June 1990, Volume 32 Issue 6

 

          Research Articles
Effect of Chilling on Photosynthesis in Flag Leaves at Primary Heading Stage of F1 Hybrid Rice Cultivars and Their Parental Lines (Three Lines)
Author: Li Ping, Liu Hong-xian, Wang Yi-rou, Liang Cheng-ye and Guo Jun-yan (Kuo Chun-yen)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(6)
      
    With the purpose of selecting and breeding cold stress tolerance of hybrid rice cultivars, the effect of chilling on five hybrid rice combinations was investigated. The results indicated that the cold tolerance of different hybrid rice varieties were different. The order of the cold tolerance as the degrees of inhibition of maximum photosynthetic rate and of apparent quantum yield of flag leaves at primary heading stage by chilling was as follows: The cold tolerance of Japanica type Xiuyou-57 was the highest then lndica type Qing-Youzao followed by Shangyou-63, Shangyou-64 and Weiyou-64. The cold tolerance of Fx hybrid rice was similar to that of the maternal lines and not similar to the paternal lines. The cold tolerance of maintainer lines was similar to that of the male sterile lines. The tests on the survival rate of hybrid rice seedlings after chilling treatment also showed a similar re gular patterns. These indicated that the responses by the chilling temperature in these five hybrid combinations were exactly the same in the Seedling stage as well as in the late growing stage. The results of these experiments on the impact of selecting and breeding cold tolerance in hybrid rice were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2180)  |  Full Text PDF       
Changes of Endogenous ABA Levels in Rice Embryo and Endosperm and Association with Development and Germination
Author: Qin Zhang-zheng, Tang Xi-hua, Pan Guo-zhen and He Mei-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(6)
      
    The varying levels of free and conjugated abscisic acid endogenously contained in developing and germinating embryos and endosperms of rice were determined by radioimmunoassay. The bimodal distribution curve of ABA contents in developing rice embryo was consistent with the biphasic pattern of the embryonal development. There were two peaks of ABA content, which were separately 1.4 ng per embryo (13 days after anthesis) and 2.6 ng per embryo (21 days after anthesis), at the embryo differentiation-and maturation-stage respectively. In the differentiation stage the free ABA (f-ABA), which could originate preferentially from the maternal tissue and relate with photosynthate partitioned and rapidly transported into the developing seed embryo, comprised the overwhelming majority of total ABA(t-ABA); wheras in the maturation stage the conjugated ABA(c-ABA), which might be synthesized chiefly in situ and more directly involved in the regulation of embryonic gene expression, constituted the main part of total ABA. With respect to the amount of ABA in endosperm it accounted for about 90% of that in whole seed of rice, but the ABA concentration in it, shown with ng ABA per mg tissue fresh weight, was only equal to half of that in embryo more or less, and quite constent throughout developmental stages of the endosperm except the linear filling stage during which a peak of concentration of endogenous ABA in the tissue was presented. Nevertheless, the level of endogenous ABA in embryo suddenly dropped after initiation of germination of the seed while it returned to going up when the onset of elongating growth of the germ had taken place, so that the 'V' shape curve of ABA content in the rice germ was emerged during the seed germination. In the light of above results the probable relationship among the endogenous ABA, the embryo development and germination was discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2023)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents from the Bud of Cleistocalyx operculatus
Author: Zhang Feng-xian, Liu Mei-fang and Lu Ren-rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(6)
      
    Nine constituents have been isolated from the bud of Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr. et perry (after the removal of essential oils by steam distillation), eight of them were identified as 2', 4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone (), 5,7-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethylflavanone (), 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-6,8-dirnethylflavanone (), ethyl gallate , gallic acid, (), ursolic acid' (), -sitosterol () and cinnamic acid (), based on the evidences from spectroscopic (UV, IR, NMR, MS) analysis and comparison of physico-chemicat constants. The identification of the ninth constituent is under way.
Abstract (Browse 2219)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Aliphatic Constituents trom the Pollen of Typha angustifolia L.
Author: Jia Shi-shan, Ma Chao-mei and Zhao Li-fang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(6)
      
