September 1990, Volume 32 Issue 9

 

          Research Articles
A Study on the Alkaloidal Components from Delphinium gyalanura Marq. et Shaw
Author: Wang Feng-peng and S. W. Pelletier
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(9)
      
    From the roots of Delphinium gyalanum Marq. et Shaw native to China, a pair of new regioisomeric diterpenoid alkaloids as a mixture, named gyalanine A and B, was isolated whose structures were shown to be 4 and 5, respectively, on the basis of spectral data. The known diterpenoid alkaloids, delsemine A(1) and B(2), methyllycaconitine (3) and lycoctonine, were also obtained.
Abstract (Browse 1830)  |  Full Text PDF       
C-Banding Analysis for the Complement of Triploid Torreya grandis
Author: Chen Ke-yong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(9)
      
    The complement of triploid Torreya grandis was stained with the conventional and C-banding methods. The fundamental karyotype of each monoploidy set is similar to diploid plant indicating their autotriploid nature. The only C-band which located on the positions of secondary constrictions of the three homologous chromosomes showed different size. Therefore, the complement of triploid Torreya grandis may be arisen as a result of fusion between the female diploid and the male haploid.
Abstract (Browse 1997)  |  Full Text PDF       
Morphological Studies on Pterophyllum guizhouense sp. nov. and P. astartense Harris from the Late Triassic of Guizhou, China
Author: Wang Yu-fei and Chen Ye
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(9)
      
    The morphological characters of Pterophyllum guizhouense sp. nov. were reported and those of P. astartense Harris were supplied and emended. Meanwhile, the significance of cuticle characters chosen in the identification of fossil plants was also discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1895)  |  Full Text PDF       
Bryoflora of the Alpine Tundra of Changbai Mountain and Its Floristic Relationship to the Bryofloras of Arctic Tundras
Author: Qian Hong and Gao Qian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(9)
      
    The alpine tundra of Changbai Mountain is situa,ed in 41º53∩每42º04∩N, 127º57∩每128º11∩E and at elevations ranging from 1950(2000) 每2749.2 m. There are 67 genera and 135 species of bryophytes in the alpine tundra, belonging to following five distribution types (DT): Cosmo-politan DT (50 genera, 29 species), North Temperate DT (14, 79), Eastern Asian-North American Discontinuous DT (1, 1), Eurasian Temperate DT (1, 10), Eastern Asian DT (1, 16). The alpine tundra of Changbai Mountain shares 55 genera and 103 species of bryophytes with arctic tundras.
Abstract (Browse 2045)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ent-Kaurene Diterpenoids from Rabdosia eriocalyx
Author: Shen Xiao-yu,Sun Han-dong, Akira Isogai and Akinori Suzuki
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(9)
      
    Two new named maoecrystal F(1) and G(2) and seven known ent-kaurene diterpenoids were isolated from the leaves of Rabdosia eriocalyx (Dunn) Hara collected at Xundian County, Yunnan Province, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. Maoecrystal F and G are elucidated as ent-7汐, 15汐-dihydrooxyl- l汕,6汐-diacetoxyl-7汕, 20-epoxy-16-kaurene (1) and ent-7汐,15汐-dihydroxyl-6汐-ace-toxyl-7汕, 20-epoxy-16-kaurene(2), respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1823)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Structure of Parvifolinoic Acid Isolated from Leaves of Isodon parvifolia
Author: Guo Yue-wei,Cheng Pei-yuan and Xu Guang-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(9)
      
    Eleven compounds were isolated from the leaves of lsodon parvifolia (Batalin) Hara. On the basis of spectral analysis and chemical methods, crystal l was identified as a new compound, named parvifolinoic acid; Crystals m每r were identified as stearic acid (m), 汕-sito- sterol (n), daucosterol (o), olenoic acid (p), ursoric acid (q), 2汐-hydroxy-ursoric acid (r) respectively. Primary pharmacology tests showed that crystal l had inhibitory effect against QGY-7703.
Abstract (Browse 1758)  |  Full Text PDF       
Freezing Tolerance, Pigments and SOD of Five Conifers in Shenyang
Author: Jin Yue-hua, Tao Da-li and Du Ying-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(9)
      
