November 1991, Volume 33 Issue 11

 

          Research Articles
Studies of Insect Antifeedant Actival Sequiterpene
Author: Tu Yong-qiang, Wu Da-gang, Zhou Jun, Chen Yao-zu and Hua Su-ming
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(11)
      
    From the seed oil of Yunnan Euonymus bungeenus Maxim., four 汕-dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene polyol esters (i, j, k and l) have been isolated by reverse phase HPLC. On the bails of spectral analysis and chemical reaction, i, j, and k which have been first reported in this plant, were identified as known compounds, and IV was elucidated as new compound. A preliminary insecticidal test of i against insect Pieris rapae showed that i had moderate insect antifeedant effect.
Abstract (Browse 1727)  |  Full Text PDF       
Selection of NaCI Tolerant Calli and Regeneration of Plants in Maize
Author: Zhang Ju-ren, Gao Shu-fang, Yu Jia-ju and Wang Xing-an
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(11)
      
    The embryonic calli produced from immature embryos of inbred ※Huangzhao-4§ of maize, that had been maintained for half a year, were transferred to media supplemented with different NaC1 concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30g/L) for callus selection. NaCl tolerant calli were established through three generations of selections. The growth and frequency of survival calli were affected significantly by NaCl concentration. The proliferetion of NaCl-tolerant calli was relatively good on medium containing of 10g/L NaC1. From these calli, plant lets could be produced on differentiation medium. On medium supplemented with 10g/L of NaC1 the plantlets could normally grow to transplantation. In NaCl-tolerant calli cultured on medium containing 10g/L of NaC1, the contents of free amino acids, free proline, Na+, K+ were 18.0%,87.3%,661.9%,25.5% respectively higher than those in un-selected calli grown on subculture medium, but Ca2+ content decreased significantly. On medium containing 10g/L of NaC1, cells and their organelles in NaCl-tolerant calli had normal morphology and structure, and vigorous metabolism, but in un-selected calli, the majority of cells turned to wards dying. Although tolerant plants regenerated and their filial ones had grown in non-salted soil, their progenies retained the property tolerance, but showed segregation of the degrees of tolerance. In 10g/L NaC1 solution, the seeds of progenies from one plant regenerated could germinate normally, and grow into healthy seedlings. Therefore, the NaCl-tolerant calli and plantlets that we have obtained NaCl-tolerant variants.
Abstract (Browse 1839)  |  Full Text PDF       
Callus Induction And Triploid Plant Regeneration From Endosprm of &Hongjiang* Sweet Orange
Author: Chen Ru-zhu, Li Geng-guang and Zhang Lan-ying
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(11)
      
    Endosperm at late stage of cell formation, excised from open-pollinated fruit of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck. cv.&Hongjiang*), was suitable for culture in vitro. The results indicated that 2,4-D was necessary for callus' induction, and supplemented with BA, CH in medium was more effective: the percentage of induction was as high as 33.3%. Endosperm tissues, excised from the fruits treated with low temperature (4每7⊥) for 16 and 19 days, and from the young seeds precuhured on MT basal medium respectively with NAA, GA3, BA for 2每6 days, also stimulated to callus formation. When endosperm callus was transfered to the differentiation medium, embryoids and shoot-buds only developed in a sequence of culture conditions. Callus was first cultured on MT+BA/GA3, then transfered to different media with various nitrogen or hormone concentration, and finally transferred back to the first culture medium. Shoots were regenerated from shoot-buds in the medium in presence of hormones with only BA or with GA3. The whole plants were regenerated from embryoids in presence of GA3 or with BA. Analysis of endosperm plantlets showed that 79.4% of the observed celld have chromosome number of 2n=26每27, nearly the triploid number of 2n=3x=27. Through grafting on lemon seedlings as rootstocks in vitro, plantlets were growing successfully in soil.
Abstract (Browse 2033)  |  Full Text PDF       
A Simple Method for Searching Intracellular Space Structures in Plant Tissues
Author: Yao Ya-qin, Jiang Xuan-li and Hu Dong-wei
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(11)
      
