January 1956, Volume 5 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
An Investigation of Cloth Made of Banana Stem Fiber in Ancien China
Author: Chang Te-chun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1956 5(1)
Abstract (Browse 1834)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Role of Organic Food Substances in the Boll Shedding of Cotton Plant
Author: C. C. King,T. S. Ni, Y. W. Tang, C. W. Cheng, C. L. Chan, S. F. Lui, W. Y. Lui and S. G. Lee
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1956 5(1)
      
    The physiological mechanism of bud and boll shedding is not yet known with certainty, as different authors claimed different hypotheses. It seems that to clear up this problem is necessary for the control of fruit dropping in cotton plant. Thus, a series of experiments were made to study the physiological modifications during the course of shedding. The results and conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) The young bolls of the ringed fruit branch with two leaves and one flower did not shed under the condition of sufficient light whether the ovaries were fertilized or not. (2) When the fruit branch was ringed and shaded after flowering, the shedding of young boll was not prevented, but was delayed by the application of sucrose solution. In the presence of other organic foods, the percentage of boll shedding was decreased by additional application of sucrose. (3) As the content of soluble carbohydrates in the non-shed bolls maintained at a rather high level, the respiration and synthetic processes progressed without declination from the second day after flowering till the end of the experiment. Thus, the young boll grew continuously. On the other hand, as a result of the decrease in soluble carbohydrates content either of bolls on the shaded and ringed branches or of bolls without fertilization on the non-ringed branches, the rate of respiration was declined and the hydrolytic processes were elevated. In addition, the heavy shedding of young bolls occurred. (4) Owing to the intensive respiration and growth of flower buds on the day of their opening, a large amount of organic food substances was consumed. The increase in percentage of shedding was induced by the shortage of available food in the young bolls as shown by the result of chemical analysis. It is, therefore, suggested that to supply the organic food substances to the young bolls in due time is necessary to keep boll shedding at minimum. (5) Furthermore, it was found that the reduction of boll shedding was obtained by the agricultural techniques which induce the intensive translocation of organic food substances towards the boll. Thus, such methods as to spray phosphorus, to pinch the plants together with proper defoliation and to apply the growth stimulating substances during the flowering period, are recommended.
Abstract (Browse 1968)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Boll Shedding of the Unfertilized Ovaries in Cotton Plant
Author: C. C. King, Y. W. Tang, T. S. Ni, C. W. Cheng and S. F. Lui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1956 5(1)
      
    In order to study the boll shedding of the unfertilized ovaries, a series of field experiments were made and the results are summarized briefly as follows: Heavy dropping of young bolls occurred 4C5 days after raining, because the processes of pollination were prevented by rain after the openning of flowers. The destructive effect of rain continued from morning till 4 p. m. of the rainy day. In addition, it was found that the boll shedding induced by the spraying of liquid insecticide in the forenoon was more serious as compared with that sprayed in the afternoon and the untreated control. Thus, to keep the destructive effect of insecticide and fungicide on the young boll at minimum, it is suggested that their spraying should be practiced after 4 p. m. A further experiment was performed to study whether the unfertilized ovary could develop into seedless boll. The style of flower was removed to prevent pollination. In order to get sufficient food materials for the development of unfertilized ovaries the fruit branch with one flower and two leaves was ringed at the lower end near the main stalk. At the end of the experiment it was found that none of the treated flowers had dropped and the unfertilized ovaries had developed into parthenocarpic fruits with short fibres. The results obtained indicate that if the organic food materials are sufficient, all the bolls may develop without pollination and fertilization. It is, therefore, suggested that organic food plays a fundamental role in the development of fruit. The current theory that only the growth hormone is responsible for the formation of parthenocarpic fruit becomes questionable. It seems that in the processes of fruit development, the stimulative substances or auxins function as a supplementary factor. On the basis of this idea, the general consideration for the control of boll shedding in cotton plant is discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1932)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Effect of Plant Growth Stimulative Substances on Flower-falling and Fruiting of Eggplant
Author: Lee Shu-hsien and Cheo Chen-hsieh
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1956 5(1)
      