    Cultivated Picea koraiensis Nakai, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litvin, P. koraiensis Sieb et Zuce, P. tabulaeformis Carr. and P. bungeana Zucc. were studied. Changes in chlorophylls carotenoids contents, SOD activities and iso-zymograms were monitored for the needles of the 5 evergreen conifers and related to their freezing tolerance during winter of 1.987每1988 in Shenyang. It shows that the chlorophylls were degradated to various extent in the winter while the carotenoids were still synthesized during the soil-frozen period. SOD activities increased from July to November for all 5 conifers and the more tolerate the species, the higher the SOD activities during winter. The results suggest that SOD possibly has important contribution to freezing tolerance besides protecting the needles from winter photooxidation. SOD iso-zymograms and their variation showed differance among species as well, but it is hard to draw a generalized conclussion.
Abstract (Browse 2075)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Changes of Ethylene Production and CaM Content in IAA-Treated Etiolated Mungbean Hypocotyl
Author: Liu Yu, Wu You-mei, Xu Yi-iun and Zhou Xie
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(9)
      
    When the segments of etiolated mungbean hypocotyl were treated with IAA it was observed that the contents of CaM in tissue which were determined by ELISA and ethylene production were increased with increasing the concentration of IAA. The time course of CaM content change was also similar to that of ethylene production. Some inhibitors, including CPZ, TFP, and CHI, inhibited both increased ethylene production and CaM content by IAA treatment. The activity of ACC synthase and EFE were inhibited by CPZ. Both of IAA-induced ethylene production and CaM content were affected by the level of Ca in segments as a result of pretreatment with EGTA, CaCI2 and H2O before the experiment. From these results it was suggested that the Ca and CaM play an important role in induction of ethylene production inmungbean hypocotyl by IAA.
Abstract (Browse 1822)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Simulation of Leaf Conductance Responses to Changes in Environmental Water Status
Author: Yang Shu-dong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(9)
      
    A simulation model of stomatal response to change of environmental water status was set up based on the works on the mechanism of stomatal movement. The variations of leaf conductance, water potential and turgot pressure in guard cells, subsidiary cells and the other cells or tissues in leaf with leaf-air vapour pressure difference and soil water potential have been calculated by our model. The calculated results fit very well with the data from experiments. The different patterns of leaf transpiration variation with the difference between leaf-air and vapour pressure can be explained quantitatively.
Abstract (Browse 1838)  |  Full Text PDF       
Feeding Position of Laccifer lucca on Dalbergia balansae and the Influence of Parasitism on Bark Structure
Author: Zhang Zhen-jue, Chen Zhong-ren, Lin Jin-yi, Zhang Yong-tian and Gao Xin-zeng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(9)
      
    When Laccifer lacca fed in the bark of Dalbergia balansae, the penetration in the bark by a stylet was mainly intracellular, seldom intercellular. Finally, the stylet arrived at the funtional sieve element, and fed in it. The tip of tt,e stylet was at a distance of 0.48每0.78 mm from the surface of periderm. 70.3% of the stylets fed in the zone of newly-differentiated sieve elements. The fed sieve element had P-protein and callose, and exhibited no serious reaction of injury. The parenchyma cells that were pierced through by the stylet and the neighbouring cells Lad obvious reaction of injury, such as: thickened cytoplasm and plasmolysed; dark stained nuclei; smaller starch grains and intracellular deposition of concentrated golden material. The stylet that pierced through the bark was encircled by a stylet sheath consisted of proteins. The stylet sheath looked like a string of beads as a whole. Branching stylet sheath was observed. Some branches even reached far into the xylem, but the stylet finally reached the sieve element. At the same time, the stylet might penetrate through many sieve elements, finally reach newly-differentiated sieve elements. These results suggest that feeding of Laccifer lacca was a process of initiative choice. Two years after collecting shellac by means of skinning instead of cutting the branch, tb.e stylets and styler sheaths still remained in the bark. Several layers of ceils around them were dead and fully imbued with yellow-brown material. Stylers and styler sheaths in the outer cortex were surrounded by bending phellogen and separated from the living cells, forming many cyst-like structures in the periderm. Such bark should not be further used for feeding.
Abstract (Browse 2194)  |  Full Text PDF       
Cytokinin-Regulated Tubulin Gene Expression in Excised Cucumber Cotyledons
Author: Peng Sheng-bin, Ma Mi. Tao Guo-qing and Lin Zhong-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(9)
      
