-ming, Fang Sheng-ding and He Qi-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(4)
      
    Eleven compounds were isolated from the leaves and bark of Podocarpus fleuryi Hickle (Podocarpaceae) for the first time. They were identified as palmitic acid (1), sugiol (2), 汕-sitosterol (3) nagilactone A(4), nagilactone B(5), isoginkgetin (6), 汕- sitosteryl stearate(7) 3汕, 5汐-dihydroxy-6-stigmastanone (8), 5汐-hydroxy-6-stigmasta. none-3汕-palmitate (9), daucosterol (10), and syringin (11) by means of spectral analysis, comparison of physico-chemical data, and through chemical methods. 9 was a new compound. 4 and 5 showed stronger cytotoxic activity.
Abstract (Browse 2140)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Identification of Steroidal Saponins and Sapogenins from Aspidistra zongbayi K. Y. Lang et Z. Y. Zhu
Author: Chen Meng-jing, Xiang Gui-qiong and Zhang Guo-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(4)
      
    Two steroidal saponins were isolated from the n-BuOH extract of the rhizome of Aspidistra zongbayi K. Y. Lang et Z. Y. Zhu. Their structures were elucidated as 3-O-{汕-D-glucopyr-anosyl (l↙2)-[汕-D-xylopyranosyl (1↙3)]-汕-D-glucopyranosyl (l↙4)-汕-D-glactopyranosyl}-diosgenin (aspidistrin) and proto-aspidistrin by physical and chemical methods. Three steroidal sapogenins were isolated from the acid-treated n-BuOH extract. They were identified as→3.5 deoxyfigogenin, diosgenin and gentrogenin, 汕-sitosterol was isolated from the rhizome of this plant also.
Abstract (Browse 1931)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Diterpenoids of Rabdosia coetsa
Author: Chen Yi-ping, Sun Han-dong and Lin Zhong-wen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(4)
      
    A new diterpene, rabdocoetsin D (1) was isolated from the ethereal extract of the leaves of Rabdosia coetsa (Buch-Ham, ex, D. Don) Hara (Labiatae) collected in Sichuan, China. Its strueture was established as l汐, 7汕-dihydroxy-ll汕-acetoxy-ent-7汕, 20-epoxy-kaur-16-en-15-one by spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Three known diterpenoids, rabdocoetsin B and C, rosthorin A were also isolated.
Abstract (Browse 2004)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cryopreservation of Pollen from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.and Sinojackia xylocarpa Hu
Author: Chen Pin-liang,He Shan-an and Jin Wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(4)
      
    The effects of pollen water content, thawing treatments, duration of storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) and pollen contacting with LN directly on viability of pollen of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. and Sinojackia xylocarpa Hu. stored in LN were studied systematically. Also, the possibility of using differential thermal analysis (DTA) to determine the scope of the water content within which the pollen could store in LN safely was tested. The results indicated that among the factors affecting the pollen cryopreservation in LN, pollen water content was the major one. It may be promising to introduce DTA to pollen cryopreservation.
Abstract (Browse 1891)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Morphological and Biochemical Changes of Cucumber Fruits and Their Control During Post-Harvested Storage
Author: Li Xu-hang, Yin Wei-yi and Shag Li-mei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(4)
      
    In the storage of pollinated cucumber fruits which were harvested in commercial size, the adaxial and middle parts of fruit become withering, while abaxial part become expanding. The contents of protein, DNA, RNA as well as dry weights in the abaxial placenta of fruit increase with storage time going on, while those in middle part decrease dramatically. Simultaneously, seeds in abaxial part develope rapidly. DNase activities in middle pericarp and placenta increase by 5 and 7 times respectively, RNase activities there go up by 5 and 6 times. The two enzymes change little in abaxial part. Different treatments of fruits with plant growth regulators BA, GA3 and NAA show that BA+GA3(20ppm+100ppm) can most obviously delay the speeds of the withering of the middle part and the expanding of abaxial part and the decrease of chlorophyll content. These results may have commercial value in the freshness-retainning and senescence prevention of the cucumber fruits. The non.pollinated fruits have no ※abaxial expending§phenomenon during post-harvested storage. The contents of protein etc. decrease almost equally in any part of the fruit.
Abstract (Browse 1901)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Changes of H+-ATPase During the Mitochondrial Development of Pea Cotyledon
Author: Wang Fei-lan and Liu Cun-de
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(4)
      
