August 1990, Volume 32 Issue 8

 

          Research Articles
Karyotype Analyses in Cupressus gigantea
Author: Liang Hong-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(8)
      
    The chromsomal number and karyotype of Cupressus gigantea Cheng et L. K. Fu is reported for the first time. The number of somatic chromosome in root tip cell of the species was found to be 2n=22. According to the terminology defined by Levan et al, the karyotype is 2n=22= 4m(SC)+16m+2sm, belonging to Stebbin's "A" type of karyotypic symmetry which is generally considered as primitive one. By comparing karyotypes of Cupressus gigantean with other four species of Cupressaceae, the author discovered that Cupressus gigantea is a primitive species in Cupressaceae.
Abstract (Browse 1905)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Micropaleoflora Features from Middle Carbonate Rock Formation of Jiezha Group in South Qinghai
Author: Ji Liu-xiang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(8)
      
    The micropaleoflora from the Middle Carbonate Rock Formation of Jiezha Group has been firstly studied in this paper. The abundance sporopollen and variform acritarch characterizing the formation contain 62 genera and 91 species, in which 20 gen. and 31 sp. belong to sporopollen, 42 gen and 60 sp. acritarch. Among them one is affinis, twelve conformis and five species, in addition, four species indeterminata. The sporopollen assemblage is consisted of the dominant gymnospermous pollen of 49.0% in the amount, spore 18.8% and acritarch 32.2%. In detail, the spore is mainly made from Punctatisporites, Apiculatisporis, Marattisporites, the pollen Pinaceae, Ovalipollis, Cycadopites and a few Chordasporites, Taeniaesporites, the acritarch Hystrichosphaeridium, Micrhystridiura, Favososphaeridium, besides Leiofusa Quadratimorpha, Scolecodonts, Taenitum, Lignum and so on. The geological time is middle upper Triassic. The Carbonate Rock Formation is composed of a suite of the epicontinental sedimentary strata being 1303 m thickness and formed in the stably olepositional enviroment. The region should, then, lie in the shore of Paleomediterranean sea or near the geosyncline round the Pacific. Based on the abundance gymnospermous spore fron Jiezha Group, the climate at that time should be humid torrid or subtorrid zone marine.
Abstract (Browse 1917)  |  Full Text PDF       
Nutrient Dynamics in the Litter-Fall and Forest Floor of Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest and Pinus yunnanensis Forest in Central Yunnan
Author: Liu Wen-yao, Jing Gui-fen and He Ai-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(8)
      
    The quantity of litter-fall and the standing crop of H sublayer in the forest floor of evergreen broad-leaved forest were higher than that of Pinus yunnanensis forest. The quantity of the forest floor changed with the quantity of litter-fall, and thera was a dynamic equilibrium between the litter-fall and forest floor. The content of nutrient elements of the forest floor was higher than that of litter-fall in both types. The order of nutrient element content in the forest floor differed from that in litter-fall. In the evergreen broad-leaved forest, the order was N > Ca > Si>K>Mg>Al>P>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu,and in Pinus yunnanensis forest it was Ca>N>Si>K>Al>Mg >Fe>P>Mn>Zn>Cu. But the order of nutrient element content in the forest floor had changed: in evergreen broad-leaved forest it was Si > N > Al > Ca > Fe > K>Mg>P>Mn>Zn>Cu, the Pinus yunnanensis forest it was Si > AI>N>Ca>Fe>K>M>P>Mn>Zn>Cu. With increase in the intensity of litter decomposition Ash, Si and Al had obviously increased, N, Fe, P and K had also increased in varying degrees, but there was some reduction in Ca, Zn and Mg. The ratio of carbon and nitrogen in litter decreased' with increase in litter decomposition.
Abstract (Browse 1862)  |  Full Text PDF       
ATP Determination of Parend Seedlings as Method to Evaluate the Heterosis of Rice
Author: Yang Fu-yu, Xing Qing-ru, Chen Wen-wen and Zhang Jing-pu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(8)
      
    By bioluminescent assay the ATP content of rice seedings homogenate of parents, which produce a heterotic or nonheterotic hybrid, was determined. It was found that the sum of ATP content of parents, which produce a heterotic hybrid was >2.0 ℅ 10-6 mmoles/g seedlings homogenate, while that of parents of nonheterotic hybrids was <2.0℅10-6 mmoles/g seedlings homogenate. This method has been applied to evaluate the heterosis of 15 rice crosses in vitro. Results indicated that 14/15 of the experimental subjects were in coincidence with the above-mentioned findings.
Abstract (Browse 1778)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regeneration from Protoplasts of Soybean (Glycine max L.)
Author: Luo Xi-ming, Zhao Gui-lan and Jian Yu-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(8)
      