    After being fixed, plant leaves were embedded in polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight 4000) and sectioned 5每10米m in thickness. PEG in the slices was dissolved during the routine process and the slices were observed under Hitachi S-450 scanning electron microscope By using this method, it is easy to study the space structures of organelles such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, nucleus, nucleolus, etc. as well as their space inter relations.
Abstract (Browse 1726)  |  Full Text PDF       
Selection and Characterization of Maize Variants Resistant to S-(2-Aminoethyl)-L-Cysteine and 5-Methyltryptophan
Author: Geng Rui-shuang and Miao Shu-hua
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(11)
      
    Using tissue culture selection techniques, variants resistant to S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine (AEC) and 5-methyltryptophan(5MT) were, respectively, isolated from Opaque-2 maize inbred line ※Zhongxi 037/02§ and ※Zhongxi 091/02§. After growing 5 months on AEC free medium, the AEC-resistant cell line (Raec) still showed high level AEC resistance which was 4 times. higher than that of its wild type, ※Zhongxi 037/02§. The resistance was expressed at the plant level. New cultures initiated from shoot tissue of plants regenerated from Raec was also resistant to AEC inhibition. The free pool of lysine, threonine, isoleucine, methionine and arginine increased 0.5每3.4 fold in Raec culture. The aspartokinase from both AEC-resistant and -sen- sitive lines exhibited similar sensitivity to lysine and AEC inhibition. But the aspartokinase activity in the resistant line was 2.3 times of that in sensitive line. Seed were obtained from the plants resistant to AEC when crossed with pollen of sensitive plants. The resistance of 5MT-resistant cell line, tested after growth for 11 months on nonselection medium, was 3.5 times higher than that of its wild type, ※Zhongxi 091/02§. The 5MT-resistance was possibly due to the accumulation of free tryptophan (from 0 to 61.6 nmol/g fr. wt) in the resistant cells. There was also an increase in free phenylalanine (14.5 fold) and tyrosine (28.8 fold).
Abstract (Browse 1912)  |  Full Text PDF       
Pollen Analysis of Forest Surface Samples in Kunming Area
Author: Chen Yin-shuo, Wu Yu-shu and Xiao Jia-yi
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(11)
      
    Pollen analysis of surface samples is one of the major means in study of pollen representation. The results of palynolopical study on 46 surface samples collected from plots with different vegetation types show that pollen assemblages in surface samples do not reflect major characteristics of vegetation within 20m radius of the surface samples, which is commonly accepted in forest surface sample studies. This is due to general low vegetation cover and broad distribution of pine forest in the study area. In order to avoid possible effects of large amounts of pollen from outside plots, it is considered necessary to test whether pollen in surface samples is mostly from within plots unler consideration or to choose areas with relatively evenly distributed vegetation before calculation of quantitative correction factors is attempted.
Abstract (Browse 1747)  |  Full Text PDF       
The Systematic and Ecological Significance of Anatomical Characters of Leaves in the Tribe Thermopsideae (Fabaceae)
Author: Yuan Yong-ming, Peng Ze-xiang, and Chen Jia-rui (Chen Chia-jui)
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(11)
      