    Electron microscopic observation indicated that the mitochondrial membrane of pea cotyledon gradually developed into integral structure during seeds imbibition. ATP-synthesizing activity of H+-ATPase increased in company with mitochondrial development, but the content of F1-ATPase subunits was not different on the mitochondria of cotyledon imbibed for 6 hours and for 24 hours in water. After cotyledon was imbibed at low temperature, the content of 污 and 汕 subunits of F1-ATPase was distinctly reduced with the inhibition of H+-ATPase activity.
Abstract (Browse 1852)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regeneration from Protoplasts of Suspension Cells of Saposhnilkovia divaricata (Turcz.) Schischk
Author: Sheng Shi-hong and Chen Hui-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(4)
      
    Embryogenic calli were produced from the segments of the young roots, hypocotyls or petioles of test-tube seedlings on MS agar medium containing 1 mg/1 2,4-D. When shaken in the MS liquid medium, the calli formed cell suspension with many embryogenic cell clumps.Using the enzyme mixture: Onozuka R-10 1.5%+MacerozymeR-10 0.3%+Snailase 0.5%+CaCl2 5 mmol/l + Mannitol 0.6 mol/1 (pH=5.8), protoplasts were obtained from the cell clumps which had been subcultured for three to' seven days. When cultivated, the protoplasts grew and began to divide after four days, and formed cell clumps about l〞2 mm within fifty days. Protoplast-derived calli were formed from the cell clumps on the MS agar medium with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D. When transferred onto the MS agar medium containing 0.1 mg/1 6-BA or 0.1 mg/1 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/1 6-BA, the calli differentiated into embryoids. On the MS agar medium without phytohormone, the embryoids grew into plantlets.
Abstract (Browse 1932)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cryopreservation of Sainfoin Tissue Cultures and Their Ultrastructural observation
Author: Sun Long-hua and Jian Ling-cheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(4)
      
    Sainfoin (Onobryehis viciaefolia Scop) tissue cultures were frozen using the eryoprotectant of 10% DMSO+10% glycerin+8% sucrose at a cooling rate of l⊥/min from 0⊥ to 每35⊥〞每40⊥, kept for 2 hrs followed by storage in liquid nitrogen, and then rapidly thawed in a 40⊥ water bath. The survival rate of the stored specimens could be reached to 60每70%, and these cultures still maintained their high differentiation ability. The ultrastructural changes occurred markedly with the different freezing methods: The rapid-freezing and slowfreezing at the cooling rate of l⊥/min to 每35⊥〞每40⊥, but with out keeping samples for certain time, led cell ultrastructure to be lethally ruptured. The cell injury was reversible when the samples were kept for 30 min at terminal temperature 每35⊥. The ultrastructure of the samples kept for 2 hrs at 每35⊥〞每40⊥ was basically similar to that of the control material. The results further demonstrate that the technological system established previously by us is reasonable and could be used effectively the long-term preservation of sainfoin germplasm.
Abstract (Browse 1936)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Comparative Wood Anatomy of 16 Species of Vines and Trees in Celastraceae
Author: Li Yan-li and Zhang Xin-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(4)
      
    In this paper, we made a comparison between the differences and similarities in the constitutions and structures of 16 species of vines and trees in Celastraceae inhabiting various growth environments and a preliminary study on the relations among the structures, living habits and growth environments of vines and trees. Our purpose is to provide some reference material for the study of the evolution trend of secondary xylem and the evolutional position of vines in taxonomy. Celastrus, Tripterygium and Monocelastrus of this family are typical in vine structure; their secondary xylem posses a higher level in specialization; members in Euonymus are vines or trees, but the vines are similar to the trees in structures, displaying a series of primitive and conservative characters. Therefore, the evolution of growth habit and that of secondary xylem of Celastraceae are non-synchronous. In addition, the constitution of elements of secondary xylem between genera are non-synchronous as well. This will provide some anatomical evidences for continuative studing on evolution of Celastraceae.
Abstract (Browse 1973)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Studies of Perforation Plate Structures of Vessels in Ranunculaceae
Author: Chen Yong-zhe and Li Zheng-li(Lee Cheng-tee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(4)
      
    This paper deals with comparative studies of the perforation structures of vessel elements in 88 species of 38 genera of Ranunculaceae. Three types of perforation structure were recognized in these species. (1) The simple perforation plate was comparatively universal and widespread, (2) The scalariform perforation plate was demonstrated in 37 species of 26 genera of Ranunculaceae. The vessel elements of Paeonia and Asteropyrum showed only typical scalariform perforation plates, whereas in other species, the vessel elements were provided with to a lesser or greater extent, scalariform perforation plates, some of which showed fewer bars or transitional perforation plates. (3) ※Gnetalean type§ perforation plate was found in 12 species of 11 genera. This perforation plate might be considered as a transitional type from reticulated perforation plate to the simple perforation plate.
Abstract (Browse 2268)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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