May 1990, Volume 32 Issue 5

 

          Research Articles
A Chemical Drying Technique for Plant Materials Applied to the Scanning Electron Microscopy
Author: Zhang He-min, Gao De-lu and Su Xiu-zhen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(5)
      
    There are several drying methods for biological materials for the use of scanning electron microscopy. Applying bexamethyl disilazane (HMDS) as a drying treatment is a new method and it's application on drying plant tissue has not been previously reported. The advantage of this method is the treatment only for a few minutes and is also good and stable for very small biological specimens. The method is simple, low cost and time saving and does not need any apparatus. The features of the tissue structure observed are satisfactory.
Abstract (Browse 1910)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of MET on Immature Embryo Callus Induction, Differentiation and Hardening of Plantlets
Author: Zhao Cheng-zhang, Zheng Kang-le and Qi Xiu-fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(5)
      
    The experiment result indicated that: 1. Multi-Effect Triazole (MET) is a kind of plant growth retardin. It inhibited the callus induction from immature embryo obviously and promoted the callus differentiation and green plantlet formation, especialy in lower concentration MET (2mg/l); 2. MET inhibited the plant height obviously and promoted the development of plantlet root system; 3. The survival rate of the hardening plantlets, which later grow morevigorously, was about 95%.
Abstract (Browse 2000)  |  Full Text PDF       
Mass Isolation and Purification of Generative Cells from Pollen Grains
Author: Zhou Chang and Wu Xin-li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(5)
      
    A technique named two-step osmotic shock was developed for the isolation of large number of generative cells from pollen grains in Vicia faba and Zephyranthes candida. The procedure included: 1. Pollen hydration: mature pollen grains were incubated in adequate sucrose solution for 30-50 min. 2. Osmotic shock, when the pollen grains swelled and showed the tendency of germination, a sudden osmotic shock by adding equal volume of water made them bursting. The contents carrying generative cells spurted from the germ pores. By subsequent filtration and centrifugation, purified generative cell population was obtained. FDA test proved that the isolated and purified generative cells were viable.
Abstract (Browse 1928)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Megaspores of a Mid-Triassic Lycopsid in Shaanxi,China
Author: Wang Zi-qiang and Lou Yun-yun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(5)
      
    Structural details of the megaspores both in situ, preserved within one kind of spore-bearing organs previously assigned to Annalepis zeilleri Fliche, and in dispersal, found from the samematrix as these plant remains preserved in, have been investigated based on the fossil specimens from one bed in the bottom of the mid-Triassic Ermayin Formation at only one locality in Wupuxian district of Shaanxi Province, China. A continutous succession in morphological and structural changes of the megaspores has been obtained and as a result, a series of megasporegennic stages might be preliminarily elacidated as follows: the immature "nexine" stage, the mature Dijkstraisporites stage, the germinating Banksisporites stage when the sporodermis loosing after the megaspore had detached. In addition, Laevigatisporites-type megaspore may be abortive.
Abstract (Browse 1839)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Study of Canopy Stomatal Conductance with Dividing Layer Method in the Winter wheat Field
Author: Liu Xuan and Yu Hu-ning
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(5)
      
    With the measurements of leaf stomatal conductances (gs1, i=l, 2, 3, or 4) in different layers of the winter wheat canopy and the other related variables, the diurnal changes of different layer leaf stomatal conductance and canopy stonatal conductance (ge) have been analysed in grain filling and milk stages in several aspects: There are most positive correlations between the adaxial and abaxial stomatal conductances of all different layers in both of the two growing stages; During the day, in addition to its parallel changes of all layers with time, gs1 shows the tendency of decrease from the top to the botom of the canopy. This is mainly because the light intensity exposing to leaves should decrease in the same direction. But in some cases this change tendency disappears or reverses when the extent to which the leaf water potential increase from the upper layer to the lower one of canopy becomes greater. This may show the effect that leaf water potential is favorable to the open of stomata. The gc also shows the evident change in the day and the value of it in' grain filling stage, is larger, than that of milk stage.
Abstract (Browse 1766)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Characteristics of Accumulation of Sulphur from the Air by the Main Plants and Soils in Beijing and Their Indicative and Purgative Abilities
Author: Huang Yin-xiao,Lin Shun-hua, Han Rong-zhuang and Yao Yi qun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(5)
      