    The expansion of excised cucumber cotyledons was induced by the treatment of 10 ppm of 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) in dark. The elongation and division of cells in this cotyledon are related to the activation of microtubules. The cDNAs of 汐- and 汕-tubulin from mouse and Physarum polycephalurn were used as probes to detect the transcriptional regulation of tubulin genes in the expanding cotyledons treated with 6-BA. The expression of mbulin genes has also Lcen analyzed at the translational level by Western blot and ELISA with antibody against tubulin purified from chicken brain. The results showed that genes encoding two subunits of tubulin in excised cucumber cotyledons were rapidly activated by cytokinin 6-BA at both transcriptional and translational levels. It implied that tubulin increasement was involvedin the cytokinin-induced expansion of excised cucumber cotyledons.
Abstract (Browse 2041)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Structural Changes of the Basal Region of Wheat Proembryo in Relation to Nurture Absorption
Author: Zhang Wei-cheng, Yan Wen-mei, Shan Shuang-jian and Gao Xiao-yan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(9)
      
    There are some cellular fail and degeneration in the parietal area of the basal region of developing wheat proembryo. Electron microscopic studies reveal that the envelopment of peripheral wall to the proembryo is partly ruptured in this area and the disassembled protoplasm of the degenerated cells mixes with the disintegrated constituents of adjacent endosperm cells. Hence, in the limited area a direct communication between the inner surviving proembryo cells and the surrounding medium is established. A number of ectodesma-like plasmodesmata and open channels appear at the boundary wall, various nutrients may enter the proembryo via symplastic pathway or by endocytosis. The surrounding macromolecules (disassembled nuclei, mitochondria, cytoplasmic granules and vesicles packed with fibrils) appear to traverse across the wall continually, and it seems that this is'an important mode of nurture translocation. Also, within the proembryo some of the densely distributed plasmodesmata undergo modification and become fully opened for macromolect, les traversing, which is in favor of re-distribution of cell contents amongst proembryo cells. Presumably, the structural changes occurred in the basal region is a special kind of differentiation which results in function of this local area as apparatus of nurture absorption. Evidently, it would enhance the incorporation of external materials into the proembryo, and then the normal proliferation, development and differentiation of proembryo cells would be ensured.
Abstract (Browse 1905)  |  Full Text PDF       
Fluorescence Microscopic Observations on Actin Filament Distribution in Corn Pollen and Gladiolus Pollen Protoplasts
Author: Zhou Chang, Yang Hong-yuan and Xu Shi-xiong (S. Y. Zee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(9)
      
    Actin filament (AF) distribution in Zea mays pollen and Gladiolus gandavensis pollen protoplasts was localized by FITC conjugated phalloidin fluorescence microprobe. The pollen was incubated in Brewbaker and Kwack (BK) medium, and the pollen protoplasts were isolated enzymatically and cultured in K3 medium containing various supplements by a previously reported method. Samples were fixed for 30 min with 1.5% paraformaldehyde dissolved in 0.1 mol/1 phosphate buffer (pH 7), half strength of BK elements, 1 mol/1 EGTA and sucrose, stained for 30每60 min with 1 米g/ml FITC-phalloidin in the buffer solution, and observed by a fluorescence microscopy. In hydrated corn pollen grains, the AFs constituted an irregular network. Prior to germination a part of the pollen grains showed polarized pattern of Afs. At the opposite pole to the germ pore, there was a center from which AF bundles radiated and converged toward the pore, often making a spindle-shaped configuration. In just isolated gladiolus pollen protoplasts, the AFs appeared as irregular fine network. After 4每7h of culture, the AF distribution coincided in some cases with the unevenly regenerated new wall area as exhibited by FITC-phalloidin and Calcofluor White ST double staining, indicating a possible involvement of AF in wall synthesis. After 17每18 h of culture, a part of the pollen protoplasts went on germination. The AFs became polarized in such protoplasts and converged into the tubes produced, and ran longitudinally along the tubes just like in the tubes germinated from pollen grains. However, in ungerminated pollen protoplasts, the AFs behaved abnormalty, showing various irregular arrangements. When protoplasts bursted, the actin aggregates often located at the protrusion site from which the protoplasts would burst, and were discharged into the medium. In neither corn pollen nor gladiolus pollen protoplasts AFs were observed within the generative or sperm cells.
Abstract (Browse 2264)  |  Full Text PDF       
Anomalous Frame of Vessels in the Roots of Aconitum spp.
Author: Li Ming and Feng Yu-xiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1990 32(9)
      
    This paper reports the discovery about a kind of special frame structures consisting of anomalous vessels in the roots from 35 species and varieties of Aconitum. The vessel elements link together assuming the erect, slant and horizontal forms and construct the frame conduit system with certain angles. The results were found by the authors through the histological studies including especially the longitudinal observations in the roots.
Abstract (Browse 1875)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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