January 1991, Volume 33 Issue 1

 

          Research Articles
Chemical Studies on the Essential Oils of Foeniculum vulgare
Author: Zhao Shu-ping,Cong Pu-zhu, Quan Li-hui and Li Chong-jiu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(1)
      
    Twenty seven chemical constituents of oils from sweet leaves, flowers and fruits of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. are examined by GC and GC-MS with both different chromatographic columns. They are 1,1-diethoxyethane, -thujene, -pinene, camphene, sabinene, -pinene, myrcene, - phellandrene, p-cymene, limonene, cineole, -terpinene, fenchone, camphor, terpinen-4-ol, -terpineol, estragole, verbenone, fenchol acetate, carveol, trans-fenchol acetate, carvone, anethole, anisaldehyde, trans-anethole, methoxyphenyl acetone and benzoic acid, 4-methoxy-, othylester. The limonene is 57.8% in the essential oil from leaves, 34.2% from flowers, 13.1% from fruits, The trans-anethole is 21.8% in the essential oil from leaves, 41.2% from flowers, 63.4% from fruits.
Abstract (Browse 1924)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Study on External Factors for Control of Leaf Water Potential of Apricots
Author: Teng Yuan-wen and Xu Ming-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(1)
      
    Diurnal changes of water potential in apricots were mainly controlled by 'changes of saturation vapour pressure deficit (VPD) (or relative humidity), air temperature and light intensity in a day. The daily minimum value of leaf water potential was determined by light intensity. During the course of a day, leaf water potential decreased gradually with increasing VPD and air temperature. Daily minimum value of leaf water potential was reached at a VPD of 4C7 mbars early in the growing season and 12C15 mbars late in the growing season, and at an air temperature of about 19 in the whole growing season. Thereafter leaf water potential stayed constantly until air temperature and VPD reached daily maximum value, at the same time, the minimum value of leaf water potential at the different parts of a shoot and a canopy showed no difference, if other conditions were the same. Plastic film cover and irrigation were able to increase soil water potential, but have few effects on leaf water potential.
Abstract (Browse 1767)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of the Spores from Ganoderma lucidum
Author: Chen Ruo-yun, Wang Ya-hong and Yu De-quan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(1)
      
    Six steroid compounds were isolated from the ethereal soluble fraction of the spores of Ganoderma lucidum. Based on their chemical properties and MS, UV, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral analysis, they were identified as ergosta-7,22-dien-3,5, 6-triol; ergosta- 7, 22-dien-3,5, 6-triol; ergosta-7, 9, 22-trien-3, 5, 6-triol; ergosterol palmitare; ergosta-4, 6, 8(14), 22-tetraen-3-one and ergosterol respectively.
Abstract (Browse 1973)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Rhodiola fastigita S. H. Fu
Author: Chen Jin-rui, Qiu Lin-gang, Lian Min,, Jiang Si-ping, Kang Yu, Ma Zhong-wu and He Guan-fu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(1)
      
    Rhodiola fastigita is an alpine plant growing at 3300--5400 m above sea level. Seven crystal, compounds were isolated from the rhizome of this plant. They were identified as - sitosterol, -sitosterol-3--D-galactoside, daucosterol, gallic acid, gallic acid ethyl ester, p-tyrosol and herbacetin-8-arabinoside by IR, MS, H-NMR and chemical method. Daucosterol, -sitosterol- 3--D-galactoside and gallic acid ethyl ester were obtained from the genus Rhodiola L. for the first time.
Abstract (Browse 2084)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on CCC Increasing the Drought Resistance in Peanut Seedlings
Author: Li Ling and Pan Rui-chi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(1)
      