    Protoplasts were isolated enzymatically from immature cotyledons of soybean. The protoplasts divided to form calli in the K8P liquid medium. The calli further grew to 2每3 mm on the solid K8 medium and were transferred onto the MSB medium (MS minerals+B5 organic components+0.5每1.0 mg/l 2,4-D+0.2每0.5 mg/l BA) to obtain compact and nodular calli. Shoot formation was initiated on M1 medium (MSB medium with 0.15 mg/1 NAA, and BA, KT and ZT, 0.5 mg/l of each, 500 mg/1 CH). Differentiation frequency was 13.6每24.2%. Plants have been regenerated from protoplasts of immature cotyledons in 2 cultivars, and normal pods were obtained from them.
Abstract (Browse 1804)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Active Changes of GA3 and Cytokinins During Development and Ripening in Seabuckthorn Fruits
Author: Zhang Wei, Zhang Hui, Deng Xue-zhen,Yao Hui-fen,Du Chang-you and Li You-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(8)
      
    The phenological stages in seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. Subsp. sinensis Rousi and H. thibetana Schlechted) distributed naturally over an area of Wushao ridge were observed. The changes in levels of endogenous phytohormones GA3, iPA, zeatin, IAA and ABA were investigated systematically during development and ripening periods in the two sorts of fruits. The results showed that two peak values of GA3 level in seeds were detected (in 105〞109 days and 128--132 days after anthesis). The first peak value of isopentenyl adenine (IPA) in seeds was determined in 92--96 days when the fruit was starting to change its colour and just right now the zeatin first appeared. The iPA content reached the second peak value in 127-136 days after anthesis during fruit full ripening and beginning to deciduous leaf and the maximum of zeatin in seeds appeared near the same time (in 127 days after anthesis). It was remarkable that the zeatin content in fruit stalk and flesh still was kept on high level, in the meantime the zeatin level in seeds dropped down rapidly. Based on the facts that the time of the first peak value in GA3 and iPA level is close to the date when ABA is first detected, and the date of second peak value in GA3, iPA and IAA is coincident with the time of maximum in ABA and zeatin levels make it reasonable to consider that the balance of phytohormones may be more important than absolute amounts of any single hormone during the periods of fruit development and ripening, and meanwhile it also proved that GA3 and CTK play an important regulatory role in controlling fruit ripening and colour changing process of seabuckthorn fruit.
Abstract (Browse 2002)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Stem Tissue Culture and Organgenesis of Aloe vera
Author: Gui Yao-lin, Xu Ting-yu, Gu Shu-rong, Liu Shu-qiong,Zhang Zhao,Sun Guo-dong and Zhang Qi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(8)
      
    tem segments of Aloe vera were cultured on MS medium with different hormones and successfully regenerated into a large number of plantlets via callus-globoid-adventitious bud. In application of various cytokinins, the effect of zeatin on organgenesis was better than kinetm and the enhanced effect was apparent when NAA was combined with zeatin or kinetin on MS medium. The best results were obtained on the medium with zeatin 2ppm+NAA 0.5ppm. With scanning electron microscope and histocytological method the observation showed that the globoid which is a cell mass with hollow on the top originated from the surface of callus. After differentiation of scale primordium twice, the primordium of adventitious bud was formed between scale primordia. Finally, the adventitious bud was developed into plantlet. Therefore the globid can be considered as a proliferation unit producing adventitious bud.
Abstract (Browse 2257)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effect of BA upon the Amount of Pchlide and NPR protein and the Activity of NPR in Cucumber Cotyledons
Author: Chen Ru-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(8)
      
    When cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Aonagajibai) were treated with aqueous solution of BA (10每5mol/1 and 10每8mol/l) by spraying application, the amount of NPR protein was increased and the NPR activity was promoted. The contents of protochlorophyl, lide (Pchlide) and NADPH as the substrates of the enzyme reaction, were also increased remarkably. 2. The amount of Pchlide and NPR protein decreased rapidly when treated with red light. BA plays the role in the protection against the damage of enzyme activity by light and then decreasing the destruction of NPR protein. BA increased the content of Pchlide and NADPH, so the NPR activity was maintained at a higher level although in light condition. 3. Because that BA increased the content of NPR protein and the reaction substrate such as NADPH and Pchlide, the NPR activity was promoted. So, the rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis was rapid, and the content of chlorophyll increased. The leaf turns to dark green.
Abstract (Browse 1957)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Changes of Cell Ultrastructure in the Course of Seed Germination of Bletilla striata Under Fungus Infection Conditions
Author: Guo Shun-xing and Xu jin-tang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(8)
      
    Aided by the techniques of ultrathin section and electron microscopy, the changes of cell ultrastructure of seed germination of Bletilla striata was investigated. It was found that the seeds of B. striata were germinated easily among Orchidaceae, the large thin-wall cells of embryo contained a great amount of starch and lipid materials which were nutrients of seed germination. The differentiation and growth of the nutritive organ of B. striata would be accelerated after fungus infection. Fungus could penetrate seed coat in cell interstice, invadedㄛ embryo through suspensor, and interspersed in several layers of embryonic ceils. Cytoplasm and organelles of embryo would disappear after the cells infected by fungus, and then endocytic plasmalemma produces some sacs enclosing and digesting hyphae. The hyphae with its tip inflation, relying on expansion-pressure of its cytoplasm, could penetrate cell wall of embryo. In addition, after invasion hyphae wall was significantly thickened by the deposition of the embryonic cytoplasm. In the end, the hyphae would be wholly collapsed and its degradated materials were used as nutrient for germination. The cells without penetration' by hyphae show vigrous metabolism activity in protocorms.
Abstract (Browse 1870)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Expression of CAT Gene in Transgenic Tomato Plant
Author: Chen Dan, Mi Jing-jiu, Xie You-ju,Liu Chun-qing,Pan Nai-sui and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(8)
      