    Five aliphatic compounds were isolated from the pollen of Typha angustifolia L. (Typhaceae). Two of them are new compounds. On the basis of spectroscopic analysis the structure of compound and was elucidated as 7-methyl-4-triacontanone and 6-tritriacontanol, respectively. Pentacosane ()and -sitosterol palmitate ()also been isolated and identified. The other one () have not been identified yet. The compound showed significant effect in lowering the serum cholesterol.
Abstract (Browse 1999)  |  Full Text PDF       
Transient Expression of CAT and GUS Genes in Protoplasts Isolated from Rice and Corn
Author: Ming Xiao tian,Mi Jing-jiu,Pan Nai-sui and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(6)
      
    Two chimeric genes--CAT and GUS genes under the control of CaMV 35S promoter were transferred into the protoplasts isolated from cultivars of rice, corn, tobacco, carrot and carnation grown in China by electroporation and PEG pathway. Transient expression of these genes were obtained in all transformants. With electroporation, most of transformed corn, tobacco and carrot protoplasts showed CAT or GUS activity and the effeciency was related to parameters of the electroporater. In PEG pathway, the time of PEG incubation was shorter than those reported in most papers and positive results were obtained.
Abstract (Browse 1864)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Different Fixatives on Freeze-Fractured Samples of Plant Cells for SEM Observations
Author: Hu A-lin, Jeng De-zhang, Jiao Ming-da, Tong De-juan and Hao Shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(6)
      
    Three-dimensional structures of meristematic cells of Allium cepa were studied using freeze-fracture method under the scanning electron microscope. Two fixation procedures were used. The cells were often fractured between eytoplasm and nucleus when the materials were fixed in 1% OsO4 alone before freeze fracture, whereas the nuclei, were frequently fractured if the materials were fixed first in Carnoy's, solution (ethanol: acetic acid=3:l) and then in 1% OsO4 before freeze fracture. The former fixation procedure is suitable for the study of the interior structures of cytoplasm such as cytoskeleton fibres, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and their three-dimensional topography. The latter fixation method is suitable for the study of interior structures of nucleus such as chromatin, nucleoli, nuclear matrix filaments and their 3-dimensional architectures, especially the 3-dimensional structures of chromatin in fibrillar centre of the nucleolus.
Abstract (Browse 1795)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cryopreservation of Suspension Cell Line Derived from the Protoplast Culture of Brassica campestris var. Pekinensis
Author: Luo Mei-zhong, Jiang Shuang-ying and Tang Hui-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(6)
      
    Protected by DMSO, the suspension cell line derived from the protoplast culture of Brassica campestris var. pekinensis can be stored in liquid nitrogen (-196) for a long term. The addition of sorbitol and mannose can increase and decrease the protection, respectively. The medium also has an effect on cryopreservation. The relative survival rates of cells are little different in different days of cryopreservation. The highest rate of relative survival of cryopreserved cells reaches 75.4%. When the cryopreserved cells are thawed and resuspended, regrowth immediately occurs after just one day of lag period. Resuspended for six days, the cells increase 300C500%. It is much better for recovery of growth to resuspend in the dark than in the light. Like the non-cryopreserved control, the cryopreserved cells can be normally digested, producing a number of viable protoplasts which can be actively divided and form calli.
Abstract (Browse 1900)  |  Full Text PDF       
Embryology and Embryo Rescue of an Interspecific Cross Between Actinidia deliciosa cv. Haywardand A. eriantha
Author: Mu Xi-jin, Wang Wen-ling, Cai Da-rong an.d An He-xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(6)
      