    Under drought condition, the rate of permeability and water content of leaves of peanut, (Arachia hypogaea L.)seedlings can be reduced by CCG at concentrations of 75, 150 and 300' ppm. It is found that the 150 ppm CCC treatment increases the peroxidase activity and decreases the malondialdehyde (NDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. CCC treatment has accumulated the endogenous ABA content in the leaves of peanut seedlings grown in normal or drought condition, and the 150 ppm CCC treatment has shown better effect. The increasing drought stress of peanut seedlings after CCC treatment perhaps results from higher level of endogenous ABA, which leads to series of metabolic responses in peanut seedlings, and eventually increases the ability of drought resistance.
Abstract (Browse 1754)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Change of the Sulfhydryl Group and the Peroxidation of Membrane Lipids in the Cotyledons of Cucumber Seedlings Under Low Temperature
Author: Zeng Shao-xi, Wang Yi-rou and Liu Hong-xian
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(1)
      
    As the temperature declined, the content of sulfhydryl group decreased, the electrolyte leakage increased and there was a negative correlation between the decrease of sulfhydryl group and the increase of the MDA content in the cotyledons of cucumber seedlings. The decrease of the sulfhydryl group and the increase of the MDA content in cucumber seedlings were inhibited by sodium benzoate (SB) and -tocopherol (Vit E) pretreatment, but enhanced by methyl viologen (MV) pretreatment. The decrease of sulfhydryl group and the increase of electrolyte leakage in cucumber seedlings under Iow temperature were enhanced with the increasing of the MDA pretreated concentration, showed the MDA could have a destructive effect to sulfhydryl group. These results suggested that the decrease of sulfhydryl group was correlated with the peroxidation of the membrane lipids in cucumber seedlings under chilling stress.
Abstract (Browse 1827)  |  Full Text PDF       
Responses of Photosynthetic Rate and Stomatal Conductance to Water Stress in Soybean Leaves
Author: Sun Guang-yu, Zou Qi, Cheng Bing-song and Wang Tao
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(1)
      
    Responses of photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance to water stress as weI1 as the relationship between photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were investigated with soybean cultivars Ludou No. 4 and 7605. The former was a high yield cultivars widely used in Shandong province, and the latter was a small grain soybean line bred by Shandong Academy of Agricultural science. Soil water stress decreased leaf apparent photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance of two soybean cultivars, and Ludou No. 4 decreased more than 7605. At the same value of water potential, photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance of 7605 were higher than those of Ludou No,4,but the rate of stomatal closure for 7605 was higher than Ludou No. 4. Decreasing of stomatal conductance caused rising of leaf temperature of two soybean cultivars, and the rising of 7605 was more rapid than Ludou No. 4, but at the same treatment of water stress, leaf temperature of Ludou No. 4 was higher than 7605. Leaf water use efficiecy (WUE) of two soybean cultivars were decreased under water stress, and the rate of decreasing in Ludou No.4 was more rapid than in 7605. These results showed that 7605 was more resistant to water:stress than Ludou No. 4.
Abstract (Browse 2038)  |  Full Text PDF       
Plant Regeneration from Mesophyll Protoplasts of Astragalus tenuis
Author: An Li-jia, Luo Xi-ming, Li Xi-wen, Li Feng-xia,He Meng-yuan and Hao shui
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(1)
      
    Protoplasts were isolated from leaves of regenerated plantlets of Astragalus tenuis. Calli were formed from protoplasts cultured in modified K8p medium. After calli were transferred to differentiated medium plantlets were regenerated. The plantlets rooted on a rooting medium. No callus was able to be obtained when mesophyll protoplasts from regenerated plantlets were cultured in AY medium, nor when mesophyy protoplasts from seedlings were cultured in modified K8p or AY media. Lower concentrations of 2,4-D were favourable for callus formation and differentiation, while high concentrations of 2,4-D reduced the capacity of the callus growth and differentiation.
Abstract (Browse 1715)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on the Relation Between the Ultrastructure of Secretory Cells and Their Synthesis and Secretion of Lacquer in Laticiferous Canals of Rhus verniciflus
Author: Zhao Gui-fang and Hu Zheng-hai
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(1)
      