    This paper is a study on the charcaterics of sulphur accumulation from the air in 50 species of plants and the soils in the suburbs of Beijing and their indicative and purgative abilities. The results of an investigation show that among all the 50 species Salix matsudana has the highest sulphur content, while Spiraea blumei has the lowest. According to their sulphur contents, different types of plants can be arranged in the following order: mosses deciduous broad trees>herbs>deciduous shrubs>evergreen coniferous trees. The sulphur content of plants and soils in industry pollution area' are the highest. The sulphur content of plants in this area are 2.5C10 times higher than the background value and the sulphur content of soils are 4 times higher than the background value. The sulphur contents of the plants and soils can be used as an indicator of the state of sulphur pollution, which reflects the environmental quality of the air in different function areas. The amount of purification of ten different plants has been investigated. Among the trees under investigation Paulownria tomentosa has the greatest amount, which is about 6 kg/ha per year. According to their amount of purification they can be arranged in the following order: Paulownria tomentosa>Salix matsudana>Sophora japonica> Robinia pseudoacacia> Populus tomentosa. Among the shrubs under investigation Syringa oblata has the highest amount, which is about 4 kg/h per year. According to their amount of purification, they can be arranged in the following order: Syringa oblata > Spiraea blumei> Prunus triloba > Lagerstromia indica > Forsythia suspensa. We suggest that the results of the study can provide a scientific basis for city planning and selecting suitable species of plants which have large amount of purification and strong resistance.
Abstract (Browse 1982)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Alkaloids of Stephania officinarum Lo et Yang
Author: Fang Sheng-ding,Chen Yan,Zhang Rui,Lu Yuan-jun and Yang He-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(5)
      
    Eight alkaloids have been isolated from the roots of Stephanie officinarurn Lo et Yang, which is a novel species growing in Gengma district of Yunnan province. The structures of these compounds were identified as isocorydine (), 1-tetrahydropalmatine (), sinoacutine (), crebanine (), isoboldine (), corytuberine (), palmatine () and l-N--methyltetrahydropalmatine nitrate () by spectral and chemical methods. One of them, compound is a new natural quaternary alkaloid. It is the first time that we find compound occurring in nitrate form in the plant. Isocorydine is a main alkaloid with 1.24% yield.
Abstract (Browse 1972)  |  Full Text PDF       
Phosphomannomutase in the Biosynthesis of Sesbania Gum
Author: Shan Xue-qin,Zhang Bao-tian,Fan Ming-juan,Jing Yu-xiang and Wang Wen-zhuo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(5)
      
    The phosphomannomutase (PMM) was isolated and purified by DE-52 and phosphocellulose column chromatographers. Non-SDS and SDS gel electrophoresis showed, respectively, one and three bands with molecular weights of 41500, 66000 and 74000. The maximal activity of PMM at 30 was examined, and the comparison of the results with those of phosphoglu-comutase (PGM) were made due to close relation between the two enzymes. In addition, the relationship between the characteristics of the enzymes and the physiology in Susana gum synthesis was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1925)  |  Full Text PDF       
Dynamic Change of Amyloplast DNA in Developing Cotyledon Ceils of Lotus
Author: Sun De-lan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(5)
      
    It was first shown that the amyloplasts in young cotyledon cells of lotus (Nelumbonucifera Gaertn.) and the isolated amyloplasts stained with Feulgen reaction and treated by DNase, had Feulgen-positive reaction and Feulgen-negative reaction respectively. The isolated amyloplasts stained with DAPI demonstrated blue fluorensence. Some experiments proved that DNA content in the amylopasts increased gradually with the development of cotyledon, showing the dynamic change of DNA in the amyloplasts. Electron microscopic observation revealed that there was no membrane surrounding the DNA region of the amyloplasts illustrating the characteristic of its protokaryotic organisms. The DNA fibrils were about 25A in diameter.
Abstract (Browse 1993)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Observation of Differentiation Laticifers in Hevea brasiliensis
Author: Wu Ji-lin and Hao Bing-zhong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(5)
      
    The early events of the 'differentiating laticifers in the primary system of the young shoot of Hevea brasiliensis were studied by electron microscopy with emphasis on the initiation of the characteristic components,of the laticifer. The smallest rubber particles with diameter 40- 60 nm recognizable in the y6ung laticifer appeared as electrondense globules in the cytoplasm and as the particles enlarge they became electron-transparent in their central region while the periphery of the particles remained electron-dense and one or more electron-dense protrusion (s) can sometimes be seen on.the particles. Lutoids which constituted a dispersed lysosomal vacuole were found to origin from extensions of endoplasmic reticulum. There were three types of lutoids with different inclusions apperaring one after another in laticifer during its development. The lutoids with dark microfibrils appeared first, then replaced by the lutoid with bright microfibrils and in mature laticifer only the lutoids with fine fibrils were able to be found. There were no F-W complexes but normal proplastids in laticifer at the initial stage of its development. Some abnormal laticifers were detected that appered to remain in early stage of differentiation and did not form typical ones.
Abstract (Browse 2123)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Genetic Analysis to the Progenies of Atrazine-Resistance Transgenic Soybean Plant
Author: Yue Shao-xian, Liu Bo-lin,Mao Da-zhang,Li Xiao-bing, Hu Nai-bi,Fu Jun-hua,Li Lian-cheng and Zhu Li-huang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(5)
      
