July 1990, Volume 32 Issue 7

 

          Research Articles
Somatic Embryogenesis and Plantlet Formation of Picea wilsonii Mast. in Ditterent Conditions
Author: Li Ying-hong and Guo Zhong-shen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(7)
      
    Embryogenic callus (translucent callus) was produced from immature zygotic embryos of Picea wilsonii Mast. Subsequently somatic embryogenesis occurred on the brown callus. The somatic embryos could be stimulated to developinto plantlets on the medium without hormone. Young somatic embryos were produced from embryogenic callus in liquid suspension culture, in which suspensor was several or more than ten times the size of the somatic embryo. The somatic embryo showed very similar to zygotic embryos in micro-section and living material.
Abstract (Browse 1898)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Vegetational and Environmental History at the West Foot of Changbai Mountain, Northeast China During the Last 10,000 years
Author: Yuan Shao-min and Sun Xiang-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(7)
      
    Two cores from Sandao Swamp and 18 surface samples from different vegetational zones and different parts of Sandao Swamp were used to reconstruct the history of vegetation and environment at west foot of Changbei Mountain, Northeast China. Pollen influx and R-value as well as P-value were used to interpret the pollen data besides the pollen percentage. The history of this area can be divided into four stages as follows: 1. Stage i(10,300每10,000 yrs. B. P.): The shallow lake was surrounded by fir-spruce woodland. The climate was cold and humid. 2. Stage j(10,000每9,000 yrs. BP): The birch forest replaced fir-spruce woodland. Instead of the shallow lake, low level bog consisted of sedge and intermediate bog composed of larchmoss were formed and spreaded gradually. The climate became a little warmer. 3. Stage k(9,000每4,000 yrs. BP): The deciduous forest began to flourish with mixed pine deciduous forest existing at the uppermost of the surrounding mountains. The bog of larch-moss was prosperous. The climate was warm. 4. Stagel (4,000每0 yrs. BP): Vegetation was composed of mixed pine-deciduous forest and pine-boreal forest. The bog developed into moor of larch- peat moss at the beginning, then evolved into intermediate bog of sedge moss. The climate was cool and humid.
Abstract (Browse 1883)  |  Full Text PDF       
Litterfall and Leaf Consumption by Animals in Humid Seasonal Rainforest in Xishuangbanna, China
Author: Zheng Zheng,Liu Lun-hui,He Ai-jun and Jing Gui-fen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(7)
      
    Litterfall and element return dynamic and leaf consumption by animals were studied in humid seasonal rainforest in Menglun, Xishuangbanna, Southwesten China. 1. The litterfall was l1.29+l.96t/ha﹞a, and the amount of litterfall component was (t/ha﹞a㊣S. E.): for leaves, 7.41㊣0.82; wood (≒2 cm diameter), 2.16㊣1.78; flowers, 0.223㊣0.13; fruits, 0.7244㊣0.456 and mixed matter (includs plant trash, wastes of animals and died animal bodies from canopy), 0.77㊣0.18. A marked peak of litterfall occurred during a March-April period of the late dry season. 2. Large wood litterfall (>2 cm diameter) was measured twice during rainy season and dry season, the large wood litterfall mean was 0.82t/ha﹞a. 3. Returns (kg/ha﹞a) of the elements to the forest floor in the litterfall were ranged Ca (146.4) > N (57.3) > Mg (39.0) 3> K(31.2) > P (6.33) > Mn (5.49) 2> A1(4.40) > Fe(1.92) > Zn(0.56) > Cu (0.24).and a marked peak of element return coincided with the litterfall's. 4. The leaf area eaten by animals accounted for 16.2% of the total leaf area.
Abstract (Browse 2350)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Chemical Constituents from Podocarpus brevifolius
Author: Gu Yun-long, Xu Ya-ming,Fang Sheng-ding and He Qi-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(7)
      