    Bacterial CAT gene .with the 35S promoter of CaMV was transferred into leaf discs of cultivar Lycopersicon esculentum 462 with the help of Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium turnefaciens. These leaf discs were placed on MS salt and B5 vitamine medium containing kanamycin and carbenicillin. Several kinds of phytohormones were chosen in the medium, and it was found that zeatin and NAA have great effects on shooting and rooting. Transgenic tomato plants showed their normal flowering and fruiting. Leaves of these transgenic tomato plants were used for assaying the gene expression. Resuits of Southern Blot showed that the CAT gene was stably integrated into the genome of transgenic plants, The bacterial CAT, proteins were also detected, in transgenic tomato leaves with immunoreaction of CAT antibody. The methods presented here for culturing transformed tomato ceils will be a great help for transfering economically important genes into cultivars of tomato plants in China.
Abstract (Browse 2078)  |  Full Text PDF       
Protoplasts Culture and Plant Regeneration of Soybean (Glycine max L. and G. soja)
Author: Wei Zhi-ming and Xu Zhi-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(8)
      
    Protoplasts were isolated enzymatically from immature cotyledons of soybean. The protoplasts divided to form calli in the K8P liquid medium. The calli further grew to 2每3 mm on the solid K8 medium and were transferred onto the MSB medium (MS minerals+B5 organic components+0.5每1.0 mg/l 2,4-D+0.2每0.5 mg/l BA) to obtain compact and nodular calli. Shoot formation was initiated on M1 medium (MSB medium with 0.15 mg/1 NAA, and BA, KT and ZT, 0.5 mg/l of each, 500 mg/1 CH). Differentiation frequency was 13.6每24.2%. Plants have been regenerated from protoplasts of immature cotyledons in 2 cultivars, and normal pods were obtained from them.
Abstract (Browse 1925)  |  Full Text PDF       
Nuclear Divisions of Isolated, In Vitro Cultured Generative Cells in Hemerocallis minor Mill
Author: Wu Xin-li and Zhou Chang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(8)
      
    The generative cells isolated from pollen grains of Hemerocallis minor Mill. were cultured in modified Ks and MS agarose media surrounded by liquid media containing anthers as a feeder. Microscopical observations on a total of 5961 cells revealed that nuclear divisions occured leading to the formation of 2每4 nuclei within one cell. The average induction frequency among 14 culture experiments was 3.27% and the 11.46% as the highest. The generative cells varied considerably from spindle, oval to spherical shape. Among them the spherical cells appeared easier to be triggered. There were equal and unequal first nuclear divisions with almost equal chance of their occurence. A few of the cellspassed through the second nuclear division, producing 3--4 nucleate cells. Cytokinesis resulting in 2-celled structures seemed to be induced in rare cases. This is the first experimental attempt to culture isolated generative cells and the results show the potential of free generative cells surviving and developing under In Vitro conditions.
Abstract (Browse 1751)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Chemical Constituents from Podocarpus imbricatus
Author: Gu Yun-long, Xu Ya-ming, Fang Sheng-ding and He Qi-min
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(8)
      
    Ten compounds were isolated from the leaves and barks of Podocarpus imbricatus BI (Podocarpaceae) for the first time. They are identified as 汕-sitosterol(1), daucosterol(2), sequoyitol (3) sandaracopimaric acid (4), trans-communic acid(5), cis-communic acid (6), heveaflavone (7), amentoflavone-7,7∪-dimethyl ether(8), imbricataflavone A(9), and imbri-cataflavone B(10), by means of spectral analysis, comparison of physico-chemical data and through chemical methods. 9 and 10 are new compounds.
Abstract (Browse 2410)  |  Full Text PDF       
Three New Steroidal Alkaloids from Pachysandra axillaris
Author: Qiu Ming-hua, Nie Rui-lin, Li Zhong-rong and Zhou Jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(8)
      
    This paper describes the chemical structure elucidation of the three new alkaloids isolated from Pachysandra axillarls Franch. They are pachysamine G (20汐-dimethylamino-3汕-tigloylamino-5汐-pregnane), pachysamine H (20汐-dimethylamino-3汐-N-methyl, benzoylamino-5汐-pregnane) and pachysanaximine A (20 汐-dimethylamino-3汕-methylamino-4汕-benzoxyl-5汐-pregnane) respectively. Other two compounds were identified as Pachysamine A, B.
Abstract (Browse 1975)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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