    Secretory cells of laticiferous canals contain many plastids and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in Rhus verniciflua. The electron microscopy suggests that osmiophiiic Lacquer component is mainly synthesized in the plastids and ER. They may be eliminated from the protoplasts to the space between the plasmalemma and the cell wall in three ways: (1) by ER elements, (2) by vesicles approaching the plasmalemma and fusing their membrances with the latter, and (3) by their becoming surrounded by plasmalemma invaginations, and then they traverse the wall through the channels of plasmodesmata which became disconnected during the schizogenous development of the canals and percolate through the wall that faded into an even looser mesh of fibrillar material toward the canal lumen. More or less, nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi bodies and ground cytoplasm also take part in the above-mentioned process.
Abstract (Browse 1829)  |  Full Text PDF       
Embryology of Astragalus mongholicus Bge.
Author: Tian Guo-wei and Shen Jia-heng
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(1)
      
    This paper describes the microsporogenesis and development of the male gametophyte, me gasporogenesis and development of the female gametophyte, the double fertilization and development of the embryo and endosperm in Astragalus mongholicus Bge., the main results are as follows: 1. The male archesporium differentiates from a series of cells under the epidermis of the anther. The microspore tetracls are tetrahedial and the cytokinesis of the microspore mother cells in meiosis is the simultaneous type. The development of anther walls conforms to the monocotyledonous type. The tapetum, of which each cell contains one or many calcium oxalate crystals and always remains uninucellate, is the secretory type. The mature pollen grain is the two-celled type. 2. It is of uniovary and of multiovule being bitegeminous, crassinucellate and campylotropous, and the development of the embryo sac conforms to the Polygonum type. The female archesporium differentiates from many cells under the subhypodermis of nucellus. The four megaspores that the first one, or the second one, or the third one towards the chalazal end is functional arrange in a line. The mature embryo sac has a caecum structure. 3. The pollen tube enters into embryo sac through a degenerated synergid. The double fertilization belongs to the premitotic type of syngamy. 4. The development of the embryo belongs to the Onagrad type and the development of the endosperm belongs to the nuclear type. The endosperm cells start to form during the stage of the globular proembryo. The phenomenon of free nuclei gathering and fusing in the end of the embryo sac, amitosis of free nuclei and fusing of many nuclei in anendosperm cell have been seen during the development of the endosperm.
Abstract (Browse 1774)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Glucosides from Swertia mussotii Franch
Author: Sun Hong-fa, Hu Bai-lin, Ding Jing-ye and Fan Shu-fen
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(1)
      
    Swertia mussotii Franch. is a herb used for treatment of liver disease in Qinghai-Tibcran Plateau folk. Further investigation on chemical constituents in aqueous extract of Swertia mussotii Franch. has been reported here. Seven compounds (, C) were achieved except mangiferin () isolated previously by a chromatograph. They belong in secoiridoids, flavonoids and xanthonoids, respectively. The structures of known compounds were identified as amarogentin(), swertisin(), 8-O--D-glucopyranosyl-1, 3, 5-trihydroxyxanthone() and 8-O--D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6)--D-glucopyranosyl)-I, 7-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone (). The structures of other three new compounds have been elucidated as 7-O--D-xylopy-ranosyl-1, 8-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone (), 7-O-[-L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1-2)--D-xylopyranosyl]-l,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone()and 3-O--D-glucopyranosy 1,8-dihydroxy-5-methoxyxanthone (), by means of the chemical and spectral methods. Mangiferin, amarogentin and 7-0- [-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-2)--D-xylopyranosyl]-l,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone are the principal glucosides in this plant.
Abstract (Browse 2164)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Novel Method Based on Etiolation for Increasing Efficiency of In Vitro Propagation of Populus tomentosa
Author: Chen Wei-lun, Yang Shan-ying and Guo Dong-hong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(1)
      