    The study deals with an investigation of embryo and endosperm development in seeds of interspecific hybridization betwwn Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward (6X) and A. eriantha (2X) and an attempt to hybrid embryo rescure. The average seed number per fruit of hybrid com suitable culture media for in vitro embryo growth and subsequent growth of the seedlings are tested for hybrid embryos from normal and abortive seeds. The highest percentage of seed germination and the best growth of early seedlings are obtained op. MS medium supplemented with 0.5 ppm of IAA and 0.5 ppm of GA3; MS supplemented with 2 ppm of 2ip, 0.5 ppm of IAA and 0.5 ppm of GA3; MS supplemented with of 2ip and 0.5 ppm of GA3. When these embryos, as seedlings, were transferred onto MS supplemented with 0.5 ppm of GA3 and then MS without growth regulators, they readily develop into seedlings with normal leaves and roots, A lot of adventitious buds produced from hypocotyl of some normal and abortive embryos on MS supplemented with 2 ppm of BAP and Ms+ 0.5 ppm IAA+0.5 ppm GA3 further grow into hybrid plantlets. Although various percentage of embryos developed from abortive seeds also germinate, but when inoculated onto media as mentioned in Table l, a number of malformed seedlings form subsequently. The remaining embryos on all the media, however, show limited growth, and eventually either form callus or die. The nature of hybrid seedling is confirmed by cytological test. Half of them showed chromosome number as 4X=116 approx., the rest may have 19, 27, 30, 46, 120, 131, ect. In conclusion, according to embryological and cytological observation on hybrid seeds and seedlings: (I) the cross between Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward and A. eriantha appears interspecific incompatibility and compatibility to some extent, (2) normal hybrid seedlings are produced by normal hybrid embryos from normal seeds and abnormal embryos from abortive seeds, and (3) both may induce initiation of adventitious buds from hypocotyl. We suggested that these results may be useful for plant breeding program.
Abstract (Browse 1941)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Development of the Reproductive Organs of Caloglossa leprieurii (Mont.) J. Ag.
Author: Liu Feng-xian, Hou Yan-li and Wang Chun-sheng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(6)
      
    The cell of Caloglossa leprieurli is a polycaryon. The sexual thalli are usually dioecious. Its life cycle involves the alternation of three generations. In the reproductive season, the appearance of tetrasporophyte and female and male gametophyte shows evident difference. The tetrasporophyte is big and flat. The branches are sparse. Many small red spots, i.e. tetrasporogial groups, can be seen with the naked eyes in the upper part of the branch. The terminal part of the female gametophyte is a little twisted with thick branches. The cystocarps are spherical and most of them are located in ventral side of the upper branch points. The male gametophyte is smaller with less branches. Its terminal part is a little twisted with pale colour. The pit connections of the vegetative cells of every thallus are all well developed. The carpogonial branch consists of four cells. Generally, it is formed by the division of the pericentral cell. After fertilization of the carpogonium, an auxiliary cell is formed by the division of supporting cell. Usually five to seven, even more than ten young procarps can be formed at the apical part of the reproductive branch. The procarps often occur on consecutive segments of pericentral ceils. But among most of them only a carpogonium is fertilized and developes into cystocarp. When a carpogonium is fertilized, the other one on this branch usually cease further development. The spermatangia are formed on the lateral wing cells of both sides of the upper part midrib of a reproductive branch and distributed on both dorsal and ventral surfaces. A vegetative cell is divided into three cells in parallel to the surface of the thallus. The cortical cells under the two outer surfaces forms three to four permatangial mother cells. Each spermatangial mother cell divides into two to four spermatangia. After the sperm dispersal of the mature spermatangia, the spermatangial mother cells are still retained on both sides of the middle discoid cells.
Abstract (Browse 2006)  |  Full Text PDF       
Construction of Genomic Library for Leucaena Leacocephala and Isolation of a Gene Enco ding Seed Storage Protein
Author: Pan Zhi-qiang,Pan Nai-sui,Liu Chun-qing and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(6)
      