    Ten compounds were isolated from the barks and leaves of Podocarpus brevifolius (Podocarpaceae) for the first time. They are identified as isokaurene (1), →9- isoclextropimaric acid (2), isoginkgetin (3), sciadopitysin (4), amentoflavone-4∩,4∪∩, 7, 7∪-tetramethylether (5), sequoyitol (6), 汕-sitosterol (7), daucosterol (8), 汕-sitosterone (9), and 3汕, 6汕-dihydroxy-stigmast-4-ene (10) by means of spectral analysis, comparison of physio-chemical data and throgh chemical method.
Abstract (Browse 2086)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Some Glycosides from Olea yunnanensis Hand. -Mazz
Author: He Zheng-dan, Shi Zhong-min, Yang Chong-ren
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(7)
      
    From the stem of Olea yunnanensis Hand. -Mazz., an endemic plant of Oleaceae and a folk medicine in Yunnan Province of China, four glycosides were isolated. Three of them were identified as 10-hydroxyligstroside (1), 10-hydroxyoleuropein (2), and (+)-l-acetoxypinoresinol-4∩-汕-D-glucoside (3). Another one is a new secoiridoidal glucoside named as oleayunnanoside (4), which structure was elvcidated by means of spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods.
Abstract (Browse 1997)  |  Full Text PDF       
Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)Zymogram Patterns and Their Geographical Distribution of Wild (Glycine soja) and Cultivated Soybean (G. max) in China
Author: Xu Bao, Zhuang Bing-chang and Lu Qin-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(7)
      
    The purpose of this study was to examine the superoxide dismutase (SOD) zymogram patterns, their frequency and geographical distribution of wild (Glycine soja) and cultivated soybean (G. max) in China. Seeds of 226 wild soybean germplasms and 104 cultivated soybean cultivars (land races) were collected from all provinces and autonomous regions in China except Taiwan, Xinjiang and Qinghai provinces About 50 embryos per wild soybean germplasm and I0 embryos per cultivated soybean cultivars were used for test. Vertical polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a stainning system modified after Luo (1984)were used. The Japanese GS- 930 Scanner was used in gel-plate scanning. In program scanning the maximum and minimum absorption wavelength were 700 and 550 nm respectively. The results showed that: 1. Six zymogram patterns were found in soybean (Fig. 1, 2). Wild soybean displayed five patterns (i, j, l m, n), while the cultivated soybean displayed only two patterns (j, k). 2. Fourty six percent of wild germplasms gave an 7-band zymogram (Table i) (pattern i), fourty nine percent had a 6th and 7th band with faster mobility (pattern j), about two percent produced a 6-band zymogram which lacked the SODc4 band (pattern l), about two percent had a 5-band pattern which lacked the SODc,c4 bands (pattern m), and only one germptasm displayed a 5-band zymogram which lacked SODb2b3 bands (pattern n). 3. More than ninty eight percent of cultivated cultivars belonged to pattern j, only about two percent belonged to pattern k. 4. The geographical distribution of frequency of pattern j between wild and cultivated soybean was most close in 36每51º N area. The difference of zymograms between G. soja and G. max, and the problems of the origional area and evolution of soybean were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 2199)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Nitrogen Nutrition Level on Photosynthesis of Wheat Under Rapid Water Stress
Author: Xue Qing-Wu and Chen Pei-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(7)
      
    Effects of nitrogen (N) nutrition level on photosynthesis of wheat were studied using method of quick drying of detached leaves, under rapid water stress. The results showed that in the case, leaf water potential (朵w), net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (Gs) of high N (HN) leaves decreased more quickly than that of low N (LN) leaves. Therefore, the difference of Pn between HN and LN leaves became less and less with increasing water stress. Under severe water stress, the Pn of HN leaves were lower than that of LN leaves. The intercellular concentration of CO2 (Ci) of HN leaves were lower than that of LN leaves, and the value of stomatal limitation of photosynthesis (Ls) of HN leaves were higher during rapid water stress. However, the mesophllous conductance of CO2 (Gm) and photosynthetic activity of mesophyll of HN leaves were still higher than that of LN leaves.
Abstract (Browse 1861)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of Al3+ on Ca2+-ATPase Activity on Chloroplasts of Rice and Relation to Calmodulin
Author: Liu Hou-tian and Hao Lu-ning
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(7)
      