    This paper describes a novel method based on etiolation treatment for micropropagation of Populus tomentosa. It includes: (1) Antibiotic cefotaxime (2.5 ppm in nutrient medium) is used to inhibit bacteria growth and the cultures which have been contaminated after long period subculture are recovered by sterilization with 1/10000 HgCl2(w/v). (2)Low concentration of TDZ (thidiazuron, 0.005 ppm) replaces expensive zeatin for enhancing bud differentiation and multiplication of leaf explants. (3) Shoot elongation is promoted after etiolation treatment, which will increase the number of shoots suitable for rooting, about 50 etiolated shoots are obtained in a 100 ml flask, 35 times more than those produced in traditional method. (4) Etiolated shoots or after their greening are used as cuttings for rooting in vivo and over 90% survival rate could be achieved when the medium is sterilized. This method is labour and money saving and high efficient.
Abstract (Browse 2099)  |  Full Text PDF       
Gene Transfer into Protoplasts of Chinese Cabbage and Cucumber by Electroporation
Author: Xu Hua-qiang, Cai Guo-ping, Wu Yi, Zhao Nan-ming, Tang Hui-xian and Jia Shi-rong
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(1)
      
    A model system for gene electro-transfer into protoplasts of Chinese cabbage and cucumber was established by using calcein, FITC-IgG or ethidium bromide-plasmid DNA as fluorescent markers. Changes of permeability of protoplasts and it's kenetics during electroporation were investigated. The transfer efficiency (T) and survival rate (S) of protoplasts were found to be dependent on electric parameters (field strength, pulse number and pulse duration). The highest TS Value (TS) was obtained at 42.8ms 400V/cm for Chinese cabbage protoplasts and 4 2.8ms 300V/cm or 1 280ms 1000V/cm for cucumber protoplasts. The CAT gene was expressed in protoplasts of cucumber after introduction of pUC12-CAT plasmld by electroporation. Heat shock pretreatment (45, 10min) increased gene-transfer efficiency.
Abstract (Browse 1866)  |  Full Text PDF       
Visualization of Actin Filament Patterns in Pollen Tubes of Hosta caerulea Tratt. with a Non-Fixation and TRITC-Phalloidin Method
Author: Zhu Cheng, Li Chun-gui and Hu Shi-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(1)
      
    Actin filament patterns during pollen germination in Hosta caerulea Tratt. were visualized with a simple method in which there was no pre-fixation, with dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) as a permeabilising agent and staining with TRITC-Phalloidin. The cytoplasm of the vegetative cell of the ungerminated pollen grain contained numerous crystalline fusiform bodies to constitute a storage form of actin. These bodies were transferred to the emerging pollen tube after the germination of the pollen grain. Following the growth of pollen tube, the fusiform bodies were gradually dissociated, branched, slenderized and formed a cross-linked actin network. During the further growth of the pollen tube, the preponderance of longitudinally-oriented thin actin filaments with some anastomoses to form a more complex network present always in the long pollen tube. This was the typical pattern of actin filaments in most cases. In some conditions, actin filaments were assembled to form thick actin cables near the proximate part of the pollen tube tip. The branching and connecting of the cables were probably also seen in some parts. Actin filaments were always entering to the apical region of a tube tip. The significance of the non-fixation and fluorescence-phalloidin (FI-Ph) method and the problems in the future studies are discussed
Abstract (Browse 1951)  |  Full Text PDF       
Effects of IAA and BA on Tissue Differentiation of the Girdled Stem in Jerusalem Artichoke
Author: Xu Xin and Li Zheng-li (Lee Cheng-lee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(1)
      
    The stem of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) reacted variably when treated with IAA and BA after girdling. Formation of calli on the girdled surface of xylem was promoted but the production of periderm was retarded when it was treated with suitable concentrations of IAA and BA. However, the comparatively high concentrations of IAA and BA also accelerated the differentiation of callus into vascular tissues and eventually formation of new rind.
Abstract (Browse 1708)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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