    The identification of the progenies of atrazine-resistante transgenic soybeen plants was carried out by using the methods of spraying the leaves directly with atrazine solution, examining the change of leaf fluorescence kinetics curve under a brighter light induction and molecular hybridization. The resistant gene has been found in plants of F2 and F3 generations, it means that the atrazine-resistance psbA gene from black nightshade not only can be transferred to the chloroplast genome of atrazine-susceptible soybean and expressed, but also inherited to the progenies.
Abstract (Browse 1834)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Role of Polygalacturonase (PG) in Tomato Fruit Ripening and Effects of Divalent Metal Ions and Ethylene on PG Activity
Author: Lu Chun-bin, Liu Gun-de, Shen Quan-guang and Liang Hou-guo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(5)
      
    It has been reported that PG is a key enzyme related to the tomato fruit ripening. In this study tomato fruits were harvested at the mature-green stage and stored at room temperature. The cell ultrastructure of pericarp tissue was observed at different ripening stages, and the effects of treatments with ethylene and calcium on PG activity and fruit ripening were examined. The object of this study is to elucidate the role of PG in regulation of tomato fruit ripening by ethylene and calcium. PG activity, was undetectable at mature-green stage, but it rose rapidly as fruif ripening. The rise in PG activity was coincided with the dechnmg of fruit firmness during ripening of tomato fruits. The observation of cell ultrastructure showed that the most of grana in chloroplast were lost and the mitochondrial cristae decreased as fruit ripening. Striking changes of cell wall structure was most noted, beginning with dissolution of the middle lamella and eventual disruption of primary cell wall. A similar pattern of changes of cell wall and chloroplast have been observed in pericarp tissue treated with PG extract. In fruits treated with calcium and other divalent metal ions atmature-green stage, the lycopene content and PG activity decreased dramatically. Ethylene application enhanced the formation of lycopene and PG activity. The inhibition of Ca2+ on PG ac ivity was removed by ethylene. Based on the above results, it was demonstrated that PG played a major role in ripening of tomato fruits, and suggested that the regulation of fruit ripening by ethylene and Ca2+ was all mediated by PG. PG induced the hydrolysis of cell wall and released the other hydrolytic enzymes, then effected the ripening processes follow up.
Abstract (Browse 2197)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Chemical Compositions of Volatile Oil from Seeds of Cuminum cyminum L.
Author: Jiao Yong, Sun Jie-ying and Fang Hong-ju
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(5)
      
    This paper deals with the determination of chemical compositions of volatile oil of Cuminum cyminum L. in Xinjiang area. Using capillary gas chromatography and GG/MS, the following components have been identified: -pinene, -pinene, camphene, myrcene, -terpinene, -cymene, terpinolene, linalool, pulegone, cuminaldehyde, 2,3-dihydrocuminal and myrtenal etc. Besides, silica gel column chromatography as well as some spectrum methods such as IR, MS, NMR, etc. were used to elucidate the structure of 2,3-dihydrocuminal or 4-isopropyldelta-1,3-cyclohexadiene-l-carbaldehyde.
Abstract (Browse 2007)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regeneration from Protoplast of Trititrigia (Triticum sect. trititrigia Maekey)
Author: Wang Tie-bang,Qian Ying-qian (Y. C. Chien),Li Ji-lin,Qu Gui-ping and Cai Qi-gui(C. K. Tsai)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(5)
      
    Trititrigia is the intergeneric hybrid which is from the hybridization between Triticum durum Desf. and Elytrigia intermedium (Host) Nevski. Protoplasts of Trititrigia were isolated from the embryogenic cell suspension derived from immature inflorescence-induced calli of the hybrid F1. The first division occured 48 hr after plating in modified KM8p culture medium. The plating efficiency of protoplasts was 2% and 12.14% when they were cultured in liquid medium and agarose solidified medium, respectively. Clusters grew vigorously under these conditions. Fresh medium with decreased osmoticum was added 20C30 days after plating. When protoplast-derived calli, 2C4 mm in the size, were transferred step by step to different differentiation media, embryoids, green spots emerged and numerous plants regenerated eventually.
Abstract (Browse 1888)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Rourea microphylla (Hook. et Arn) Planch.
Author: Jiang Jian-qin,Fang Sheng-ding,Xu Chuan-feng and Luo Jin-tai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(5)
      
    Eleven compounds were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Rourea microphylla (Hook. et Arn) Planch. They were identified as quercetin-3-O--L-rhamnopyranoside (), hyperin (), quercetin (), astilbin (), -sitosterol (), -sitosteryl--D-glucopyranoside (), physcion (), erythroglaucin (), stearic acid (), palmitic acid () and n-nonacosanane () respectively, by means of UV, IR, NMR, MS spectra analyses and through chemical methods. The compounds , , , , , , , , and were first reportedin the Rourea genus.
Abstract (Browse 2060)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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