    Flower-falling in early May is one of the problems facing the early production of eggplants in Hangchow and many other parts of East China. In order to prevent this occurrence so as to increase the early yield of eggplants, two kinds of plant growth stimulative substances have been tried by the authors, namely, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) in 5, 15 and 80 ppm, and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-Cl) in 10, S0 and 40 ppm. They were all used as sodium salt in aqueous solution. The eggplants here used in the experiment are of a long red variety grown in the vegetable farm of Chekiang Institute of Agriculture in Hangchow under ordinary cultural practices. It was found in this experiment that both of the two chemicals were able to prevent the fall of blossom in the first inflorescence of eggplants in the early and middle parts of May. Within the range of the concentrations herein used, the effectiveness of 2, 4-D in 30 ppm was discovered to be the largest, and that of 4-Cl in 40 ppm came next. The harvest time for the edible fruits of the eggplants treated either with 2, 4-D or 4-CI, was found to be 9 or more days earlier than that of the untreated lots. After the middle of June, however, the yield of both treated and untreated lots increased rapidly. But it was not until the end of June that the total yield of the untreated lots was about the same as the treated ones. The fact that the growth stimulative substances might prevent the early fall of flowers and increase the early yield of fruits without a predominant increase in total yield is considered to be associated with the mode of fruiting habit and the supply of nutrients to the fruit development of eggplants. From the standpoint of agriculture, the early yield of eggplants can not be increased only by the application of stimulative substances. It should be cooperated concurrently with fertilization, irrigation and other cultural practices so as to supply sufficient nutrients to meet the need of fruit development. Not only did the growth stimulative substances retard the fall of the early flowers, but they also accelerated the growth rate of fruits. The fruits developed from the early flowers usually appeared in two separately and collaterally born on the same pedicel. Such abnormal fruits were found to be not the result of the treatment of the chemicals, but of the development from the flowers with two separate ovaries differentiated under the low temperature condition. The treatment of the chemicals is but to preserve such abnormal flowers to be developed into abnormal fruits. The blossoms of eggplant produced in the early season were usually with long styles, while those produced later in hot summer were usually with short styles. These short-styled flowers, which almost always dropped at either low or high air temperature, might bear fruits parthenocarpically by the treatment of both 2, 4-D and 4-Cl of the concentrations herein used. In comparison with the application of 2,4-D or 4-Cl to prevent the flower-falling of tomatoes, the concentration of the chemicals for eggplant could be higher (up to 30C40 ppm), without causing significant injuries to the fruits or leaves.
Abstract (Browse 2187)  |  Full Text PDF       
ԧ֧ߧ֧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ܧݧ ӧ֧ӧڧ ֧ߧڧ
Author: اѧ ߧڧ-ѧߧاѧ 壬 ߧ ѧߧ-ߧ -
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1956 5(1)
      
    
Abstract (Browse 1920)  |  Full Text PDF       
Conditions of Porphyra Conchospores Formation and Discharge and the Discharge Rhythm
Author: C. K. Tseng and T. J. Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1956 5(1)
      
    . Temperature factor in the development and discharge of Conchospores. On the basis of our studies, we believe that at least three stages are involved leading to the final discharge of conchospores from the Conchocelis-phase of Porphyra tenera Kjellm., each with a specific temperature requirement. (1) The first stage terminates by the formation of sporangial branchlets consisting of the so-called inflated cells, and the Conchocelis has thus reached maturity. Our observation on the cultures in the laboratory and in the sea shows that the formation of sporangia requires a relatively high temperature,from 15˚ (perhaps 16C17) up to as high as 30. In nature, spring growths of the Conchocelis mature after having lived through a hot summer, during which they have been subjected to the necessary high temperature for sporangial development, and winter growths apparently mature in early summer (or very late spring). Microscopic examinations of the mature Conchocelis may reveal these sporangial structures. It is apparent that the Conchocelis must be subjected to the required temperature for a certain length of time; we are, however, as yet unable to make any suggestion in this respect. (2) The second stage leads to the formation of conchospores. Mature Conchocelis growths with an abundance of sporangial branchlets may remain in this condition for several months, until they are subjected to a relatively low temperature of 15C20, as prevalent in nature in the Tsingtao region in two periods, one from spring to early summer, and another from middle to late autumn, and for a minimum of 11 days to two weeks. At the end of this stage, the sporangium undergoes a final division of the protoplast into 2 spores. When under artificial cultivation, the shaking of the culture is unnecessary for the formation of the spores. (3) The third stage involves the dissolution of the transverse walls of the sporangia resulting in the formation of tubular structures and finally the discharge of the conchospores through these tubes to the outside. Spore discharge may take place at a higher temperature than that required for spore formation and it was found that at as high as 26C30, spores might also be discharged. To effect continual spore discharge, however, the temperature must not exceed 25. This is a very brief stage, which in nature, immediately follows the second stage. Under artificial cultivation, however, it is possible to delay the discharge of the spores already formed, thus separating the two stages by a relative long gap. Spores may be collected in the laboratory by merely placing the shell containing mature Conchocalis growths on glass slides, but the discharge of the spores is greatly facilitated by shaking the cultures. . Second-year Conchlcelis of Porphyra tenera Kjellm. Our studies show that the Conchocelis-phase of Porphyra tenera Kjellm., after a mass discharge of conchospores in autumn, does not die but persists to the next year and is capable of producing a small number of conchospores. Temperature requirement for the formation of conchospores appears to be much lower, around 10. . Daily rhythm of conchospore discharge. Our studies have verified the discoveries of Yamasaki (1954) and of Suto et al (1954) that spore discharge in Porphyra tenera takes place principally in the morning in the first few hours after sunrise. In our experiments, spore discharge also starts very early in the morning and reaches its peak between 8C10 a. m. during which period, about 50% of the spores of daily total are discharged. The discharge of spores in the afternoon amounts to 5%C9% of the daily total, and practically stops in the night. Light is cited as the principal but not the only factor causing such a phenomenon; the temperature factor is apparently also concerned. . Conchospore discharge in Porphyra sp. That the rhythmic discharge of conchospores is not limited to Porphyra tenera Kjellm. is proved by the presence of a similar phenomenon in an as yet unidentified species of Porphyra, which also shows a daily peak of spore discharge at 8C10 a. m. This Porphyra, unlike Porphyra tenera, however, also discharges spores in afternoons and even in nights.
Abstract (Browse 2137)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Preliminary Study of Peat-bogs on Mount Hsishan Near Nanchang, Kiangsi Province
Author: Lin Ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1956 5(1)
      