    The relationship between aluminium phytotoxicity and calmodulin has been studied with. calcium-dependent ATPase in chloroplasts of rice. This enzyme could be activated by extrinsic calmodulin. It showed that the activity of Ca2+-ATPase in chloroplasts was regulated by calmodulin. The activation of calmodulin to the enzyme might be inhibited by calmodulin antagonists, TFP and CPZ. The effects of A13+ on the activation of calmodulin was similar to that of the calmodulin antagonists. Calcium could reduce the inhibition of aluminiutn. It seems that there is a model of toxic responses in plants to aluminium: Al3+↙calmodulin↙target enzy mes↙metabolism.
Abstract (Browse 1936)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies of Seedling Inoculation of Frankia in Elaeagnus mollis Diels
Author: Du Da-zhi, Yuan Fu-hu, Zhao Fa-you, He Gui-xi and Li Rong-er
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(7)
      
    The research on the preparation of Frankia solution, seedling culture and inoculation was carried out. Results indicated that the collective amount of cells may be increased when the logarithm phase cells were used as the inoculum and regularly homogenizing and transplanting inoculum by the method of magnetic stirring were adopted during the cultural process of Frankia. The inoculative tests verified that the strain with the highest ability to infect Elaeagnus mollis Diels is SIB 1301118 isolated from Elaeagnus angustifolia L. other than SIB 1332281 isolated from Elaeagnus mollis Diels. The effectivities of inoculation for germinating seeds and the seedlings to be transplanted were seed soaking and root soaking in Frankia solution preparel respectively. Early inoculation was beneficial to the growth and nodulation of seedings. The fefectivity of late inoculation was bad. Sand-soil mixture (2:1) was properly suitable to the seed germination and seedling growth. The seedling growth and nodulative rate could be promoted when 1/4 Sileris-Yong nutrient solution was suppplimented regularly.
Abstract (Browse 2173)  |  Full Text PDF       
酴輛貌 Electron Microscopic Observation of Symbiotic Relationship Between Azolla and Anabaena During the Megaspore Germination and the Sporeling Development of Azolla
Author: Zheng Wei-wen, Lin Yong-hui, Lin Yi-han, Lu Pei-ji, Liu Zhong-zhu and Huang Jin-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(7)
      
    The process of establishing symbiotic relationship of Anabaena azollae with its host during the megaspore germination and sporeling development was examined using electron microscope. The observations revealed that most of the Anabaena spores were primarily adhered to the hair cells arisen from the sporeling subsequently introduced into the cavity of the 1st true leaf by the hair ceils. Following the sporeling development, the Anabaena spores were migrated to the newly developing cavities and the branch apex in the same way. The pattern of germination of the Anabaena spore is similar to that of free-living cyanobacteria. Germinating Anabaena spores were only found at shoot apex region and the cavities of the sporeling, 92% of them being onto or near the hair cells which exhibit the ultrastructural characteristics of the transfer cell. The results suggested that Anabaena spore might get the chemical signal stimulating germination or the substance supporting cell multiplication from the host. Some of vegetative cells derived from the Anabaena spore were differentiated in to nitrogen-fixing heterocysts within the cavity. This means that the new generation of the symbiosis between Anabaena and Azolla has begun.
Abstract (Browse 2005)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation of Blue-Green Algal Spheroplasts by Penicillin-Lysozyme Method
Author: Guo Hou-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(7)
      
    Osmotic stabilizer used in present study consists of eight compounds, i.e. ammonium sulfate, ammonium tertrate, KH2PO4, sodium citrate, NH4NO3, NaNO3, KC1 and NaCl. Each of them was dissolved in to 0.5 mol then eight solutions were mixed in equal volume. A menbrane stabilizer CaC12(0.1%) was added to the mixed solution. The pH of the mixed solution was about 6.2. Blue-green algal trichomes for the spheroplast isolation were first treated with penicillin. Penicillin dosage and treating time were different according to different materials. After penicillin procedure, the materials were then treated with lysozyme (0.2%). Temperature of the treatment was 28每30⊥, Spheroplast production started in 15 minutes after treatment and finished in 3 hours. The spheroplasts remained a chain form mostly and became single spheroi. d through centrifugation and resuspension. The spheroplasts were typical spherical, more transparent and sensitive to hypotonic condition or mechanical treatment.
Abstract (Browse 1880)  |  Full Text PDF       
Production of Virus-tree Nucellar Plantlets from Unfertilized Ovules of Citrus in vitro
Author: Gao Feng, Chen Jie-zhoug, Chen Shan-chun, Zhang Jin-ren and Wu An-ren
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(7)
      
