October 1991, Volume 33 Issue 10


          Research Articles
Plant Regeneration and Transformation of Sweet Papper (Capsicum frutescens)
Author: Wang Yu-wen, Yang Mei-zhu, Pan Nai-sui and Chen Zhang-liang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(10)
    Three strains of sweet pepper, (Capsicum frutescens) ※Shuang Feng§, ※Zhong Jiao No. 2§ and ※Zhong Jiao No.3§ were screened out of six Chinese cuhivars for their high capacity of regeneration. The normal flowering and fertile regenerated plants have been obtained from cotyledons of seedlings from 10 to 16 days old by a four-step culture procedure; short induction, shoot elongation, rooting of excised shoot and transplanting into soil. MS was the basal medium in all steps, supplemented with different kind and different concentration Of phytohomores. Optimal shoot ioduction medium is MS +4每6mg/LBA+0.5mg/LIAA which gives rise a shoot regeneration frequency of 100%. 35% of the induced shoots elongated on the medium of MS+2mg/L Zeatin or 2mg/L. BA+l每3mg/L GA, and subsequently rooted on MS medium or in addition of 0.1每0.5mg/LNAA. The regenerants were transplanted into soil and developed into normal plants. In the transformation of sweet pepper using the leaf disc method, two kinds of wild type Agrobacterium tumefaciens, C58 and GV3111, have been screened out in regard to their high infection capacity. The transient expression of GUS gene was detected and Kanamycin-resistant shoots from infected cotyledons have been obtained. Further assay and transfering the TMV-resistant and CMV-resistant genes into sweet pepper are in progress.
Abstract (Browse 2114)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Comparative Study of Anther and Pollen Development in Male Fertile and Male. Sterile Green Onion (Allium fistulosum L.)
Author: Xi Xiang yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(10)
    Anther and pollen development in male-fertile and male-sterile green onions was studied. In the male-fertile line, both meiotic microspore mother ceils and tetrads have a callose wall. Mature pollen grains are 2-celled. The elongated generative cell with two bended ends displays a PAS positive cell wall. The tapetum has the character of both secretory and invasive types. From microspore stage onwards, many oil bodies or masses accumulate in the cytoplasm of the tapetal cells. The tapetum degenerates at middle 2-celled pollen stage. In male-sterile line, meiosis in microspore mother cells proceeds normally to form the tetrads. Pollen abortion occurs at microspore with vacuole stage. Two types of pollen abortion were observed. In type I, the protoplasts of the microspores contract and gradually disintegrate. At the same time the cytoplasm of microspores accumulates oil bodies which remain in the empty pollen. The tapetal cells behave normally up to the microspore stage and early stage of microspore abortion, but contain fewer oil bodies or masses than those in the male-fertilt line. At late stage of microspore abortion, three forms of the tapetal ceils can be observed: (1) the tapetal cells with degenerating protoplasts become flattened, (2) the tapetal cells enlarge but protoplasts retractor, (3) the cells break down and tile middle layer enlarges. In type j, the cytoplasm degenerates earlier than the nucleus of the microspores and no protoplast is found in the anther locule. There are fibrous thickenings iii the endothecium of both types. It is difficult to verify whether the tapetum behavior and pollen abortion is the cause or the effect.
Abstract (Browse 1836)  |  Full Text PDF       
Futher Study of the Mefluidide-lnduced Chilling Tolerance in Corn Seedlings
Author: Zhang Cheng-lie, Chen Guo-cang and Paul H. Li
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(10)
    Corn seedlings (cv. Dandong 2), at 3 leaf-age, were foliar sprayed with 15ppm mefluidide and held at 25⊥ regime for 24h. The seedlings were then chilled at 5⊥ for 6 days, after which they were returned to the 25⊥ regime for recovery. Leaf conductivity was done on plants at o time, just prior to chilling, 3 and 6 days after chilling, and 3 clays after recovery. During the entire period of experiment (from o-time to recovery), the conductivity of the treated plants was at a more or less constant level of 15%, Whereas the control increased from 15% to about 50% 6 days after chilling as well as well as 3 days after recovery. Our results strongly suggest that the treated plants were not injured during a 6-day chilling exposure, while the control was progressively injured. Mitochondria were isolated from plants at o-time treatment, after 34 h treatment at 25⊥, 3 and 6 days after chilling, and 3 days after recovery. Succinic dehydrogenase anct ATPase were extracted from the mitochondria. Activities of both enzymes were measured at 25⊥. There was a marked increase in activity of both enzymes in either treated plants or controls 3 days after chilling. However, the increase was significantly higher in the treated plants than those in the control. Activities were decreased at 6 days after chilling. The decrease in the control was. significantly greater than those in the treated Plants. ATPase activity was measured over a range of temperatures from 5˚ to 35⊥. There were two distinguished break points on the Arrhenius plots for ATPase activation energy in the treated plants. One was at about 20⊥ and the other was at about 10⊥. However, the control only showed one break point at 15⊥. There was a 5⊥ difference between the control and treated plants. Albeit the significance of a 5⊥ difference in activation of energy in terms of increased chilling tolerance is debatable, it does suggest that mefluidide treatment may alter the property of corn mitochondrial membrane.