    This paper is devoted to a study of the fundamental condition of the peat-bogs on Mount Hsishan near Nanchang, Kiangsi Province. It deals chiefly with the natural environment in the middle part of the mountain range, such as the distribution of the bogs, the historical causes of their formation, their types, the characteristics of the peat, and the methods of collecting the peat samples in each layer. It offers some preliminary scientific data for this investigation. The peat-bogs of Mount Hsishan are distributed in the intermontane basins of 500C900 metres high above the sea level lying on both sides of the water parting in the middle part of this mountain range. The existing peat-bogs come to a total area of roughly 209.5 mou. Among them are 27 bogs whose area is more than one mou each and the largest one occupies an area of 18 mou; the average area of these bogs is around 7.7 mou. The depth of the peat deposition ranges from 5 to 400 cm, the average being around one metre. The historic causes for the formation of the peat-bogs in Mount Hsishan lie chiefly in the fact that the mountain glacier of the Quarternary period, or in other words the cirque, on the water parting in the middle part of this mountain range gave rise to a large number of cirque topographic features-the intermontane basins-in which bogs were formed of the accumulated water. And as the result of the succession of vegetation, peat-bogs of different types have thus appeared. Among them the transitional moors are dominant, next come the low moors, while the high moors are fewest in number. The main vegetation cover of the peat-bogs comprises nine different associations, namely, (1) Zizania caduciflora association, (2) Acorus calamus association, (3) Scirpus tabernaemontani association, (4) Scirpus cyperinus association, (5) Rhynchospora faberi association, (6) Alnus trabeculosa association, (7) Salix sp. association, (8) Vaccinium sp. association and (9) Sphagnum cymbifolium association. Of these nine associations, the Scirpus cyperinus association is most widely distributed; the Sphagnum cymbifolium association exists in only three bogs, in Lake Hsi-yao of which it flourishes most. Because of the luxuriant growth of the Sphagnum cymbifolium association in Lake Hsi-yao, a number of hillocks of this association have formed. And meanwhile a kind of insectivorous plant, Utricularia intermedia, appears in this association, signifying that the nourishing substance of this association has entered a stage of extreme privation. Within one metre from the surface of the peat stratum, the temperaure of the peat soil varies rather intensely, but this temperature changes very little when the depth goes beyond one metre. In spring and summer the temperature on the surface of the peat-bogs is about 20 different from that of the peat soil three metres down in the peat stratum. The results of analyses of the organic content and water content of the peat show that generally the organic wetter contained in the peat is greater in quantity in the basal part of the peat stream than that on the surface of it, while the water content is just in the reverse order. It has been further found that the peat beneath the Sphagnum cymbifolium association is one which contains the lowest percentage of organic matter but the highest percentage of water.
Abstract (Browse 2276)  |  Full Text PDF       
ӧݧ֧ߧڧ ҧߧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧݧ֧ߧ է֧
Author: -ѧߧ
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1956 5(1)
Abstract (Browse 2677)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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