    Leucaena leucocephala (Mimosaceae), a tropical plant, has been a very important forage for livestock in tropical area. The leaves and seeds contain proteins up to 30% and 33% of the dry weight respectively. We have been interested in studying these proteins and expression of genes encoding these proteins and constructed the genomic library. Total DNA from leaves of L. leucocephala was isolated and digested partially with Sau3A. Bacterophage lambda EMBL3 was used as a cloning vector. Recombinant molecules were packaged into viable phage particles in vitro and the yield of recombinant phages was 3.5106 pfu. In order to understand the homology between genes encoding seed storage protein from L. leucocephala and soybean, the library was amplified and screened with a gene encoding the '-subunit of the soybean 7S storage protein. Four positive clones were obtained and three of them were chosen for further analysis. Physical mapping and partial DNA sequence have revealed the homology between genes encoding storage proteins of L. leucocephala and soybean.
Abstract (Browse 2090)  |  Full Text PDF       
Structural Elucidation of Salpriolactone
Author: Huang Xiu-lan, Wang Xiao-ming, Huang Yong, Zhang Jin-sheng and Lin Long-ze
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(6)
      
    A new diterpenoid, salpriolactone, was isolated from the roots Salvia prionitis Hance (Labiatea) as yellow prisms crystals C15H14O3 (HRMS), mp. 205206. Its structural elucidation was based on spectroscopic data.
Abstract (Browse 1849)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Species of Nilssoniopteris from the Early Cretaceous of Hailar Basin
Author: Zheng Shao-lin, Zhang Wu and Zhang Ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(6)
      
    A new species of Genus Nilssoniopteris, N. hailarensis sp. nov. is described from the core of bore hole of the auxiliary well (No. 5) in Hailar Basin, China (47˚58N. Lat., 117˚10E. Long.). These specimens were collected in sediments of the Lower Cretaceous Yimin Formation. This new species is characterized by long-linear, entire, narrow leaves. Their shapes and nervations show Taeniopteroid-type with a Bennettitalean cuticle. Lamina attached late rally to upper surface of midrib. Midrib up to 3 cm wide, prominent below but only about one-third of its width exposed above. The reported species rather similar to Nilssoniopteris beyrichii (Schenk) Nathorst from the Wealden Flora of W. Europe in leaf shape. N. hailarensis is distinguished from the latter by its cuticle.
Abstract (Browse 2087)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Bryophytes of the King George Island, Antarctica
Author: Wu Peng-cheng and Hu Shun-shi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(6)
      
    After examining the moss collections from the King George Island collected by Dr. Wei Jiang-chun and Mr. Li Zhen-pei in 1983C1984 and 1985 separately, we find 7 species of the mosses, which belong to 4 families and 6 genera. Some of them such as the mosses of Calliergon and Drepanocladus favour moist habitats, whereas Andreaea obovata indicates the dry rocky substratum. Barbula unguiculata and Tortula ruralis could suffer non-permanent dry condition. Geographically, except Andreaea obovata and Calliergon stramineum the other mosses are almost cosmopolitans. They probably distributed to the King George Island before Antarctica drifting to the recent position, and the strong wind was also possible to blow the spores of mosses to Antarctica.
Abstract (Browse 2006)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on the Main Fatty Acids and Triglyceride Composition of Kernel Oil of Iodes vitiginea
Author: Liao Xue-kun, Wang Hui-ping and Guo Hui-ran
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(6)
      
    The kernel of lodes vitiginea (Hance) Hemsl. (Icacinaceae) contains 39---50% of oil. Analysing with GC, the main fatty acids are hexadecenoic and palmitic acid. By means of ozonization, GC/MS, IR, etc., the hexadecenoic acid was identified as cis- 7-hexadecenoic acid. Thirteen triglycerides (peak) have been separated by HPLC from oil, among them, eight triglycerides were identified by C,C with HHH, 18.4; HHP, 32.3%; PHP, 16.8% as the main composition.
Abstract (Browse 2022)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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