    On a series of Murashige and Tucker (MT) media supplemented with different growth regulators, the 8-week-old unfertilized ovules of Washington navel orange (Citrus sinensis) were able to regenerate perfect plantlets via somatic embryogenesis or organogenesis. The sorts and combinations of exogenous hormones had remarkable effects on the induction, growth and differentiation of its callus. It was found that the most suitable induction medium was MT medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BA and 0.5mg/l 1AA. The most suitable differentiation medium was MT medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l IBA. It was proved by indicator plant examination that the nucellar plantlets free of citrus exocortis virus (CEV) and citrus tristeza virus (CTV) had been obtained from infected trees.
Abstract (Browse 2076)  |  Full Text PDF       
An Ultrastructural Study on Pollen Protoplasts and Pollen Tubes Germinated From Them in Gladiolus gandavensis
Author: Wu Yan and Zhou Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(7)
      
    Large quantities of protoplasts were isolated enzymatically from the mature pollen grains in Gladiolus gandavensis. Regeneration of cell wall and germination of pollen tubes were performed during culture of purified pollen protoplasts in Ks medium supplemented with 32% sucrose, 0.1 mg/1 2,4-D, 1 mg/1 NAA and 0.2 mg/1 6-BA, with a germination rate up to 47.7%. The materials were fixed gently with gradually increasing concentration of glutaraldehyde, followed by osmium, then preembedded in a thin layer of agar and surveyed under an inverted microscope so as to select desired specimens for subsequent procedure. Small agar blocks containing specimens were dehydrated through ethanal-propylene oxide series, embedded in Araldite and ultratomed. Electron microscopic observations show that the pollen protoplasts are surrounded by a smooth plasma membrane and with ultrastructurally intact cytoplasm, a vegetative nucleus and a generative cell. After 8h of culture, wall regeneration commences resulting in a multilayered, fibrillar wall structure which is different from the intine. No exine is formed. Numerous vesicles participate actively in the wall formation. The wall is uneven in thickness around its periphery; a thickened area somewhat resembling to germ furrow is formed, from which pollen tube emerges. The tubes contain abundant plastids, mitochondria and dictyosomes. Vesicles are released out of the plasma membrane and involved in tube wall formation. After 18h of culture, the vegetative nucleus and generative cell have migrated into the tube. Technical points of preparing pollen protoplast specimens for ultastructural studies and the fearnres of wall regeneration in pollen protoplast culture are discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1902)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Studies on Embryology in Fritillaria ussuriensis Maxim
Author: Li Yu-fen and Shen Jia-heng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(7)
      
    The development of the anther wall follows Basic-type. The cytokinesis at the time of pollen mother cell meiosis conforms to successive type. The arrangement of the microspores in the tetrad is referred to isobilateral. The primary wall between the generative cell and the vegetative cell is callose. The callose wall is easily detected under the fluorescence microscope. The mature pollen grain is 2-celled type. The ovule is bitegminous, tenui-nucellar and anatropous. The development of the female gametophyte follows Fritillaria-type. The mature embryo sac. consists of the six cells including the seven nuclei. The fertilization is referred to the premitotic syngamy type. The fusion of the female and male nucleoli is not observed at the end of the fertilization. The division of the primary endosperm nucleus is earlier than that of the zygote. The development of the endosperm is referred to nuclear type. The division of the zygote is transverse of longitudinal, the development of the embryo conforms to Onagradtype. When the seed is mature, the embryo is at the proembryo stage without differentiation and the endosperm cells are not absorbed.
Abstract (Browse 2024)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Chemical Constituens of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (With Black seed Coat)
Author: Cai Jun, Zhu Zhao-yi and Liu Yong-Iong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(7)
      
    Five compounds were first isolated from the legumes of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. var. utilis (Wall. ex Wight) Baker ex Burck (M. atrocarpum Metcalf) with black seed coat. They were identified as L-dopa, stizolamine, D-erythro-neopterin, 6-hydroxymethylpterin and isoxanthopterin.
Abstract (Browse 2088)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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