    Anatomical characters of leaves of Chinese species of the tribe Thermopsideae, including 3 genera and 13 species, were compared. The results show that the differentiation of mesophyll cells, stomatal types, stomatal distribution and density, shape of epidermal cell, trichome shape and density, cuticular membrane and waxy ornamentation have important systematic and ecological significance among the genera of the tribe. With regard to leaf architecture, pollen morphology and external morphology studies, we suggest that Ammopiptanthus represents an isolated and primitive genus in the tribe and Piptanthus is closely related to Thermopsis. Although different vein-endings, stomatal types and trichomes indicate systematic differences, other characters, such as mesophyll type, stomatal distribution, trichome density etc. are the result of ecological adaptation among the genera. Results of the present study confirm our previous conclusion that two evolutionary trends exist in the tribe, the first towards xerophilization and the second towards cold-adaptation They are caused by the desertification of the central Asian area and the heave of intermountainous plateau. Ecological isolation may be a main evolutary motivation among the taxa in the tribe. We have obs'erved that stomatal density and size in the xeromorphic genus, Ammopipianthus, are not simply a result of the general trend in xerophytes to have high stomatal density correlating with the relatively small size. On the contrary, stomata in this genus are larger than those in the mesophytic genus, Piptanthus, and the density on the lower surface is much less than in the latter. However, stomatal density on the upper surface follows the trend in concordance with increasing aridity and altitute.
Abstract (Browse 2006)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on the Binding State of Calcium in Photosystem jOxygen-Evolution Complex
Author: Yuan Sheng and Li Gong-fan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(11)
      
    Washing spinach PSII oxygen-evolution complex (OEC) with 2 mmol/L EGTA or extraction medium caused a 28.4% and 25.0% loss of oxygen evolution activities respectively, but the loss of polypeptide components of OEC did not take place, whereas washing with 1 mol/L NaCI caused both a 90.0% loss of oxygen evolution activity and loss of 17, 23kD polypeptides. Adding 5每10 mmol/L CaC12 could restore oxygen evolution activities of OEC by various washing to a great extent, but had no effect on control OEC, whereas adding 5每10 mmol/L EGTA had no effect on the OEC by various' washing, but caused the loss of oxygen evolution mixtures, which could induce the release of of 17, 23kD polypeptides from OEC, caused 54.3% loss of oxygen evolution activity, under this circumstance, adding 2 mmol/L of EGTA could only maintain a weak oxygen evolution activity of OEC, but adding 10 mmol/L of CaCl2 could restore oxygen evolution activity of OEC to the control level. These findings' suggest a two way loose binding of Ga2+ to PSj OEC in one way Ca2+ is loose bound to the surface of PSjOEC and in other, the Ca2+-binding site is wrapped by 17, 23kD polypeptides. Both of them have effect on oxygen evolution activity of PSj OEC. By way, Mn2+ can antagonize the restoration of oxygen evolution activity by Ca2+ to the NaCl-washing PSj OEC.
Abstract (Browse 1704)  |  Full Text PDF       
Study on Genetic Behaviour of B Chromosomes at Meiosis in Agropyron Gaertn
Author: Li Li-hui,Dong Yu-chen and Xu Shi-yu
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(11)
      
    The chromosomal behaviour at meiosis in pollen mother cells of 33 sample materials from 4 species in Agropyron Gaerm. distributed over various regions in China were observed. We. found that B chromosomes were mainly-present in A. mongolicum Keng (2n=2x=14) and were absent in the tetraploid ,A. cristarum (L.) Gaertn. (2n=4x=28) and ,A. michnoi Roshev. (2n=4x=28). Of all A. desertorum (Fisch.) Schult. (2n=4x=28) populations, they were present in 40%. The pairing between even numbers of B chromosomes usually occured at diakinesis where as uneven numbers of B chromosomes at metaphase 1. B chromosomes at anaphase I separated at random. The Fagging Bs tended to reach two poles by chromatids through precocious division of Bs. The pairing and chiasma frequencies between A chromosomes were increased by the larger numbers of Bs. The relationship between B chromosomes and species ploidy, the homeology among Bs, etc were discussed.
Abstract (Browse 1931)  |  Full Text PDF       
Introduction of Foreign Gene into Small Cell Groups Digested Partial-Enzymically in Rice and Regeneration of Transgenic Plants
Author: Yang Jin-shui, Ge Kou-lin, Luo Min, Wang Yun-zhu, Wang Bei, Hu Rong-xia, Qian Min,Tan Jia-zhen (C. C. Tau), Nancy Lee and Douglas Testa
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(11)
      