Abstract (Browse 1917)  |  Full Text PDF       
Division in Isolated Generative Cells of Allemanda neriilolia
Author: Xu Shi-xiong (S. Y. Zee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(10)
    An osmotic shock method of isolating generative cells from Allemanda neriifolia was described. Fresh pollen grains were first placed ill a Brewbaker and Kwack's medium (BK medium) containing 50% sucrose, incubated at 28⊥ for 2 hours. During this incubation period pollen grains germinated and produced pollen tubes measuring about 200 米m long. After this initial incubation period, a fixed amount of BK medium without sucrose was added thus diluting the original medium to a sucrose concentration of 30% 每 an optimum concentration for generative cell growth. The addition, of the BK medium without sucrose brought about an osmotic shock effect on the pollen tubes and caused most of the tubes to burst at the tip region thus releasing the contents together with the generative cell from the tube into the 30% sucrose + BK medium. After isolation and filtering into a fresh lot of 30% sucrose + BK medium, generative cells changed from spindle into spherical-shaped cells. In the 30% sucrose + BK medium, the generative cells divided and within a short period of 3 to 5 hours a laege number of cells at various stages of mitosis was obtained.
Abstract (Browse 1766)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New Stromatolitic Mat Builder Discovered from Late Precambrian in Northern China
Author: Xu Zhao-liang and Gao Jian-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(10)
    Abundant and preserved chain algal microfossils have been discovered in cherty stromatolitic mats from the second member of Gaoyuzhuang Formation (about 1,500 Ma old), Ling-qiu county of Shanxi province, China. They are described as Veteronostocale moniliforme Xu et Gao sp. nov.. The small diametral trichomes resemble the Family Nostocaceae in possessing specilized cells resembling the classic heterocysts and akinetes. This paper gives emphasis to the following remark: (1) The Gaoyuzhuang stromatolitic mats were products of microbial (Veteronostocale moniliforme) activity and the plant Nostocaceae was one of the main stromatolitic builders as both modern and Precambrian stromatolite-forming microorganisms; (2) Based on the fact that the chain fossils are preserved perpendicularly to the laminations the rates of sedimentation and algal growth were probably equal and each small sedimentary rhythm could be completed in about one or two months; (3) According to the environment and habits of living Nostoc Precambrian hydrosphere might be of a fresh water type.
Abstract (Browse 1803)  |  Full Text PDF       
Comparative Studies on Differentiation of Regenerated Tissue in Broussonetia papyrifera
Author: He Xiao and Li Zheng-li(Lee Cheng-lee)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(10)
    This paper describes the differentiation process of regenerated tissue after ordinary girdling or after removal of a section of xylem from the stem, and the disparity in differentiation of the regenerated tissues after being differently treateds in Broussonetia papyrifera. After ordinary girdling for 3每4 weeks, new bark regenerated in the xylem. During the process of rind' formation, many specks of meristematic tissue were formed in the callus, from which vascular tissue clusters were developed. In addition, the new periderm appeared almost at the same time as the new vascular cambium was seen. When a section of xylem was removed from the stem, numerous calli developed rapidly on the inner surface of the bark. Meanwhile, the vascular cambium appeared in the immature phloem. Soon after, discontinued meristematic tissue bands also occurred in the callus. These meristematic tissues then connected with each other to form a concave oblate cambial ring which developed xylem inward and phloem outward. About 2每3 weeks later, the concave oblate trunk grew lengthwisely connecting with the upper anct lower portions of the normal stem. By then, the tree continued to grow. The inner surface tissue of the bark, after the xylem was removed, differentiated about one week earlier than the tissue on the surface of the xylem after girdling.
Abstract (Browse 1825)  |  Full Text PDF       
Isolation and Purification of Cytokinin-Binding Protein from Wheat Chloroplasts
Author: Zhang Hua-min, Huang Hai and Liu Yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(10)
    The extract of wheat chloroplast membrane proteins was precipitated by different saturation of (NH4)2SO4. Pellet of 0每30% saturation showing high binding activity to 3H-6BA wax loaded on the affinity chromatography column which was prepared by coupling 6BA to epoxy activated sepharose 6B. The CTK-binding protein was eluted from the BA-sepharose 6B column with Tris buffer containing 0.1 mmol/L 6BA. It showed a single protein band on PAGE and the apparent molecular weight was about 250kD. Two bands with molecular weight of 60kD and 66kD were detected on SDS-PAGE. It was supposed that the protomer of CTK-binding protein was a tetramer of two subunits.