    Suspension cultures of small cell groups (SCG; ca. 50每100 cells per group) were established from calli of Japonica rice Fang 7 and Hl24. The SCG were partially digested and transformed by plasmid pBll21 harboring the NPT-II (neomycin phosphotransferase) and GUS (betaglucuronidase) genes. Plasmid DNA was introduced into cells' by PEG, electroporation and PEG plus electroporation. NTP-II and GUS activity assay showed that the report genes were expressed in transformed cells. Transgenic plants were regeneiated possessing GUS activity due to the integration of intact foreign DNA into their genome as evidanced by hybridization. The results prove that the partially digested SCG is a potential, feasible system as receptor for gene transfer, especially for plants which are difficult for protoplast culture and plant regeneration from protoplasts.
Abstract (Browse 1797)  |  Full Text PDF       
Ultrastructural Observations on Parthenogenesis and Antipodal Apogamy of Allium tuberosum Roxb
Author: Tian Hui-qiao and Yang Hong-yuan
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(11)
      
    Alliurn tuberosum Roxb is a species characterized by spontaneous parthenogenesis and antipodal apogamy. This paper deals with the ultrastructural changes during these processes. Before pollination, the mature egg cell contained abundant mitochondria with well developed cristae, spherical or ellipsoidal plastids and some polyribosomes, which suggested a relatively high metabolic activity. After fertilization, in zygotes the mitochondria changed to irregular shape and their cristae degenerated, the plastids elongated or became cup-shaped, the polyribosomes decreased and the free ribosomes increased in number. Some unfertilized egg ceils, two days after anthesis, showed similar ultrastructural changes as those taking place in zygote, which. seemed to be a sign of triggering to parthenogensis. In Allium tuberosum Roxb, the three antipodai cells bore a close resemblance to the egg apparatus: Among them two antipodal cells were similar to the synergids with a filiform apparatus-like structure and plentiful organelles at their chalazal end. The other was an egg-like antipodal cell which could undergo similar ultrastructural changes as those happened in zygote, leading to divide into apogamic proembryos two days after anthesis. The problems of parthenogenesis and antipodal apogamy in Allium tuberosum Roxb is diicussed in view of ultrastructural features of the egg and egg-like antipodal cell.
Abstract (Browse 1898)  |  Full Text PDF       
Mesophyll Protoplast Culture and Plant Regeneration of Oriental Planetree (Platanus orientalis)
Author: Wei Zhi-ming, Xu Zhi-hong, Xu Nong and Huang Min-ren
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 1991 33(11)
      
    Large populations of mesophyll protoplasts were released from the leaves of 1.5每2 month old sterile seedlings, with a high protoplast yield (3.7℅ 10 6g-1FW) after protoplast purification. The purified protoplasts were cultured in a modified K8p liquid medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2,4-D, 1 mg/L NAA and 0.5 mg/L BA. Higher density (1℅ 106/ml) in the initial culture of protoplasts is favourable to the division of cultured mesophyll protoplasts of this woody species among the densities tested. The protoplasts started to divide after 6 days of culture, and achieved 26.8% division frequency by 14 days. Sustained divisions resulted in mass production of cell colonies and small calli in 8 weeks. The calli further grew to 2每3mm on the gelrite-solidified K8 medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/L NAA aud 0.5 mg/L BA. Then, they were transferred onto the MSB proliferation medium with 0.1 mg/L NAA and 0.25 mg/L BA, where compact and cream-coloured calli were formed. Shoot formation was initiated on MSB differentiation medium coraming 0.5 mg/L IAA, 1 mg/L each of BA and ZT. It was observed that the frequency of shoot formation was about 28.7%. Whole plantlets were regenerated upon transferring 3 cm shoots to 1/2MS medium with 0.5mg/L IBA and 0.1mg/L BA, from which they were already transplanted into pots and grew well in the phytotron of Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology.
Abstract (Browse 1827)  |  Full Text PDF       
 

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