Abstract (Browse 2114)  |  Full Text PDF       
Studies on Isolation and Characteristics of a Sugarcane Cell Line Resistant to Hydroxyproline (HYP)
Author: Chen Hui and Wang Jing-ju
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(10)
    Cultured sugarcane(Saccharum sinensis Roxb.) cell line R8968 was selected for resistance to growth inhibition by hydroxyproline(HYP), a proline analog. Comparison of the free amino acid pool level in the line with that of the HYP-sensitive donor showed substantial accumulation of proline(3.8 ℅ ). The responses of the cell line R8968 to NaC1, freezing temperature and PEG were also compared with those of the donor and the former exhibited remarkably increased tolerance to the tested conditions. The results showed that proline accumulation may favour the increased tolerance.
Abstract (Browse 1916)  |  Full Text PDF       
Certain Modes of Control of Life Process Operation by Respiratory Metabolism in Plant Cells
Author: Tang Pei-song (Pei-sung Tang) and Xiao Jing-ping
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(10)
    A new concept of respiratory metabolism is proposed, which regards this process as anabolism involved in catabolism, and as the basis of self organization in living cells. In addition to furnishing material and energy for the performance of the plant as a living organism, it regulates the other physiological functions via the operation of multiple pathway. Based on the proposed concept, a bioenergetic system in he-erotrophic plant cells is described, which comprises proticity, reducing powers and water motive force, a newly coined term by the authors, generated by respiration. The feed back effects of photorespiration, or in a broad sense, photoxidatlon on photosynthesis are discussed. An analysis of regulatory effects of phytohormones on respiratory pathway is also attempted.
Abstract (Browse 1806)  |  Full Text PDF       
On Dispersal Efficiency of Picea Pollen
Author: Li Wen-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(10)
    To learn the dispersal efficiency of picea pollen, surface samples was collected from four Picea forests and adjacent areas in Nei Monggol and Xinjiang Autonomous regions. In the Picea forests at least half and up to 80% of the pollen are of Picea, whereas it is 30% 30 meters away from the forests. In a distance of 500 meters from the margin of the Picea forest it could be as low as 1%. However it also scatters within a radius at least 150Km. Only when the Picea pollen content is higher than 15%, can ir indicate the growth of Picea within an area of dozens of kilometers. Wind velocity and direction as well as the topographic conditions are also important factors affecting dispersal efficiency of Picca pollen. The dispersal pattern for Pious, Abies and Picea are different.
Abstract (Browse 1796)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the C5-Pathway of Chlorophyll Biosynthesis in Euglena gracilis Klebs
Author: Wen Yuan-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(10)
    By feeding (l-13C)-glutamic acid to Euglena gracilis, a green alga, the 13C-NMR spectra, of chlorophyll showed that the entire carbon skeleton of glutamic acid was incorporated into chlorophyll. The existence of cspathway in chlorophyll biosynthesis was proved. In cell-free test, porphobilinogen (PBG) was formed from (5-13C)-汛-aminolaevulinic acid(ALA), but no evidence for (2-13C)-glycine incorporation was observed. It means that the Shemin pathway was effectivelessness, at least, in E. gracilis.
Abstract (Browse 1721)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Occurence of Xenoxylon ellipticum in the Late Triassic from North Guangdong, China
Author: Wang Shi-jun
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(10)
    Xenoxylon ellipticum has been found in Hongweikeng Formation (probably Middle Keuper-Rhoetic), Gengkou Group of the Late Triassic from the North of Guangdong Province and is described in this paper. The species was first found in the Early Jurassic from West Germany in 1960. It is the fifth species of Xenoxylon Gothan ever found in China.
Abstract (Browse 1811)  |  Full Text PDF       
Alkaloids of Aconitum vilmoriniaum var. patentipilum
Author: Ding Li-sheng, Chen Yao-zu and Li Bao-gang
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(10)
    Seven diterpenoid alkaloids were isolated from Aconitum vilmorinianum var. patentipilum W. T. Wang. Their structures were determined as franchetine(i), indaconitine(j), yunaconitine(k), talatisamine(l), chasmaconitine(m), crassicauline A (n), and bikhaconine(o). Last one has not been previously found in nature.
Abstract (Browse 1846)  |  Full Text PDF       
A New triterpenoid in the fruits of Phellodendron chinense Schneid
Author: Su Rong-hui, Mujo Kim, Hitoshi Kawaguchi, Shozo Takahashi and Liu Meng-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(10)
    A new triterpenoid, phellochin, C31H52O4 (HRMS 488.3747), mp. 173每175⊥, [汐]25D -84.8 (C=0.10, methanol), was isolated from the fruits of Phellodendron chinense Schneid, and its structure was established by spectroscopic methods (IR, MS, NMR and COSY).
Abstract (Browse 1831)  |  Full Text PDF       


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